Abstract

Improved outcoupling efficiency of organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) is demonstrated by incorporating a nanostructured indium tin oxide (NSITO) film between a conducting anode and a glass substrate. NSITO film was fabricated using rf-sputtering at oblique angle (85°). Significant reduction in refractive index and improved transmission of NSITO film was observed. OLEDs were then fabricated onto NSITO film to extract the ITO-glass waveguided modes. Extraction efficiency was enhanced by 80% without introducing any detrimental effects to operating voltage, current density, and angular invariance of emission spectra of OLEDs.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. R. Forrest, P. E. Burrows, Z. Shen, G. Gu, V. Bulovic, and M. E. Thompson, Synth. Met. 91, 9 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  2. Y. Sun and S. R. Forrest, Nat. Photon. 2, 483 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2011 (1)

A. Kumar, R. Srivastava, P. Tyagi, D. S. Mehta, and M. N. Kamalasanan, Synth. Met. 161, 1172 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

2009 (2)

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lussem, and K. Leo, Nature (London) 459, 234 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Saxena, V. K. Jain, and D. S. Mehta, Opt. Mater. 32, 221 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

Y. Sun and S. R. Forrest, Nat. Photon. 2, 483 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Kim, S. Chhajed, M. F. Schubert, E. F. Schubert, A. J. Fischer, M. H. Crawford, J. Cho, H. Kim, and C. Sone, Adv. Mater. 20, 801 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

Y. Sun and S. R. Forrest, J. Appl. Phys. 100, 073106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2002 (1)

A. N. Krasnov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3853 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

B. J. Matterson, J. M. Lupton, A. F. Safonov, M. G. Salt, W. L. Barnes, and I. D. W. Samuel, Adv. Mater. 13, 123 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Tsutsui, M. Yahiro, H. Yokogawa, K. Kawano, and M. Yokoyama, Adv. Mater. 13, 1149 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

S. R. Forrest, P. E. Burrows, Z. Shen, G. Gu, V. Bulovic, and M. E. Thompson, Synth. Met. 91, 9 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Gu, D. Z. Garbuzov, P. E. Burrows, S. Venkatesh, S. R. Forrest, and M. E. Thompson, Opt. Lett. 22, 396(1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

R. H. Jordan, L. J. Rothberg, A. Dodabalapur, and R. E. Slusher, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1997 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

I. Schnitzer, E. Yablonovitch, C. Caneau, T. J. Gmitter, and A. Scherer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2174 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, W. L.

B. J. Matterson, J. M. Lupton, A. F. Safonov, M. G. Salt, W. L. Barnes, and I. D. W. Samuel, Adv. Mater. 13, 123 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bulovic, V.

S. R. Forrest, P. E. Burrows, Z. Shen, G. Gu, V. Bulovic, and M. E. Thompson, Synth. Met. 91, 9 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Burrows, P. E.

S. R. Forrest, P. E. Burrows, Z. Shen, G. Gu, V. Bulovic, and M. E. Thompson, Synth. Met. 91, 9 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Gu, D. Z. Garbuzov, P. E. Burrows, S. Venkatesh, S. R. Forrest, and M. E. Thompson, Opt. Lett. 22, 396(1997).
[CrossRef]

Caneau, C.

I. Schnitzer, E. Yablonovitch, C. Caneau, T. J. Gmitter, and A. Scherer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2174 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S.

Chhajed, S.

J. K. Kim, S. Chhajed, M. F. Schubert, E. F. Schubert, A. J. Fischer, M. H. Crawford, J. Cho, H. Kim, and C. Sone, Adv. Mater. 20, 801 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cho, J.

J. K. Kim, S. Chhajed, M. F. Schubert, E. F. Schubert, A. J. Fischer, M. H. Crawford, J. Cho, H. Kim, and C. Sone, Adv. Mater. 20, 801 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Crawford, M. H.

J. K. Kim, S. Chhajed, M. F. Schubert, E. F. Schubert, A. J. Fischer, M. H. Crawford, J. Cho, H. Kim, and C. Sone, Adv. Mater. 20, 801 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dodabalapur, A.

R. H. Jordan, L. J. Rothberg, A. Dodabalapur, and R. E. Slusher, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1997 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Feng, J.

Fischer, A. J.

J. K. Kim, S. Chhajed, M. F. Schubert, E. F. Schubert, A. J. Fischer, M. H. Crawford, J. Cho, H. Kim, and C. Sone, Adv. Mater. 20, 801 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Forrest, S. R.

M. Slootsky and S. R. Forrest, Opt. Lett. 35, 1052 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sun and S. R. Forrest, Nat. Photon. 2, 483 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sun and S. R. Forrest, J. Appl. Phys. 100, 073106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Forrest, P. E. Burrows, Z. Shen, G. Gu, V. Bulovic, and M. E. Thompson, Synth. Met. 91, 9 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Gu, D. Z. Garbuzov, P. E. Burrows, S. Venkatesh, S. R. Forrest, and M. E. Thompson, Opt. Lett. 22, 396(1997).
[CrossRef]

Garbuzov, D. Z.

