Abstract

The carrier induced refractive index change and linewidth enhancement factor α due to ground-state (GS) and excited-state (ES) transitions have been compared by measuring the optical gain spectra from an InAs/GaAs quantum dot (QD) laser structure. It is shown that the ES transition exhibits a reduced α-factor compared to the value due to the GS transition. This result can be explained by the α-factor due to the ES transition having a smaller increase from the non-resonant carriers in the combined state of the wetting layer and InGaAs strain reducing layer than the α-factor increase due to the GS transition, since the relaxation time for carriers from the combined state of the wetting layer and InGaAs strain reducing layer to the ES is shorter than to the GS. The result reported here shows another advantage of using ES QD lasers for optical communication, in addition to their higher modulation speed.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Asada, Y. Miyamoto, and Y. Suematsu, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22, 1915 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Y. Arakawa and A. Yariv, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22, 1887 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  4. K. Otsubo, N. Hatoti, M. Ishida, S. Okumura, T. Akiyama, Y. Nakata, H. Ebe, M. Sugawara, and Y. Arakawa, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L1124 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. M. Ji, T. Yang, Y. L. Cao, P. F. Xu, Y. X. Gu, Y. Liu, L. Xie, and Z. G. Wang, Chin. Phys. Lett. 27, 034209(2010).
    [CrossRef]
  6. B. J. Stevens, D. T. D. Childs, H. Shahid, and R. A. Hogg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 061101 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. Lee, P. Bhattacharya, T. Frost, and W. Guo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 011103 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  8. O. Qasaimeh and H. Khanfar, IEE Proc.: Optoelectron. 151, 143 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  9. P. F. Xu, T. Yang, H. M. Ji, Y. L. Cao, Y. X. Gu, Y. Liu, W. Q. Ma, and Z. G. Wang, J. Appl. Phys. 107, 013102 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  10. I. D. Henning and J. V. Collins, Electron. Lett. 19, 927 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  12. A. A. Ukhanov, A. Stintz, P. G. Eliseev, and K. J. Malloy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1058 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  13. T. C. Newell, D. J. Bossert, A. Stintz, B. Fuchs, K. J. Malloy, and L. F. Lester, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1527 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. Kim and S. L. Chuang, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 942 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  15. S. Melnik and G. Huyet, Optics Express 14, 2950 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. Xiao, Y. Huang, Y. Du, H. Zhao, H. Ni, and Z. Niu, Chin. Phys. Lett. 24, 2984 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. E. Zhukov, A. R. Kovsh, V. M. Ustinov, A. Y. Egorov, N. N. Ledentsov, A. F. Tsatsul’nikov, M. V. Maximov, Y. M. Shernyakov, V. I. Kopchatov, A. V. Lunev, P. S. Kop’ev, D. Bimberg, and Z. I. Alferov, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 14, 118 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. Manning, R. Olshansky, and C. B. Su, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 19, 1525 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  19. M. Röwe, P. Michler, J. Gutowski, V. Kümmler, A. Lell, and V. Härle, Phys. Status Sol. A 200, 135 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  20. H. C. Schneider, W. W. Chow, and S. W. Koch, Phys. Rev. B 66, 041310 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  21. A. V. Uskov, E. P. O’Reilly, D. McPeake, N. N. Ledentsov, D. Bimberg, and G. Huyet, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 272(2004).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (1)

C. Lee, P. Bhattacharya, T. Frost, and W. Guo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 011103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

H. M. Ji, T. Yang, Y. L. Cao, P. F. Xu, Y. X. Gu, Y. Liu, L. Xie, and Z. G. Wang, Chin. Phys. Lett. 27, 034209(2010).
[CrossRef]

P. F. Xu, T. Yang, H. M. Ji, Y. L. Cao, Y. X. Gu, Y. Liu, W. Q. Ma, and Z. G. Wang, J. Appl. Phys. 107, 013102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

B. J. Stevens, D. T. D. Childs, H. Shahid, and R. A. Hogg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 061101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

J. Xiao, Y. Huang, Y. Du, H. Zhao, H. Ni, and Z. Niu, Chin. Phys. Lett. 24, 2984 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

J. Kim and S. L. Chuang, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 942 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Melnik and G. Huyet, Optics Express 14, 2950 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (4)

