Abstract

Recently there has been growing interest in sensing by means of optical microring resonators in photonic integrated circuits that are fabricated in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) technology. Taillaert et al. [Proc. SPIE 6619, 661914 (2007) [CrossRef]  ] proposed the use of a silicon-waveguide-based ring resonator as a strain gauge. However, the strong lateral confinement of the light in SOI waveguides and its corresponding modal dispersion where not taken into account. We present a theoretical understanding, as well as experimental results, of strain applied on waveguide-based microresonators, and find that the following effects play important roles: elongation of the racetrack length, modal dispersion of the waveguide, and the strain-induced change in effective refractive index.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. A. Barlian, W.-T. Park, J. R. Mallon, A. J. Rastegar, and B. L. Pruitt, Proc. IEEE 97, 513 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C.-Y. Chao, S. Ashkenazi, S.-W. Huang, M. O’Donnell, and L. J. Guo, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectrics Freq. Contr. 54, 957 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  3. T. Ling, S.-L. Chen, and L. J. Guo, Opt. Express 19, 861 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. Taillaert, W. Van Paepegem, J. Vlekken, and R. Baets, Proc. SPIE 6619, 661914 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  5. P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, A. Tchelnokov, J.-M. Fedeli, and R. Baets, Future Fab International 25, 29 (2008).
  6. J. Pozo, W. J. Westerveld, P. J. Harmsma, S. Yang, P. Bodis, R. Nieuwland, M. Lagioia, D. M. R. Lo Cascio, J.-P. Staats, R. Schmits, H. van den, Berg, E. Tabak, K. Green, H. P. Urbach, L. K. Cheng, and M. Yousefi, in Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON) (National Institute of Telecommunications, 2011), paper Th.A4.5.
  7. W. J. Westerveld, S. M. Leinders, K.W.A. van Dongen, H. P. Urbach, and M. Yousefi, “Extension of Marcatili’s analytical approach for rectangular silicon optical waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. (submitted).
  8. P. Dumon, G. Priem, L. R. Nunes, W. Bogaerts, D. van Thourhout, P. Bientsman, T. K. Liang, M. Tsuchiya, P. Jaenen, S. Beckx, J. Wouters, and R. Baets, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6589 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Y. Amemiya, Y. Tanushi, T. Tokunaga, and S. Yokoyama, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 2910 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. Yariv, Electron. Lett. 36, 321 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  11. L. B. Soldano and E. C. M. Pennings, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 615 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. M. Gere and S. P. Timoshenko, Mechanics of Materials (Stanley Thornes, 1999).

2011

2009

A. A. Barlian, W.-T. Park, J. R. Mallon, A. J. Rastegar, and B. L. Pruitt, Proc. IEEE 97, 513 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, A. Tchelnokov, J.-M. Fedeli, and R. Baets, Future Fab International 25, 29 (2008).

Y. Amemiya, Y. Tanushi, T. Tokunaga, and S. Yokoyama, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 2910 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

C.-Y. Chao, S. Ashkenazi, S.-W. Huang, M. O’Donnell, and L. J. Guo, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectrics Freq. Contr. 54, 957 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Taillaert, W. Van Paepegem, J. Vlekken, and R. Baets, Proc. SPIE 6619, 661914 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

P. Dumon, G. Priem, L. R. Nunes, W. Bogaerts, D. van Thourhout, P. Bientsman, T. K. Liang, M. Tsuchiya, P. Jaenen, S. Beckx, J. Wouters, and R. Baets, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6589 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2000

A. Yariv, Electron. Lett. 36, 321 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1995

L. B. Soldano and E. C. M. Pennings, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 615 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Amemiya, Y.

Y. Amemiya, Y. Tanushi, T. Tokunaga, and S. Yokoyama, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 2910 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ashkenazi, S.

C.-Y. Chao, S. Ashkenazi, S.-W. Huang, M. O’Donnell, and L. J. Guo, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectrics Freq. Contr. 54, 957 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Baets, R.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, A. Tchelnokov, J.-M. Fedeli, and R. Baets, Future Fab International 25, 29 (2008).

D. Taillaert, W. Van Paepegem, J. Vlekken, and R. Baets, Proc. SPIE 6619, 661914 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Dumon, G. Priem, L. R. Nunes, W. Bogaerts, D. van Thourhout, P. Bientsman, T. K. Liang, M. Tsuchiya, P. Jaenen, S. Beckx, J. Wouters, and R. Baets, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6589 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Barlian, A. A.

A. A. Barlian, W.-T. Park, J. R. Mallon, A. J. Rastegar, and B. L. Pruitt, Proc. IEEE 97, 513 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Beckx, S.

