Abstract

A bilayer fish-scale metamaterial is experimentally demonstrated to function as a broad bandpass filter in the terahertz regime. The measured 3 dB-bandwidth for normal incidence is 1.13 THz with a high transmittance. The measured transmission spectrum is described well by a model based on an RLC circuit and multiple reflections. The filter is relatively insensitive to incidence angles up to 45°.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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2011

Y. Chiang, C. Yang, Y. Yang, C. Pan, and T. Yen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 191909 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yang, R. Huang, L. Cong, Z. Zhu, J. Gu, Z. Tian, R. Singh, S. Zhang, J. Han, and W. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 121114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Singh, I. A. I. Al-Naib, Y. Yang, D. R. Chowdhury, W. Cao, C. Rockstuhl, T. Ozaki, R. Morandotti, and W. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 201107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Zhou, Y. Bao, W. Cao, C. T. Stuart, J. Gu, W. Zhang, and C. Sun, Sci. Rep. 1, 78 (2011).

J. Han, H. Li, Y. Fan, Z. Wei, C. Wu, Y. Cao, X. Yu, F. Li, and Z. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 151908 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Lu, W. Li, and E. R. Brown, Opt. Lett. 36, 1071 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

2009

J. Han, J. Gu, X. Lu, M. He, Q. Xing, and W. Zhang, Opt. Express 17, 16527 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Ma, W. X. Jiang, X. M. Yang, X. Y. Zhou, and T. J. Cui, Opt. Express 17, 19947 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Liu, C. Ji, J. J. Mock, J. Y. Chin, T. J. Cui, and D. R. Smith, Science 323, 366 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Singh, E. Plum, C. Menzel, C. Rockstuhl, A. K. Azad, R. A. Cheville, F. Lederer, W. Zhang, and N. I. Zheludev, Phys. Rev. B 80, 153104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Singh, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, and W. Zhang, Phys. Rev. B 79, 085111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

I. A. I. Al-Naib, C. Jansen, and M. Koch, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 083507 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. F. O’Hara, R. Singh, I. Brener, E. Smirnova, J. Han, A. J. Taylor, and W. Zhang, Opt. Express 16, 1786 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Papasimakis, V. A. Fedotov, N. I. Zheludev, and S. L. Prosvirnin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 253903 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Zhang, Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 1 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

J. F. O’Hara, E. Smirnova, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, and A. J. Taylor, Act. Passive Electron. Compon. 2007, 49691 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

V. A. Fedotov, A. V. Rogacheva, N. I. Zheludev, P. L. Mladyonov, and S. L. Prosvirnin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 091119 (2006).
[CrossRef]

1990

Akhmanov, S. A.

S. A. Akhmanov and S. Yu. Nikitin, Physical Optics(Clarendon, 1997).

Al-Naib, I. A. I.

R. Singh, I. A. I. Al-Naib, Y. Yang, D. R. Chowdhury, W. Cao, C. Rockstuhl, T. Ozaki, R. Morandotti, and W. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 201107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Singh, I. A. I. Al-Naib, M. Koch, and W. Zhang, Opt. Express 18, 13044 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. A. I. Al-Naib, C. Jansen, and M. Koch, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 083507 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Azad, A. K.

R. Singh, E. Plum, C. Menzel, C. Rockstuhl, A. K. Azad, R. A. Cheville, F. Lederer, W. Zhang, and N. I. Zheludev, Phys. Rev. B 80, 153104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. F. O’Hara, E. Smirnova, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, and A. J. Taylor, Act. Passive Electron. Compon. 2007, 49691 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bao, Y.

F. Zhou, Y. Bao, W. Cao, C. T. Stuart, J. Gu, W. Zhang, and C. Sun, Sci. Rep. 1, 78 (2011).

Brener, I.

Brown, E. R.

Cao, W.

F. Zhou, Y. Bao, W. Cao, C. T. Stuart, J. Gu, W. Zhang, and C. Sun, Sci. Rep. 1, 78 (2011).

R. Singh, I. A. I. Al-Naib, Y. Yang, D. R. Chowdhury, W. Cao, C. Rockstuhl, T. Ozaki, R. Morandotti, and W. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 201107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cao, Y.

J. Han, H. Li, Y. Fan, Z. Wei, C. Wu, Y. Cao, X. Yu, F. Li, and Z. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 151908 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.-T.

J. F. O’Hara, E. Smirnova, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, and A. J. Taylor, Act. Passive Electron. Compon. 2007, 49691 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cheville, R. A.

R. Singh, E. Plum, C. Menzel, C. Rockstuhl, A. K. Azad, R. A. Cheville, F. Lederer, W. Zhang, and N. I. Zheludev, Phys. Rev. B 80, 153104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chiang, Y.

Y. Chiang, C. Yang, Y. Yang, C. Pan, and T. Yen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 191909 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chin, J. Y.