A. A. Ukhanov, A. Stintz, P. G. Eliseev, and K. J. Malloy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1058 (2004).
[CrossRef]

O. Qasaimeh and H. Khanfar, IEE Proc.: Optoelectron. 151, 143 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Otsubo, N. Hatoti, M. Ishida, S. Okumura, T. Akiyama, Y. Nakata, H. Ebe, M. Sugawara, and Y. Arakawa, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L1124 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Uskov, E. P. O’Reilly, D. McPeake, N. N. Ledentsov, D. Bimberg, and G. Huyet, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 272(2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

M. Röwe, P. Michler, J. Gutowski, V. Kümmler, A. Lell, and V. Härle, Phys. Status Sol. A 200, 135 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

H. C. Schneider, W. W. Chow, and S. W. Koch, Phys. Rev. B 66, 041310 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

J. Stohs, D. J. Bossert, D. J. Gallant, and S. R. J. Brueck, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 1449 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

T. C. Newell, D. J. Bossert, A. Stintz, B. Fuchs, K. J. Malloy, and L. F. Lester, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1527 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Zhukov, A. R. Kovsh, V. M. Ustinov, A. Y. Egorov, N. N. Ledentsov, A. F. Tsatsul’nikov, M. V. Maximov, Y. M. Shernyakov, V. I. Kopchatov, A. V. Lunev, P. S. Kop’ev, D. Bimberg, and Z. I. Alferov, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 14, 118 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1986 (2)

M. Asada, Y. Miyamoto, and Y. Suematsu, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22, 1915 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Y. Arakawa and A. Yariv, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22, 1887 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1983 (2)

J. Manning, R. Olshansky, and C. B. Su, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 19, 1525 (1983).
[CrossRef]

I. D. Henning and J. V. Collins, Electron. Lett. 19, 927 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

Y. Arakawa and H. Sakaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 939 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Akiyama, T.

K. Otsubo, N. Hatoti, M. Ishida, S. Okumura, T. Akiyama, Y. Nakata, H. Ebe, M. Sugawara, and Y. Arakawa, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L1124 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Alferov, Z. I.

A. E. Zhukov, A. R. Kovsh, V. M. Ustinov, A. Y. Egorov, N. N. Ledentsov, A. F. Tsatsul’nikov, M. V. Maximov, Y. M. Shernyakov, V. I. Kopchatov, A. V. Lunev, P. S. Kop’ev, D. Bimberg, and Z. I. Alferov, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 14, 118 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Arakawa, Y.

K. Otsubo, N. Hatoti, M. Ishida, S. Okumura, T. Akiyama, Y. Nakata, H. Ebe, M. Sugawara, and Y. Arakawa, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L1124 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Arakawa and A. Yariv, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22, 1887 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Y. Arakawa and H. Sakaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 939 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Asada, M.

M. Asada, Y. Miyamoto, and Y. Suematsu, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22, 1915 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Bhattacharya, P.

C. Lee, P. Bhattacharya, T. Frost, and W. Guo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 011103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bimberg, D.

A. V. Uskov, E. P. O’Reilly, D. McPeake, N. N. Ledentsov, D. Bimberg, and G. Huyet, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 272(2004).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Zhukov, A. R. Kovsh, V. M. Ustinov, A. Y. Egorov, N. N. Ledentsov, A. F. Tsatsul’nikov, M. V. Maximov, Y. M. Shernyakov, V. I. Kopchatov, A. V. Lunev, P. S. Kop’ev, D. Bimberg, and Z. I. Alferov, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 14, 118 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bossert, D. J.

J. Stohs, D. J. Bossert, D. J. Gallant, and S. R. J. Brueck, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 1449 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. C. Newell, D. J. Bossert, A. Stintz, B. Fuchs, K. J. Malloy, and L. F. Lester, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1527 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Brueck, S. R. J.

J. Stohs, D. J. Bossert, D. J. Gallant, and S. R. J. Brueck, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 1449 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cao, Y. L.