P. Dumon, G. Priem, L. R. Nunes, W. Bogaerts, D. van Thourhout, P. Bientsman, T. K. Liang, M. Tsuchiya, P. Jaenen, S. Beckx, J. Wouters, and R. Baets, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6589 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Berg,

J. Pozo, W. J. Westerveld, P. J. Harmsma, S. Yang, P. Bodis, R. Nieuwland, M. Lagioia, D. M. R. Lo Cascio, J.-P. Staats, R. Schmits, H. van den, Berg, E. Tabak, K. Green, H. P. Urbach, L. K. Cheng, and M. Yousefi, in Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON) (National Institute of Telecommunications, 2011), paper Th.A4.5.

Bientsman, P.

P. Dumon, G. Priem, L. R. Nunes, W. Bogaerts, D. van Thourhout, P. Bientsman, T. K. Liang, M. Tsuchiya, P. Jaenen, S. Beckx, J. Wouters, and R. Baets, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6589 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bodis, P.

J. Pozo, W. J. Westerveld, P. J. Harmsma, S. Yang, P. Bodis, R. Nieuwland, M. Lagioia, D. M. R. Lo Cascio, J.-P. Staats, R. Schmits, H. van den, Berg, E. Tabak, K. Green, H. P. Urbach, L. K. Cheng, and M. Yousefi, in Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON) (National Institute of Telecommunications, 2011), paper Th.A4.5.

Bogaerts, W.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, A. Tchelnokov, J.-M. Fedeli, and R. Baets, Future Fab International 25, 29 (2008).

P. Dumon, G. Priem, L. R. Nunes, W. Bogaerts, D. van Thourhout, P. Bientsman, T. K. Liang, M. Tsuchiya, P. Jaenen, S. Beckx, J. Wouters, and R. Baets, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6589 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chao, C.-Y.

C.-Y. Chao, S. Ashkenazi, S.-W. Huang, M. O’Donnell, and L. J. Guo, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectrics Freq. Contr. 54, 957 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S.-L.

Cheng, L. K.

J. Pozo, W. J. Westerveld, P. J. Harmsma, S. Yang, P. Bodis, R. Nieuwland, M. Lagioia, D. M. R. Lo Cascio, J.-P. Staats, R. Schmits, H. van den, Berg, E. Tabak, K. Green, H. P. Urbach, L. K. Cheng, and M. Yousefi, in Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON) (National Institute of Telecommunications, 2011), paper Th.A4.5.

Dumon, P.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, A. Tchelnokov, J.-M. Fedeli, and R. Baets, Future Fab International 25, 29 (2008).

P. Dumon, G. Priem, L. R. Nunes, W. Bogaerts, D. van Thourhout, P. Bientsman, T. K. Liang, M. Tsuchiya, P. Jaenen, S. Beckx, J. Wouters, and R. Baets, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6589 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fedeli, J.-M.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, A. Tchelnokov, J.-M. Fedeli, and R. Baets, Future Fab International 25, 29 (2008).

Gere, J. M.

J. M. Gere and S. P. Timoshenko, Mechanics of Materials (Stanley Thornes, 1999).

Green, K.

J. Pozo, W. J. Westerveld, P. J. Harmsma, S. Yang, P. Bodis, R. Nieuwland, M. Lagioia, D. M. R. Lo Cascio, J.-P. Staats, R. Schmits, H. van den, Berg, E. Tabak, K. Green, H. P. Urbach, L. K. Cheng, and M. Yousefi, in Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON) (National Institute of Telecommunications, 2011), paper Th.A4.5.

Guo, L. J.

T. Ling, S.-L. Chen, and L. J. Guo, Opt. Express 19, 861 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C.-Y. Chao, S. Ashkenazi, S.-W. Huang, M. O’Donnell, and L. J. Guo, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectrics Freq. Contr. 54, 957 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Harmsma, P. J.

J. Pozo, W. J. Westerveld, P. J. Harmsma, S. Yang, P. Bodis, R. Nieuwland, M. Lagioia, D. M. R. Lo Cascio, J.-P. Staats, R. Schmits, H. van den, Berg, E. Tabak, K. Green, H. P. Urbach, L. K. Cheng, and M. Yousefi, in Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON) (National Institute of Telecommunications, 2011), paper Th.A4.5.

Huang, S.-W.

C.-Y. Chao, S. Ashkenazi, S.-W. Huang, M. O’Donnell, and L. J. Guo, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectrics Freq. Contr. 54, 957 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jaenen, P.