R. Liu, C. Ji, J. J. Mock, J. Y. Chin, T. J. Cui, and D. R. Smith, Science 323, 366 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chowdhury, D. R.

R. Singh, I. A. I. Al-Naib, Y. Yang, D. R. Chowdhury, W. Cao, C. Rockstuhl, T. Ozaki, R. Morandotti, and W. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 201107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cong, L.

Y. Yang, R. Huang, L. Cong, Z. Zhu, J. Gu, Z. Tian, R. Singh, S. Zhang, J. Han, and W. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 121114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cui, T. J.

R. Liu, C. Ji, J. J. Mock, J. Y. Chin, T. J. Cui, and D. R. Smith, Science 323, 366 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Ma, W. X. Jiang, X. M. Yang, X. Y. Zhou, and T. J. Cui, Opt. Express 17, 19947 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fan, Y.

J. Han, H. Li, Y. Fan, Z. Wei, C. Wu, Y. Cao, X. Yu, F. Li, and Z. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 151908 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fattinger, Ch.

Fedotov, V. A.

N. Papasimakis, V. A. Fedotov, N. I. Zheludev, and S. L. Prosvirnin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 253903 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Fedotov, A. V. Rogacheva, N. I. Zheludev, P. L. Mladyonov, and S. L. Prosvirnin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 091119 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Grischkowsky, D.

Gu, J.

Y. Yang, R. Huang, L. Cong, Z. Zhu, J. Gu, Z. Tian, R. Singh, S. Zhang, J. Han, and W. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 121114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Zhou, Y. Bao, W. Cao, C. T. Stuart, J. Gu, W. Zhang, and C. Sun, Sci. Rep. 1, 78 (2011).

J. Han, J. Gu, X. Lu, M. He, Q. Xing, and W. Zhang, Opt. Express 17, 16527 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Han, J.

Y. Yang, R. Huang, L. Cong, Z. Zhu, J. Gu, Z. Tian, R. Singh, S. Zhang, J. Han, and W. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 121114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Han, H. Li, Y. Fan, Z. Wei, C. Wu, Y. Cao, X. Yu, F. Li, and Z. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 151908 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Han, J. Gu, X. Lu, M. He, Q. Xing, and W. Zhang, Opt. Express 17, 16527 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. F. O’Hara, R. Singh, I. Brener, E. Smirnova, J. Han, A. J. Taylor, and W. Zhang, Opt. Express 16, 1786 (2008).
[CrossRef]

He, M.

Huang, R.

Y. Yang, R. Huang, L. Cong, Z. Zhu, J. Gu, Z. Tian, R. Singh, S. Zhang, J. Han, and W. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 121114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jansen, C.

I. A. I. Al-Naib, C. Jansen, and M. Koch, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 083507 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ji, C.

R. Liu, C. Ji, J. J. Mock, J. Y. Chin, T. J. Cui, and D. R. Smith, Science 323, 366 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, W. X.

Keiding, S.

Koch, M.

R. Singh, I. A. I. Al-Naib, M. Koch, and W. Zhang, Opt. Express 18, 13044 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. A. I. Al-Naib, C. Jansen, and M. Koch, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 083507 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lederer, F.

R. Singh, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, and W. Zhang, Phys. Rev. B 79, 085111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Singh, E. Plum, C. Menzel, C. Rockstuhl, A. K. Azad, R. A. Cheville, F. Lederer, W. Zhang, and N. I. Zheludev, Phys. Rev. B 80, 153104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, F.

J. Han, H. Li, Y. Fan, Z. Wei, C. Wu, Y. Cao, X. Yu, F. Li, and Z. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 151908 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Li, H.

J. Han, H. Li, Y. Fan, Z. Wei, C. Wu, Y. Cao, X. Yu, F. Li, and Z. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 151908 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Li, W.

Liu, R.

R. Liu, C. Ji, J. J. Mock, J. Y. Chin, T. J. Cui, and D. R. Smith, Science 323, 366 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lu, M.

Lu, X.

Ma, H. F.

Menzel, C.

R. Singh, E. Plum, C. Menzel, C. Rockstuhl, A. K. Azad, R. A. Cheville, F. Lederer, W. Zhang, and N. I. Zheludev, Phys. Rev. B 80, 153104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mladyonov, P. L.

V. A. Fedotov, A. V. Rogacheva, N. I. Zheludev, P. L. Mladyonov, and S. L. Prosvirnin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 091119 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mock, J. J.

R. Liu, C. Ji, J. J. Mock, J. Y. Chin, T. J. Cui, and D. R. Smith, Science 323, 366 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Morandotti, R.

R. Singh, I. A. I. Al-Naib, Y. Yang, D. R. Chowdhury, W. Cao, C. Rockstuhl, T. Ozaki, R. Morandotti, and W. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 201107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nikitin, S. Yu.