H. M. Ji, T. Yang, Y. L. Cao, P. F. Xu, Y. X. Gu, Y. Liu, L. Xie, and Z. G. Wang, Chin. Phys. Lett. 27, 034209(2010).
[CrossRef]

P. F. Xu, T. Yang, H. M. Ji, Y. L. Cao, Y. X. Gu, Y. Liu, W. Q. Ma, and Z. G. Wang, J. Appl. Phys. 107, 013102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Childs, D. T. D.

B. J. Stevens, D. T. D. Childs, H. Shahid, and R. A. Hogg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 061101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chow, W. W.

H. C. Schneider, W. W. Chow, and S. W. Koch, Phys. Rev. B 66, 041310 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chuang, S. L.

J. Kim and S. L. Chuang, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 942 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Collins, J. V.

I. D. Henning and J. V. Collins, Electron. Lett. 19, 927 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Du, Y.

J. Xiao, Y. Huang, Y. Du, H. Zhao, H. Ni, and Z. Niu, Chin. Phys. Lett. 24, 2984 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ebe, H.

K. Otsubo, N. Hatoti, M. Ishida, S. Okumura, T. Akiyama, Y. Nakata, H. Ebe, M. Sugawara, and Y. Arakawa, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L1124 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Egorov, A. Y.

A. E. Zhukov, A. R. Kovsh, V. M. Ustinov, A. Y. Egorov, N. N. Ledentsov, A. F. Tsatsul’nikov, M. V. Maximov, Y. M. Shernyakov, V. I. Kopchatov, A. V. Lunev, P. S. Kop’ev, D. Bimberg, and Z. I. Alferov, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 14, 118 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Eliseev, P. G.

A. A. Ukhanov, A. Stintz, P. G. Eliseev, and K. J. Malloy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1058 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Frost, T.

C. Lee, P. Bhattacharya, T. Frost, and W. Guo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 011103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fuchs, B.

T. C. Newell, D. J. Bossert, A. Stintz, B. Fuchs, K. J. Malloy, and L. F. Lester, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1527 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gallant, D. J.

J. Stohs, D. J. Bossert, D. J. Gallant, and S. R. J. Brueck, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 1449 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gu, Y. X.

H. M. Ji, T. Yang, Y. L. Cao, P. F. Xu, Y. X. Gu, Y. Liu, L. Xie, and Z. G. Wang, Chin. Phys. Lett. 27, 034209(2010).
[CrossRef]

P. F. Xu, T. Yang, H. M. Ji, Y. L. Cao, Y. X. Gu, Y. Liu, W. Q. Ma, and Z. G. Wang, J. Appl. Phys. 107, 013102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Guo, W.

C. Lee, P. Bhattacharya, T. Frost, and W. Guo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 011103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gutowski, J.

M. Röwe, P. Michler, J. Gutowski, V. Kümmler, A. Lell, and V. Härle, Phys. Status Sol. A 200, 135 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Härle, V.

M. Röwe, P. Michler, J. Gutowski, V. Kümmler, A. Lell, and V. Härle, Phys. Status Sol. A 200, 135 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hatoti, N.

K. Otsubo, N. Hatoti, M. Ishida, S. Okumura, T. Akiyama, Y. Nakata, H. Ebe, M. Sugawara, and Y. Arakawa, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L1124 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Henning, I. D.

I. D. Henning and J. V. Collins, Electron. Lett. 19, 927 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Hogg, R. A.

B. J. Stevens, D. T. D. Childs, H. Shahid, and R. A. Hogg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 061101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y.

J. Xiao, Y. Huang, Y. Du, H. Zhao, H. Ni, and Z. Niu, Chin. Phys. Lett. 24, 2984 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Huyet, G.

S. Melnik and G. Huyet, Optics Express 14, 2950 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Uskov, E. P. O’Reilly, D. McPeake, N. N. Ledentsov, D. Bimberg, and G. Huyet, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 272(2004).
[CrossRef]

Ishida, M.

K. Otsubo, N. Hatoti, M. Ishida, S. Okumura, T. Akiyama, Y. Nakata, H. Ebe, M. Sugawara, and Y. Arakawa, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L1124 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ji, H. M.

P. F. Xu, T. Yang, H. M. Ji, Y. L. Cao, Y. X. Gu, Y. Liu, W. Q. Ma, and Z. G. Wang, J. Appl. Phys. 107, 013102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Ji, T. Yang, Y. L. Cao, P. F. Xu, Y. X. Gu, Y. Liu, L. Xie, and Z. G. Wang, Chin. Phys. Lett. 27, 034209(2010).
[CrossRef]

Khanfar, H.