Gmitter, T. J.

I. Schnitzer, E. Yablonovitch, C. Caneau, T. J. Gmitter, and A. Scherer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2174 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Gu, G.

S. R. Forrest, P. E. Burrows, Z. Shen, G. Gu, V. Bulovic, and M. E. Thompson, Synth. Met. 91, 9 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Gu, D. Z. Garbuzov, P. E. Burrows, S. Venkatesh, S. R. Forrest, and M. E. Thompson, Opt. Lett. 22, 396(1997).
[CrossRef]

Jain, V. K.

K. Saxena, V. K. Jain, and D. S. Mehta, Opt. Mater. 32, 221 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jordan, R. H.

R. H. Jordan, L. J. Rothberg, A. Dodabalapur, and R. E. Slusher, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1997 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kamalasanan, M. N.

A. Kumar, R. Srivastava, P. Tyagi, D. S. Mehta, and M. N. Kamalasanan, Synth. Met. 161, 1172 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kawano, K.

T. Tsutsui, M. Yahiro, H. Yokogawa, K. Kawano, and M. Yokoyama, Adv. Mater. 13, 1149 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kawata, S.

Kim, H.

J. K. Kim, S. Chhajed, M. F. Schubert, E. F. Schubert, A. J. Fischer, M. H. Crawford, J. Cho, H. Kim, and C. Sone, Adv. Mater. 20, 801 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. K.

J. K. Kim, S. Chhajed, M. F. Schubert, E. F. Schubert, A. J. Fischer, M. H. Crawford, J. Cho, H. Kim, and C. Sone, Adv. Mater. 20, 801 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Krasnov, A. N.

A. N. Krasnov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3853 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, A.

A. Kumar, R. Srivastava, P. Tyagi, D. S. Mehta, and M. N. Kamalasanan, Synth. Met. 161, 1172 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kwok, H. S.

Leo, K.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lussem, and K. Leo, Nature (London) 459, 234 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lindner, F.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lussem, and K. Leo, Nature (London) 459, 234 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lupton, J. M.

B. J. Matterson, J. M. Lupton, A. F. Safonov, M. G. Salt, W. L. Barnes, and I. D. W. Samuel, Adv. Mater. 13, 123 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lussem, B.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lussem, and K. Leo, Nature (London) 459, 234 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Matterson, B. J.

B. J. Matterson, J. M. Lupton, A. F. Safonov, M. G. Salt, W. L. Barnes, and I. D. W. Samuel, Adv. Mater. 13, 123 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mehta, D. S.

A. Kumar, R. Srivastava, P. Tyagi, D. S. Mehta, and M. N. Kamalasanan, Synth. Met. 161, 1172 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Saxena, V. K. Jain, and D. S. Mehta, Opt. Mater. 32, 221 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Okamoto, T.

Reineke, S.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lussem, and K. Leo, Nature (London) 459, 234 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rothberg, L. J.

R. H. Jordan, L. J. Rothberg, A. Dodabalapur, and R. E. Slusher, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1997 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Safonov, A. F.

B. J. Matterson, J. M. Lupton, A. F. Safonov, M. G. Salt, W. L. Barnes, and I. D. W. Samuel, Adv. Mater. 13, 123 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Salt, M. G.

B. J. Matterson, J. M. Lupton, A. F. Safonov, M. G. Salt, W. L. Barnes, and I. D. W. Samuel, Adv. Mater. 13, 123 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Samuel, I. D. W.

B. J. Matterson, J. M. Lupton, A. F. Safonov, M. G. Salt, W. L. Barnes, and I. D. W. Samuel, Adv. Mater. 13, 123 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Saxena, K.

K. Saxena, V. K. Jain, and D. S. Mehta, Opt. Mater. 32, 221 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Scherer, A.

I. Schnitzer, E. Yablonovitch, C. Caneau, T. J. Gmitter, and A. Scherer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2174 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Schnitzer, I.

I. Schnitzer, E. Yablonovitch, C. Caneau, T. J. Gmitter, and A. Scherer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2174 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, E. F.

J. K. Kim, S. Chhajed, M. F. Schubert, E. F. Schubert, A. J. Fischer, M. H. Crawford, J. Cho, H. Kim, and C. Sone, Adv. Mater. 20, 801 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, M. F.

J. K. Kim, S. Chhajed, M. F. Schubert, E. F. Schubert, A. J. Fischer, M. H. Crawford, J. Cho, H. Kim, and C. Sone, Adv. Mater. 20, 801 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schwartz, G.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lussem, and K. Leo, Nature (London) 459, 234 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Seidler, N.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lussem, and K. Leo, Nature (London) 459, 234 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Z.