S. A. Akhmanov and S. Yu. Nikitin, Physical Optics(Clarendon, 1997).

O’Hara, J. F.

J. F. O’Hara, R. Singh, I. Brener, E. Smirnova, J. Han, A. J. Taylor, and W. Zhang, Opt. Express 16, 1786 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. F. O’Hara, E. Smirnova, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, and A. J. Taylor, Act. Passive Electron. Compon. 2007, 49691 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ozaki, T.

R. Singh, I. A. I. Al-Naib, Y. Yang, D. R. Chowdhury, W. Cao, C. Rockstuhl, T. Ozaki, R. Morandotti, and W. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 201107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Pan, C.

Y. Chiang, C. Yang, Y. Yang, C. Pan, and T. Yen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 191909 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Papasimakis, N.

N. Papasimakis, V. A. Fedotov, N. I. Zheludev, and S. L. Prosvirnin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 253903 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Plum, E.

R. Singh, E. Plum, C. Menzel, C. Rockstuhl, A. K. Azad, R. A. Cheville, F. Lederer, W. Zhang, and N. I. Zheludev, Phys. Rev. B 80, 153104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Prosvirnin, S. L.

N. Papasimakis, V. A. Fedotov, N. I. Zheludev, and S. L. Prosvirnin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 253903 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Fedotov, A. V. Rogacheva, N. I. Zheludev, P. L. Mladyonov, and S. L. Prosvirnin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 091119 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rockstuhl, C.

R. Singh, I. A. I. Al-Naib, Y. Yang, D. R. Chowdhury, W. Cao, C. Rockstuhl, T. Ozaki, R. Morandotti, and W. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 201107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Singh, E. Plum, C. Menzel, C. Rockstuhl, A. K. Azad, R. A. Cheville, F. Lederer, W. Zhang, and N. I. Zheludev, Phys. Rev. B 80, 153104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Singh, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, and W. Zhang, Phys. Rev. B 79, 085111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rogacheva, A. V.

V. A. Fedotov, A. V. Rogacheva, N. I. Zheludev, P. L. Mladyonov, and S. L. Prosvirnin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 091119 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Singh, R.

Y. Yang, R. Huang, L. Cong, Z. Zhu, J. Gu, Z. Tian, R. Singh, S. Zhang, J. Han, and W. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 121114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Singh, I. A. I. Al-Naib, Y. Yang, D. R. Chowdhury, W. Cao, C. Rockstuhl, T. Ozaki, R. Morandotti, and W. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 201107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Singh, I. A. I. Al-Naib, M. Koch, and W. Zhang, Opt. Express 18, 13044 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Singh, E. Plum, C. Menzel, C. Rockstuhl, A. K. Azad, R. A. Cheville, F. Lederer, W. Zhang, and N. I. Zheludev, Phys. Rev. B 80, 153104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Singh, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, and W. Zhang, Phys. Rev. B 79, 085111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. F. O’Hara, R. Singh, I. Brener, E. Smirnova, J. Han, A. J. Taylor, and W. Zhang, Opt. Express 16, 1786 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Smirnova, E.

J. F. O’Hara, R. Singh, I. Brener, E. Smirnova, J. Han, A. J. Taylor, and W. Zhang, Opt. Express 16, 1786 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. F. O’Hara, E. Smirnova, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, and A. J. Taylor, Act. Passive Electron. Compon. 2007, 49691 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. R.

R. Liu, C. Ji, J. J. Mock, J. Y. Chin, T. J. Cui, and D. R. Smith, Science 323, 366 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Stuart, C. T.

F. Zhou, Y. Bao, W. Cao, C. T. Stuart, J. Gu, W. Zhang, and C. Sun, Sci. Rep. 1, 78 (2011).

Sun, C.

F. Zhou, Y. Bao, W. Cao, C. T. Stuart, J. Gu, W. Zhang, and C. Sun, Sci. Rep. 1, 78 (2011).

Taylor, A. J.

J. F. O’Hara, R. Singh, I. Brener, E. Smirnova, J. Han, A. J. Taylor, and W. Zhang, Opt. Express 16, 1786 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. F. O’Hara, E. Smirnova, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, and A. J. Taylor, Act. Passive Electron. Compon. 2007, 49691 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tian, Z.

Y. Yang, R. Huang, L. Cong, Z. Zhu, J. Gu, Z. Tian, R. Singh, S. Zhang, J. Han, and W. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 121114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

van Exter, M.

Wang, Z.

J. Han, H. Li, Y. Fan, Z. Wei, C. Wu, Y. Cao, X. Yu, F. Li, and Z. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 151908 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wei, Z.

J. Han, H. Li, Y. Fan, Z. Wei, C. Wu, Y. Cao, X. Yu, F. Li, and Z. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 151908 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wu, C.