O. Qasaimeh and H. Khanfar, IEE Proc.: Optoelectron. 151, 143 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.

J. Kim and S. L. Chuang, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 942 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Koch, S. W.

H. C. Schneider, W. W. Chow, and S. W. Koch, Phys. Rev. B 66, 041310 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kop’ev, P. S.

A. E. Zhukov, A. R. Kovsh, V. M. Ustinov, A. Y. Egorov, N. N. Ledentsov, A. F. Tsatsul’nikov, M. V. Maximov, Y. M. Shernyakov, V. I. Kopchatov, A. V. Lunev, P. S. Kop’ev, D. Bimberg, and Z. I. Alferov, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 14, 118 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kopchatov, V. I.

A. E. Zhukov, A. R. Kovsh, V. M. Ustinov, A. Y. Egorov, N. N. Ledentsov, A. F. Tsatsul’nikov, M. V. Maximov, Y. M. Shernyakov, V. I. Kopchatov, A. V. Lunev, P. S. Kop’ev, D. Bimberg, and Z. I. Alferov, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 14, 118 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kovsh, A. R.

A. E. Zhukov, A. R. Kovsh, V. M. Ustinov, A. Y. Egorov, N. N. Ledentsov, A. F. Tsatsul’nikov, M. V. Maximov, Y. M. Shernyakov, V. I. Kopchatov, A. V. Lunev, P. S. Kop’ev, D. Bimberg, and Z. I. Alferov, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 14, 118 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kümmler, V.

M. Röwe, P. Michler, J. Gutowski, V. Kümmler, A. Lell, and V. Härle, Phys. Status Sol. A 200, 135 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ledentsov, N. N.

A. V. Uskov, E. P. O’Reilly, D. McPeake, N. N. Ledentsov, D. Bimberg, and G. Huyet, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 272(2004).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Zhukov, A. R. Kovsh, V. M. Ustinov, A. Y. Egorov, N. N. Ledentsov, A. F. Tsatsul’nikov, M. V. Maximov, Y. M. Shernyakov, V. I. Kopchatov, A. V. Lunev, P. S. Kop’ev, D. Bimberg, and Z. I. Alferov, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 14, 118 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C.

C. Lee, P. Bhattacharya, T. Frost, and W. Guo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 011103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lell, A.

M. Röwe, P. Michler, J. Gutowski, V. Kümmler, A. Lell, and V. Härle, Phys. Status Sol. A 200, 135 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lester, L. F.

T. C. Newell, D. J. Bossert, A. Stintz, B. Fuchs, K. J. Malloy, and L. F. Lester, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1527 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

P. F. Xu, T. Yang, H. M. Ji, Y. L. Cao, Y. X. Gu, Y. Liu, W. Q. Ma, and Z. G. Wang, J. Appl. Phys. 107, 013102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Ji, T. Yang, Y. L. Cao, P. F. Xu, Y. X. Gu, Y. Liu, L. Xie, and Z. G. Wang, Chin. Phys. Lett. 27, 034209(2010).
[CrossRef]

Lunev, A. V.

A. E. Zhukov, A. R. Kovsh, V. M. Ustinov, A. Y. Egorov, N. N. Ledentsov, A. F. Tsatsul’nikov, M. V. Maximov, Y. M. Shernyakov, V. I. Kopchatov, A. V. Lunev, P. S. Kop’ev, D. Bimberg, and Z. I. Alferov, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 14, 118 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ma, W. Q.

P. F. Xu, T. Yang, H. M. Ji, Y. L. Cao, Y. X. Gu, Y. Liu, W. Q. Ma, and Z. G. Wang, J. Appl. Phys. 107, 013102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Malloy, K. J.

A. A. Ukhanov, A. Stintz, P. G. Eliseev, and K. J. Malloy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1058 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. C. Newell, D. J. Bossert, A. Stintz, B. Fuchs, K. J. Malloy, and L. F. Lester, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1527 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Manning, J.

J. Manning, R. Olshansky, and C. B. Su, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 19, 1525 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Maximov, M. V.

