Abstract

We demonstrate wavelength conversion through nonlinear parametric processes in hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) with maximum conversion efficiency of 13dB at telecommunication data rates (10 GHz) using only 15 mW of pump peak power. Conversion bandwidths as large as 150 nm (20 THz) are measured in continuous-wave regime at telecommunication wavelengths. The nonlinear refractive index of the material is determined by four-wave mixing (FWM) to be n2=7.43×1013cm2/W, approximately an order of magnitude larger than that of single crystal silicon.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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2010 (2)

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V. R. Almeida, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, Opt. Lett. 28, 1302 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Dinu, F. Quochi, and H. Garcia, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2954 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

H. Tsang, C. S. Wong, T. K. Liang, I. E. Day, S. W. Roberts, A. Harpin, J. Drake, and M. Asghari, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 416 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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M. Bruel, Electron. Lett. 31, 1201 (1995).
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Agrawal, G. P.

Almeida, V. R.

Asghari, M.

H. Tsang, C. S. Wong, T. K. Liang, I. E. Day, S. W. Roberts, A. Harpin, J. Drake, and M. Asghari, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 416 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Baets, R.

B. Kuyken, H. Ji, S. Clemmen, S. K. Selvaraja, H. Hu, M. Pu, M. Galili, P. Jeppesen, G. Morthier, S. Massar, L. K. Oxenlłwe, G. Roelkens, and R. Baets, Opt. Express 19, B146 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Kuyken, S. Clemmen, S. K. Selvaraja, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Emplit, S. Massar, G. Roelkens, and R. Baets, Opt. Lett. 36, 552 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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Bogaerts, W.

B. Kuyken, S. Clemmen, S. K. Selvaraja, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Emplit, S. Massar, G. Roelkens, and R. Baets, Opt. Lett. 36, 552 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Kuyken, S. Clemmen, S. K. Selvaraja, E. Numkam, W. Bogaerts, S. Massar, R. Baets, G. Roelkens, and Ieee, in Self Phase Modulation in Highly Nonlinear Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon, 2010 23rd Annual Meeting of the IEEE Photonics Society (IEEE, 2010), pp. 492–493.

Bruel, M.

M. Bruel, Electron. Lett. 31, 1201 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Clemmen, S.

B. Kuyken, S. Clemmen, S. K. Selvaraja, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Emplit, S. Massar, G. Roelkens, and R. Baets, Opt. Lett. 36, 552 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Kuyken, H. Ji, S. Clemmen, S. K. Selvaraja, H. Hu, M. Pu, M. Galili, P. Jeppesen, G. Morthier, S. Massar, L. K. Oxenlłwe, G. Roelkens, and R. Baets, Opt. Express 19, B146 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Kuyken, S. Clemmen, S. K. Selvaraja, E. Numkam, W. Bogaerts, S. Massar, R. Baets, G. Roelkens, and Ieee, in Self Phase Modulation in Highly Nonlinear Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon, 2010 23rd Annual Meeting of the IEEE Photonics Society (IEEE, 2010), pp. 492–493.

Day, I. E.

H. Tsang, C. S. Wong, T. K. Liang, I. E. Day, S. W. Roberts, A. Harpin, J. Drake, and M. Asghari, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 416 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dinu, M.

M. Dinu, F. Quochi, and H. Garcia, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2954 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Drake, J.

H. Tsang, C. S. Wong, T. K. Liang, I. E. Day, S. W. Roberts, A. Harpin, J. Drake, and M. Asghari, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 416 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Emplit, P.

Fainman, Y.

Fallahkhair, A.

Foster, M. A.

Fukuda, H.

Gaeta, A. L.

Galili, M.

Garcia, H.

M. Dinu, F. Quochi, and H. Garcia, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2954 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Harke, A.

A. Harke, M. Krause, and J. Mueller, Electron. Lett. 41, 1377 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Harpin, A.

H. Tsang, C. S. Wong, T. K. Liang, I. E. Day, S. W. Roberts, A. Harpin, J. Drake, and M. Asghari, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 416 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hasama, T.

Hu, H.