P. Dumon, G. Priem, L. R. Nunes, W. Bogaerts, D. van Thourhout, P. Bientsman, T. K. Liang, M. Tsuchiya, P. Jaenen, S. Beckx, J. Wouters, and R. Baets, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6589 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lagioia, M.

J. Pozo, W. J. Westerveld, P. J. Harmsma, S. Yang, P. Bodis, R. Nieuwland, M. Lagioia, D. M. R. Lo Cascio, J.-P. Staats, R. Schmits, H. van den, Berg, E. Tabak, K. Green, H. P. Urbach, L. K. Cheng, and M. Yousefi, in Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON) (National Institute of Telecommunications, 2011), paper Th.A4.5.

Leinders, S. M.

W. J. Westerveld, S. M. Leinders, K.W.A. van Dongen, H. P. Urbach, and M. Yousefi, “Extension of Marcatili’s analytical approach for rectangular silicon optical waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. (submitted).

Liang, T. K.

P. Dumon, G. Priem, L. R. Nunes, W. Bogaerts, D. van Thourhout, P. Bientsman, T. K. Liang, M. Tsuchiya, P. Jaenen, S. Beckx, J. Wouters, and R. Baets, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6589 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ling, T.

Lo Cascio, D. M. R.

J. Pozo, W. J. Westerveld, P. J. Harmsma, S. Yang, P. Bodis, R. Nieuwland, M. Lagioia, D. M. R. Lo Cascio, J.-P. Staats, R. Schmits, H. van den, Berg, E. Tabak, K. Green, H. P. Urbach, L. K. Cheng, and M. Yousefi, in Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON) (National Institute of Telecommunications, 2011), paper Th.A4.5.

Mallon, J. R.

A. A. Barlian, W.-T. Park, J. R. Mallon, A. J. Rastegar, and B. L. Pruitt, Proc. IEEE 97, 513 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nieuwland, R.

J. Pozo, W. J. Westerveld, P. J. Harmsma, S. Yang, P. Bodis, R. Nieuwland, M. Lagioia, D. M. R. Lo Cascio, J.-P. Staats, R. Schmits, H. van den, Berg, E. Tabak, K. Green, H. P. Urbach, L. K. Cheng, and M. Yousefi, in Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON) (National Institute of Telecommunications, 2011), paper Th.A4.5.

Nunes, L. R.

P. Dumon, G. Priem, L. R. Nunes, W. Bogaerts, D. van Thourhout, P. Bientsman, T. K. Liang, M. Tsuchiya, P. Jaenen, S. Beckx, J. Wouters, and R. Baets, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6589 (2006).
[CrossRef]

O’Donnell, M.

C.-Y. Chao, S. Ashkenazi, S.-W. Huang, M. O’Donnell, and L. J. Guo, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectrics Freq. Contr. 54, 957 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Park, W.-T.

A. A. Barlian, W.-T. Park, J. R. Mallon, A. J. Rastegar, and B. L. Pruitt, Proc. IEEE 97, 513 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pennings, E. C. M.

L. B. Soldano and E. C. M. Pennings, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 615 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Pozo, J.

J. Pozo, W. J. Westerveld, P. J. Harmsma, S. Yang, P. Bodis, R. Nieuwland, M. Lagioia, D. M. R. Lo Cascio, J.-P. Staats, R. Schmits, H. van den, Berg, E. Tabak, K. Green, H. P. Urbach, L. K. Cheng, and M. Yousefi, in Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON) (National Institute of Telecommunications, 2011), paper Th.A4.5.

Priem, G.

P. Dumon, G. Priem, L. R. Nunes, W. Bogaerts, D. van Thourhout, P. Bientsman, T. K. Liang, M. Tsuchiya, P. Jaenen, S. Beckx, J. Wouters, and R. Baets, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6589 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pruitt, B. L.

A. A. Barlian, W.-T. Park, J. R. Mallon, A. J. Rastegar, and B. L. Pruitt, Proc. IEEE 97, 513 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rastegar, A. J.

A. A. Barlian, W.-T. Park, J. R. Mallon, A. J. Rastegar, and B. L. Pruitt, Proc. IEEE 97, 513 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schmits, R.

J. Pozo, W. J. Westerveld, P. J. Harmsma, S. Yang, P. Bodis, R. Nieuwland, M. Lagioia, D. M. R. Lo Cascio, J.-P. Staats, R. Schmits, H. van den, Berg, E. Tabak, K. Green, H. P. Urbach, L. K. Cheng, and M. Yousefi, in Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON) (National Institute of Telecommunications, 2011), paper Th.A4.5.

Soldano, L. B.