A. E. Zhukov, A. R. Kovsh, V. M. Ustinov, A. Y. Egorov, N. N. Ledentsov, A. F. Tsatsul’nikov, M. V. Maximov, Y. M. Shernyakov, V. I. Kopchatov, A. V. Lunev, P. S. Kop’ev, D. Bimberg, and Z. I. Alferov, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 14, 118 (1999).
[CrossRef]

McPeake, D.

A. V. Uskov, E. P. O’Reilly, D. McPeake, N. N. Ledentsov, D. Bimberg, and G. Huyet, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 272(2004).
[CrossRef]

Melnik, S.

S. Melnik and G. Huyet, Optics Express 14, 2950 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Michler, P.

M. Röwe, P. Michler, J. Gutowski, V. Kümmler, A. Lell, and V. Härle, Phys. Status Sol. A 200, 135 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Miyamoto, Y.

M. Asada, Y. Miyamoto, and Y. Suematsu, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22, 1915 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Nakata, Y.

K. Otsubo, N. Hatoti, M. Ishida, S. Okumura, T. Akiyama, Y. Nakata, H. Ebe, M. Sugawara, and Y. Arakawa, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L1124 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Newell, T. C.

T. C. Newell, D. J. Bossert, A. Stintz, B. Fuchs, K. J. Malloy, and L. F. Lester, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1527 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ni, H.

J. Xiao, Y. Huang, Y. Du, H. Zhao, H. Ni, and Z. Niu, Chin. Phys. Lett. 24, 2984 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Niu, Z.

J. Xiao, Y. Huang, Y. Du, H. Zhao, H. Ni, and Z. Niu, Chin. Phys. Lett. 24, 2984 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O’Reilly, E. P.

A. V. Uskov, E. P. O’Reilly, D. McPeake, N. N. Ledentsov, D. Bimberg, and G. Huyet, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 272(2004).
[CrossRef]

Okumura, S.

K. Otsubo, N. Hatoti, M. Ishida, S. Okumura, T. Akiyama, Y. Nakata, H. Ebe, M. Sugawara, and Y. Arakawa, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L1124 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Olshansky, R.

J. Manning, R. Olshansky, and C. B. Su, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 19, 1525 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Otsubo, K.

K. Otsubo, N. Hatoti, M. Ishida, S. Okumura, T. Akiyama, Y. Nakata, H. Ebe, M. Sugawara, and Y. Arakawa, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L1124 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Qasaimeh, O.

O. Qasaimeh and H. Khanfar, IEE Proc.: Optoelectron. 151, 143 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Röwe, M.

M. Röwe, P. Michler, J. Gutowski, V. Kümmler, A. Lell, and V. Härle, Phys. Status Sol. A 200, 135 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sakaki, H.

Y. Arakawa and H. Sakaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 939 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, H. C.

H. C. Schneider, W. W. Chow, and S. W. Koch, Phys. Rev. B 66, 041310 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shahid, H.

B. J. Stevens, D. T. D. Childs, H. Shahid, and R. A. Hogg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 061101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shernyakov, Y. M.

A. E. Zhukov, A. R. Kovsh, V. M. Ustinov, A. Y. Egorov, N. N. Ledentsov, A. F. Tsatsul’nikov, M. V. Maximov, Y. M. Shernyakov, V. I. Kopchatov, A. V. Lunev, P. S. Kop’ev, D. Bimberg, and Z. I. Alferov, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 14, 118 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Stevens, B. J.

B. J. Stevens, D. T. D. Childs, H. Shahid, and R. A. Hogg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 061101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Stintz, A.

A. A. Ukhanov, A. Stintz, P. G. Eliseev, and K. J. Malloy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1058 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Measured net modal gain spectra of the QD Fabry-Perot laser with a cavity length of 440 μm as a function of injection currents.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Peak modal gain for the GS and the ES as a function of injection currents. Squares and dots indicate experimental peak modal gain for the GS and for the ES. The solid and dash curves are fitted to the experimental data.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Values of current-dependent refractive index change due to GS and ES transitions for the wavelength positions of their peak material gains.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

The values of LEF as a function of injection current at the wavelengths of the GS and the ES.

Equations (1)

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α=αd+αnrγd(1ρ)2τcap,

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