Ieee,

B. Kuyken, S. Clemmen, S. K. Selvaraja, E. Numkam, W. Bogaerts, S. Massar, R. Baets, G. Roelkens, and Ieee, in Self Phase Modulation in Highly Nonlinear Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon, 2010 23rd Annual Meeting of the IEEE Photonics Society (IEEE, 2010), pp. 492–493.

Ikeda, K.

Ishikawa, H.

Itabashi, S.-i.

Jalali, B.

Jeppesen, P.

Ji, H.

Kamei, T.

Kawashima, H.

Kintaka, K.

Koonath, P.

Krause, M.

A. Harke, M. Krause, and J. Mueller, Electron. Lett. 41, 1377 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kuyken, B.

B. Kuyken, S. Clemmen, S. K. Selvaraja, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Emplit, S. Massar, G. Roelkens, and R. Baets, Opt. Lett. 36, 552 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Kuyken, H. Ji, S. Clemmen, S. K. Selvaraja, H. Hu, M. Pu, M. Galili, P. Jeppesen, G. Morthier, S. Massar, L. K. Oxenlłwe, G. Roelkens, and R. Baets, Opt. Express 19, B146 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Kuyken, S. Clemmen, S. K. Selvaraja, E. Numkam, W. Bogaerts, S. Massar, R. Baets, G. Roelkens, and Ieee, in Self Phase Modulation in Highly Nonlinear Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon, 2010 23rd Annual Meeting of the IEEE Photonics Society (IEEE, 2010), pp. 492–493.

Li, K. S.

Liang, T. K.

H. Tsang, C. S. Wong, T. K. Liang, I. E. Day, S. W. Roberts, A. Harpin, J. Drake, and M. Asghari, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 416 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Q.

Lipson, M.

Massar, S.

B. Kuyken, S. Clemmen, S. K. Selvaraja, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Emplit, S. Massar, G. Roelkens, and R. Baets, Opt. Lett. 36, 552 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Kuyken, H. Ji, S. Clemmen, S. K. Selvaraja, H. Hu, M. Pu, M. Galili, P. Jeppesen, G. Morthier, S. Massar, L. K. Oxenlłwe, G. Roelkens, and R. Baets, Opt. Express 19, B146 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Kuyken, S. Clemmen, S. K. Selvaraja, E. Numkam, W. Bogaerts, S. Massar, R. Baets, G. Roelkens, and Ieee, in Self Phase Modulation in Highly Nonlinear Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon, 2010 23rd Annual Meeting of the IEEE Photonics Society (IEEE, 2010), pp. 492–493.

Mori, M.

Morthier, G.

Mueller, J.

A. Harke, M. Krause, and J. Mueller, Electron. Lett. 41, 1377 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Murphy, T. E.

Narayanan, K.

Numkam, E.

B. Kuyken, S. Clemmen, S. K. Selvaraja, E. Numkam, W. Bogaerts, S. Massar, R. Baets, G. Roelkens, and Ieee, in Self Phase Modulation in Highly Nonlinear Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon, 2010 23rd Annual Meeting of the IEEE Photonics Society (IEEE, 2010), pp. 492–493.

Ogasawara, T.

Okano, M.

Oxenllwe, L. K.

Painter, O. J.

Panepucci, R. R.

Preble, S. F.

Pu, M.

Quochi, F.

M. Dinu, F. Quochi, and H. Garcia, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2954 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Roberts, S. W.

H. Tsang, C. S. Wong, T. K. Liang, I. E. Day, S. W. Roberts, A. Harpin, J. Drake, and M. Asghari, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 416 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Roelkens, G.

B. Kuyken, H. Ji, S. Clemmen, S. K. Selvaraja, H. Hu, M. Pu, M. Galili, P. Jeppesen, G. Morthier, S. Massar, L. K. Oxenlłwe, G. Roelkens, and R. Baets, Opt. Express 19, B146 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Kuyken, S. Clemmen, S. K. Selvaraja, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Emplit, S. Massar, G. Roelkens, and R. Baets, Opt. Lett. 36, 552 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Kuyken, S. Clemmen, S. K. Selvaraja, E. Numkam, W. Bogaerts, S. Massar, R. Baets, G. Roelkens, and Ieee, in Self Phase Modulation in Highly Nonlinear Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon, 2010 23rd Annual Meeting of the IEEE Photonics Society (IEEE, 2010), pp. 492–493.