L. B. Soldano and E. C. M. Pennings, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 615 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Staats, J.-P.

J. Pozo, W. J. Westerveld, P. J. Harmsma, S. Yang, P. Bodis, R. Nieuwland, M. Lagioia, D. M. R. Lo Cascio, J.-P. Staats, R. Schmits, H. van den, Berg, E. Tabak, K. Green, H. P. Urbach, L. K. Cheng, and M. Yousefi, in Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON) (National Institute of Telecommunications, 2011), paper Th.A4.5.

Tabak, E.

J. Pozo, W. J. Westerveld, P. J. Harmsma, S. Yang, P. Bodis, R. Nieuwland, M. Lagioia, D. M. R. Lo Cascio, J.-P. Staats, R. Schmits, H. van den, Berg, E. Tabak, K. Green, H. P. Urbach, L. K. Cheng, and M. Yousefi, in Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON) (National Institute of Telecommunications, 2011), paper Th.A4.5.

Taillaert, D.

D. Taillaert, W. Van Paepegem, J. Vlekken, and R. Baets, Proc. SPIE 6619, 661914 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tanushi, Y.

Y. Amemiya, Y. Tanushi, T. Tokunaga, and S. Yokoyama, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 2910 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tchelnokov, A.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, A. Tchelnokov, J.-M. Fedeli, and R. Baets, Future Fab International 25, 29 (2008).

Timoshenko, S. P.

J. M. Gere and S. P. Timoshenko, Mechanics of Materials (Stanley Thornes, 1999).

Tokunaga, T.

Y. Amemiya, Y. Tanushi, T. Tokunaga, and S. Yokoyama, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 2910 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tsuchiya, M.

P. Dumon, G. Priem, L. R. Nunes, W. Bogaerts, D. van Thourhout, P. Bientsman, T. K. Liang, M. Tsuchiya, P. Jaenen, S. Beckx, J. Wouters, and R. Baets, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6589 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Urbach, H. P.

J. Pozo, W. J. Westerveld, P. J. Harmsma, S. Yang, P. Bodis, R. Nieuwland, M. Lagioia, D. M. R. Lo Cascio, J.-P. Staats, R. Schmits, H. van den, Berg, E. Tabak, K. Green, H. P. Urbach, L. K. Cheng, and M. Yousefi, in Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON) (National Institute of Telecommunications, 2011), paper Th.A4.5.

W. J. Westerveld, S. M. Leinders, K.W.A. van Dongen, H. P. Urbach, and M. Yousefi, “Extension of Marcatili’s analytical approach for rectangular silicon optical waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. (submitted).

van den, H.

J. Pozo, W. J. Westerveld, P. J. Harmsma, S. Yang, P. Bodis, R. Nieuwland, M. Lagioia, D. M. R. Lo Cascio, J.-P. Staats, R. Schmits, H. van den, Berg, E. Tabak, K. Green, H. P. Urbach, L. K. Cheng, and M. Yousefi, in Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON) (National Institute of Telecommunications, 2011), paper Th.A4.5.

van Dongen, K.W.A.

W. J. Westerveld, S. M. Leinders, K.W.A. van Dongen, H. P. Urbach, and M. Yousefi, “Extension of Marcatili’s analytical approach for rectangular silicon optical waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. (submitted).

Van Paepegem, W.

D. Taillaert, W. Van Paepegem, J. Vlekken, and R. Baets, Proc. SPIE 6619, 661914 (2007).
[CrossRef]

van Thourhout, D.

P. Dumon, G. Priem, L. R. Nunes, W. Bogaerts, D. van Thourhout, P. Bientsman, T. K. Liang, M. Tsuchiya, P. Jaenen, S. Beckx, J. Wouters, and R. Baets, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6589 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vlekken, J.

D. Taillaert, W. Van Paepegem, J. Vlekken, and R. Baets, Proc. SPIE 6619, 661914 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Westerveld, W. J.

J. Pozo, W. J. Westerveld, P. J. Harmsma, S. Yang, P. Bodis, R. Nieuwland, M. Lagioia, D. M. R. Lo Cascio, J.-P. Staats, R. Schmits, H. van den, Berg, E. Tabak, K. Green, H. P. Urbach, L. K. Cheng, and M. Yousefi, in Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON) (National Institute of Telecommunications, 2011), paper Th.A4.5.

W. J. Westerveld, S. M. Leinders, K.W.A. van Dongen, H. P. Urbach, and M. Yousefi, “Extension of Marcatili’s analytical approach for rectangular silicon optical waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. (submitted).

Wouters, J.