S. R. Forrest, P. E. Burrows, Z. Shen, G. Gu, V. Bulovic, and M. E. Thompson, Synth. Met. 91, 9 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Slootsky, M.

Slusher, R. E.

R. H. Jordan, L. J. Rothberg, A. Dodabalapur, and R. E. Slusher, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1997 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sone, C.

J. K. Kim, S. Chhajed, M. F. Schubert, E. F. Schubert, A. J. Fischer, M. H. Crawford, J. Cho, H. Kim, and C. Sone, Adv. Mater. 20, 801 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Srivastava, R.

A. Kumar, R. Srivastava, P. Tyagi, D. S. Mehta, and M. N. Kamalasanan, Synth. Met. 161, 1172 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Y.

Y. Sun and S. R. Forrest, Nat. Photon. 2, 483 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sun and S. R. Forrest, J. Appl. Phys. 100, 073106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, M. E.

S. R. Forrest, P. E. Burrows, Z. Shen, G. Gu, V. Bulovic, and M. E. Thompson, Synth. Met. 91, 9 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Gu, D. Z. Garbuzov, P. E. Burrows, S. Venkatesh, S. R. Forrest, and M. E. Thompson, Opt. Lett. 22, 396(1997).
[CrossRef]

Tsutsui, T.

T. Tsutsui, M. Yahiro, H. Yokogawa, K. Kawano, and M. Yokoyama, Adv. Mater. 13, 1149 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tyagi, P.

A. Kumar, R. Srivastava, P. Tyagi, D. S. Mehta, and M. N. Kamalasanan, Synth. Met. 161, 1172 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Venkatesh, S.

Walzer, K.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lussem, and K. Leo, Nature (London) 459, 234 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yablonovitch, E.

I. Schnitzer, E. Yablonovitch, C. Caneau, T. J. Gmitter, and A. Scherer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2174 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Yahiro, M.

T. Tsutsui, M. Yahiro, H. Yokogawa, K. Kawano, and M. Yokoyama, Adv. Mater. 13, 1149 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yokogawa, H.

T. Tsutsui, M. Yahiro, H. Yokogawa, K. Kawano, and M. Yokoyama, Adv. Mater. 13, 1149 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yokoyama, M.

T. Tsutsui, M. Yahiro, H. Yokogawa, K. Kawano, and M. Yokoyama, Adv. Mater. 13, 1149 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (3)

B. J. Matterson, J. M. Lupton, A. F. Safonov, M. G. Salt, W. L. Barnes, and I. D. W. Samuel, Adv. Mater. 13, 123 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Tsutsui, M. Yahiro, H. Yokogawa, K. Kawano, and M. Yokoyama, Adv. Mater. 13, 1149 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Kim, S. Chhajed, M. F. Schubert, E. F. Schubert, A. J. Fischer, M. H. Crawford, J. Cho, H. Kim, and C. Sone, Adv. Mater. 20, 801 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

I. Schnitzer, E. Yablonovitch, C. Caneau, T. J. Gmitter, and A. Scherer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2174 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Jordan, L. J. Rothberg, A. Dodabalapur, and R. E. Slusher, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1997 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. N. Krasnov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3853 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

Y. Sun and S. R. Forrest, J. Appl. Phys. 100, 073106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photon. (1)

Y. Sun and S. R. Forrest, Nat. Photon. 2, 483 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nature (London) (1)

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lussem, and K. Leo, Nature (London) 459, 234 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Opt. Mater. (1)

K. Saxena, V. K. Jain, and D. S. Mehta, Opt. Mater. 32, 221 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Synth. Met. (2)

A. Kumar, R. Srivastava, P. Tyagi, D. S. Mehta, and M. N. Kamalasanan, Synth. Met. 161, 1172 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Forrest, P. E. Burrows, Z. Shen, G. Gu, V. Bulovic, and M. E. Thompson, Synth. Met. 91, 9 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) SEM image of the ITO films grown at a glancing angle 85°. (b) Optical transmission versus wavelength for conducting ITO films without and with NSITO films deposited at 65°, 75°, 85°.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Current density-voltage characteristics of hole-only devices using ITO films without and with NSITO films.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Current density-luminescence characteristics for OLED with NSITO film and reference OLED.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) CIE coordinates of OLED plotted against viewing angle. (b) Spectral power emitted per unit solid angle as a function of the azimuthal angle of OLED, with NSITO shown as the line with data points. The scaled Lambertian response is also shown by the solid line without a data point.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Schematic diagram of the OLED showing the outcoupling scheme (a) without NSITO and (b) with NSITO.

Equations (1)

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ηITO=cosθc(ITOglass),

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