J. Han, H. Li, Y. Fan, Z. Wei, C. Wu, Y. Cao, X. Yu, F. Li, and Z. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 151908 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Xing, Q.

Yang, C.

Y. Chiang, C. Yang, Y. Yang, C. Pan, and T. Yen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 191909 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yang, X. M.

Yang, Y.

Y. Chiang, C. Yang, Y. Yang, C. Pan, and T. Yen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 191909 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yang, R. Huang, L. Cong, Z. Zhu, J. Gu, Z. Tian, R. Singh, S. Zhang, J. Han, and W. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 121114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Singh, I. A. I. Al-Naib, Y. Yang, D. R. Chowdhury, W. Cao, C. Rockstuhl, T. Ozaki, R. Morandotti, and W. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 201107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yen, T.

Y. Chiang, C. Yang, Y. Yang, C. Pan, and T. Yen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 191909 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yu, X.

J. Han, H. Li, Y. Fan, Z. Wei, C. Wu, Y. Cao, X. Yu, F. Li, and Z. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 151908 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, S.

Y. Yang, R. Huang, L. Cong, Z. Zhu, J. Gu, Z. Tian, R. Singh, S. Zhang, J. Han, and W. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 121114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, W.

Y. Yang, R. Huang, L. Cong, Z. Zhu, J. Gu, Z. Tian, R. Singh, S. Zhang, J. Han, and W. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 121114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Singh, I. A. I. Al-Naib, Y. Yang, D. R. Chowdhury, W. Cao, C. Rockstuhl, T. Ozaki, R. Morandotti, and W. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 201107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Zhou, Y. Bao, W. Cao, C. T. Stuart, J. Gu, W. Zhang, and C. Sun, Sci. Rep. 1, 78 (2011).

R. Singh, I. A. I. Al-Naib, M. Koch, and W. Zhang, Opt. Express 18, 13044 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Singh, E. Plum, C. Menzel, C. Rockstuhl, A. K. Azad, R. A. Cheville, F. Lederer, W. Zhang, and N. I. Zheludev, Phys. Rev. B 80, 153104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Han, J. Gu, X. Lu, M. He, Q. Xing, and W. Zhang, Opt. Express 17, 16527 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Singh, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, and W. Zhang, Phys. Rev. B 79, 085111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. F. O’Hara, R. Singh, I. Brener, E. Smirnova, J. Han, A. J. Taylor, and W. Zhang, Opt. Express 16, 1786 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Zhang, Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 1 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zheludev, N. I.

R. Singh, E. Plum, C. Menzel, C. Rockstuhl, A. K. Azad, R. A. Cheville, F. Lederer, W. Zhang, and N. I. Zheludev, Phys. Rev. B 80, 153104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Papasimakis, V. A. Fedotov, N. I. Zheludev, and S. L. Prosvirnin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 253903 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Fedotov, A. V. Rogacheva, N. I. Zheludev, P. L. Mladyonov, and S. L. Prosvirnin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 091119 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, F.

F. Zhou, Y. Bao, W. Cao, C. T. Stuart, J. Gu, W. Zhang, and C. Sun, Sci. Rep. 1, 78 (2011).

Zhou, X. Y.

Zhu, Z.

Y. Yang, R. Huang, L. Cong, Z. Zhu, J. Gu, Z. Tian, R. Singh, S. Zhang, J. Han, and W. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 121114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Act. Passive Electron. Compon.

J. F. O’Hara, E. Smirnova, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, and A. J. Taylor, Act. Passive Electron. Compon. 2007, 49691 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

V. A. Fedotov, A. V. Rogacheva, N. I. Zheludev, P. L. Mladyonov, and S. L. Prosvirnin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 091119 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Three-dimensional schematic of the unit cell of the BFM. (b) View of the BFM from the +z axis.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Measured (open circles) and model-predicted (black solid lines) spectra of |t(ω)| for all three BFMs. (b) Corresponding simulated spectra.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Simulated spectra of |tOUL(ω)|, |tOLL(ω)|, and |t(ω)| for the r=1 BFM. Simulated distributions of (b) the x-component of the electric field and (c) the surface current density in the unit cell of the r=1 BFM for only the upper meander-line at 3 THz, and only the lower meander-line at 0.1 and 1.76 THz.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Equivalent circuit models of the upper and lower meander-lines for a normally incident x-polarized plane wave. (b) The transmission line RLC model of a BFM that incorporates the effects of the substrate and isolating dielectric layer.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Measured spectrums of |t(ω)| of all three BFMs for θ=0°, 5°, 15°, 30°, and 45°.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Circuit Parameters in the Transmission-Line Model for r=1, 1.2, and 1.6

Equations (1)

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t(ω)=20log[tu(ω)tl(ω)exp(iφ/2)1+ru(ω)rl(ω)exp(iφ)2Z0Z0+Zs],

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