P. Dumon, G. Priem, L. R. Nunes, W. Bogaerts, D. van Thourhout, P. Bientsman, T. K. Liang, M. Tsuchiya, P. Jaenen, S. Beckx, J. Wouters, and R. Baets, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6589 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yang, S.

J. Pozo, W. J. Westerveld, P. J. Harmsma, S. Yang, P. Bodis, R. Nieuwland, M. Lagioia, D. M. R. Lo Cascio, J.-P. Staats, R. Schmits, H. van den, Berg, E. Tabak, K. Green, H. P. Urbach, L. K. Cheng, and M. Yousefi, in Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON) (National Institute of Telecommunications, 2011), paper Th.A4.5.

Yariv, A.

A. Yariv, Electron. Lett. 36, 321 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yokoyama, S.

Y. Amemiya, Y. Tanushi, T. Tokunaga, and S. Yokoyama, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 2910 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yousefi, M.

W. J. Westerveld, S. M. Leinders, K.W.A. van Dongen, H. P. Urbach, and M. Yousefi, “Extension of Marcatili’s analytical approach for rectangular silicon optical waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. (submitted).

J. Pozo, W. J. Westerveld, P. J. Harmsma, S. Yang, P. Bodis, R. Nieuwland, M. Lagioia, D. M. R. Lo Cascio, J.-P. Staats, R. Schmits, H. van den, Berg, E. Tabak, K. Green, H. P. Urbach, L. K. Cheng, and M. Yousefi, in Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON) (National Institute of Telecommunications, 2011), paper Th.A4.5.

Electron. Lett.

A. Yariv, Electron. Lett. 36, 321 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Future Fab International

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, A. Tchelnokov, J.-M. Fedeli, and R. Baets, Future Fab International 25, 29 (2008).

IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectrics Freq. Contr.

C.-Y. Chao, S. Ashkenazi, S.-W. Huang, M. O’Donnell, and L. J. Guo, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectrics Freq. Contr. 54, 957 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

L. B. Soldano and E. C. M. Pennings, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 615 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

P. Dumon, G. Priem, L. R. Nunes, W. Bogaerts, D. van Thourhout, P. Bientsman, T. K. Liang, M. Tsuchiya, P. Jaenen, S. Beckx, J. Wouters, and R. Baets, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6589 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Amemiya, Y. Tanushi, T. Tokunaga, and S. Yokoyama, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 2910 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Proc. IEEE

A. A. Barlian, W.-T. Park, J. R. Mallon, A. J. Rastegar, and B. L. Pruitt, Proc. IEEE 97, 513 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

D. Taillaert, W. Van Paepegem, J. Vlekken, and R. Baets, Proc. SPIE 6619, 661914 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Other

J. M. Gere and S. P. Timoshenko, Mechanics of Materials (Stanley Thornes, 1999).

J. Pozo, W. J. Westerveld, P. J. Harmsma, S. Yang, P. Bodis, R. Nieuwland, M. Lagioia, D. M. R. Lo Cascio, J.-P. Staats, R. Schmits, H. van den, Berg, E. Tabak, K. Green, H. P. Urbach, L. K. Cheng, and M. Yousefi, in Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON) (National Institute of Telecommunications, 2011), paper Th.A4.5.

W. J. Westerveld, S. M. Leinders, K.W.A. van Dongen, H. P. Urbach, and M. Yousefi, “Extension of Marcatili’s analytical approach for rectangular silicon optical waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. (submitted).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Sketch of the racetrack resonator. (b) Sketch of the waveguide of which the racetrack consists, with elongation indicated by the arrows.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Mechanics of the tool for applying strain (schematic). The strain at the top surface of the chip is given by S=6a1(a4a3)F/(4a2EWH2), where F is the force, E=170GPa is Young’s modulus of Si, and width W=20mm×heightH=0.675mm are the dimensions of the chip. This relation is derived from a mechanical analysis of the setup, where Euler–Bernoulli beam bending theory is applied to describe the bending of the chip [12].

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Fourier transforms of the spectra of the zero-strain measurements. The (FSR)1 corresponding to the group indices ng as calculated with a mode solver are indicated. (a) 400 nm wide waveguide. (b) 1000 nm wide waveguide.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Measurement of resonance shift in the 1000 nm wide waveguide. (a) Five measured spectra with different strains. (b) Resonance wavelength of the dip of (a) plotted versus strain.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Measured shift of the resonance wavelengths due to applied strain.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Effects of Strain

Equations (3)

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m·λm=ne(λm,S)·l(S).
mλmS=neSl+neλmλmSl+nelS,
λmS=nengdispersion(λ0circumference+λ0neneSindex),

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