Sakakibara, Y.

Salem, R.

Selvaraja, S. K.

B. Kuyken, S. Clemmen, S. K. Selvaraja, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Emplit, S. Massar, G. Roelkens, and R. Baets, Opt. Lett. 36, 552 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Kuyken, H. Ji, S. Clemmen, S. K. Selvaraja, H. Hu, M. Pu, M. Galili, P. Jeppesen, G. Morthier, S. Massar, L. K. Oxenlłwe, G. Roelkens, and R. Baets, Opt. Express 19, B146 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Kuyken, S. Clemmen, S. K. Selvaraja, E. Numkam, W. Bogaerts, S. Massar, R. Baets, G. Roelkens, and Ieee, in Self Phase Modulation in Highly Nonlinear Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon, 2010 23rd Annual Meeting of the IEEE Photonics Society (IEEE, 2010), pp. 492–493.

Shen, Y. M.

Shoji, T.

Shoji, Y.

Suda, S.

Takahashi, J.-i.

Takahashi, M.

Tsang, H.

H. Tsang, C. S. Wong, T. K. Liang, I. E. Day, S. W. Roberts, A. Harpin, J. Drake, and M. Asghari, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 416 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tsuchizawa, T.

Turner, A. C.

Van Thourhout, D.

Watanabe, T.

Weber, M. J.

M. J. Weber, in Handbook of Optical Materials (CRC Press, 2002), pp 3–220.

Wong, C. S.

H. Tsang, C. S. Wong, T. K. Liang, I. E. Day, S. W. Roberts, A. Harpin, J. Drake, and M. Asghari, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 416 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, K.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

M. Dinu, F. Quochi, and H. Garcia, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2954 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Tsang, C. S. Wong, T. K. Liang, I. E. Day, S. W. Roberts, A. Harpin, J. Drake, and M. Asghari, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 416 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (2)

M. Bruel, Electron. Lett. 31, 1201 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Harke, M. Krause, and J. Mueller, Electron. Lett. 41, 1377 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Opt. Express (9)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (2)

M. J. Weber, in Handbook of Optical Materials (CRC Press, 2002), pp 3–220.

B. Kuyken, S. Clemmen, S. K. Selvaraja, E. Numkam, W. Bogaerts, S. Massar, R. Baets, G. Roelkens, and Ieee, in Self Phase Modulation in Highly Nonlinear Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon, 2010 23rd Annual Meeting of the IEEE Photonics Society (IEEE, 2010), pp. 492–493.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Cross-section of the waveguide design and the quasi-TE mode profile of the proposed a-Si:H waveguide. (b) Scanning electron microscope image of the fabricated waveguide with 100nm silicon dioxide hard mask on top. The picture shows the smooth and nearly vertical sidewall of the structure.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Theoretical (curve) and experimental (dots) conversion efficiency as functions of converted wavelength for the TE-mode. A conversion efficiency of approximately 30dB is measured over the 150 nm bandwidth including the symmetric lobe to the short wavelength side. The variation in conversion efficiency is in part due to the Fabry-Perot effects in the waveguide. The inset shows the overlay of wavelength dependent FWM when the pump is fixed at 1541 nm, and the signal is swept from 1470 to 1540 nm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Communication data rate (10 GHz) four-wave mixing (FWM) experimental setup for a-Si:H waveguide. (EDFA: erbium doped fiber amplifier. HNLF: highly nonlinear fiber. WDM: wavelength division multiplexer).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Maximum conversion efficiency as function of pump peak power. Dots represent the measured conversion efficiency and solid line shows the expected result from simulation. Inset: sample four-wave mixing spectrum from a 8 mm a-Si:H waveguide when pump peak power is 8 mW.

Equations (1)

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Max(CE)=sinh2(2πn2λAeffPpumpLeff),

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