Abstract

We report the fabrication of single-mode buried channel waveguides for the whole mid-IR transparency range of chalcogenide sulphide glasses (λ11μm), by means of direct laser writing. We have explored the potential of this technology by fabricating a prototype three-dimensional three-beam combiner for future application in stellar interferometry that delivers a monochromatic interference visibility of 99.89% at 10.6 μm and an ultrahigh bandwidth (3–11 μm) interference visibility of 21.3%. These results demonstrate that it is possible to harness the whole transparency range offered by chalcogenide glasses on a single on-chip instrument by means of direct laser writing, a finding that may be of key significance in future technologies such as astrophotonics and biochemical sensing.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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2012 (1)

2011 (2)

A. Rodenas and A. K. Kar, Opt. Express 19, 17820 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Labadie, G. Martin, N. C. Anheier, B. Arezki, H. A. Qiao, B. Bernacki, and P. Kern, Astron. Astrophys. 531, A48 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

2009 (4)

R. Muda, E. Lewis, S. O’Keeffe, G. Dooly, and J. Clifford, J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 178, 012008 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Labadie and O. Wallner, Opt. Express 17, 1947 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Hill, L. Huang, and A. Jha, J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 20 , 202 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Thomson, A. K. Kar, and J. Allington-Smith, Opt. Express 17, 1963 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

E. Le Coarer, S. Blaize, P. Benech, I. Stefanon, A. Morand, G. Lerondel, G. Leblond, P. Kern, J. M. Fedeli, and P. Royer, Nat. Photon. 1, 473 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

D. Ouzounov and F. Freund, Adv. Space Res. 33, 268 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

R. W. Waynant, I. K. Ilev, and I. Gannot, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. Ser. A 359, 635 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

J. P. Berger, K. R. Perraut, P. Kern, F. Malbet, I. S. Duport, F. Reynaud, P. Haguenauer, and P. Benech, Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 139, 173 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

Allington-Smith, J.

Anheier, N. C.

L. Labadie, G. Martin, N. C. Anheier, B. Arezki, H. A. Qiao, B. Bernacki, and P. Kern, Astron. Astrophys. 531, A48 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Arezki, B.

L. Labadie, G. Martin, N. C. Anheier, B. Arezki, H. A. Qiao, B. Bernacki, and P. Kern, Astron. Astrophys. 531, A48 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Rodenas, B. Arezki, G. Martin, J. McCarthy, H. Bookey, A. Kar, P. Kern, and R. Thomson, in CLEO/Europe and EQEC 2011 Conference Digest, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper JSIII_P2.

Benech, P.

E. Le Coarer, S. Blaize, P. Benech, I. Stefanon, A. Morand, G. Lerondel, G. Leblond, P. Kern, J. M. Fedeli, and P. Royer, Nat. Photon. 1, 473 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Berger, K. R. Perraut, P. Kern, F. Malbet, I. S. Duport, F. Reynaud, P. Haguenauer, and P. Benech, Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 139, 173 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Berger, J. P.

J. P. Berger, K. R. Perraut, P. Kern, F. Malbet, I. S. Duport, F. Reynaud, P. Haguenauer, and P. Benech, Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 139, 173 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bernacki, B.

L. Labadie, G. Martin, N. C. Anheier, B. Arezki, H. A. Qiao, B. Bernacki, and P. Kern, Astron. Astrophys. 531, A48 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Blaize, S.

E. Le Coarer, S. Blaize, P. Benech, I. Stefanon, A. Morand, G. Lerondel, G. Leblond, P. Kern, J. M. Fedeli, and P. Royer, Nat. Photon. 1, 473 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bookey, H.

A. Rodenas, B. Arezki, G. Martin, J. McCarthy, H. Bookey, A. Kar, P. Kern, and R. Thomson, in CLEO/Europe and EQEC 2011 Conference Digest, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper JSIII_P2.

Bookey, H. T.

Bulla, D.

Choi, D.-Y.

Clifford, J.

R. Muda, E. Lewis, S. O’Keeffe, G. Dooly, and J. Clifford, J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 178, 012008 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Davis, K. M.

Dooly, G.

R. Muda, E. Lewis, S. O’Keeffe, G. Dooly, and J. Clifford, J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 178, 012008 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Duport, I. S.

J. P. Berger, K. R. Perraut, P. Kern, F. Malbet, I. S. Duport, F. Reynaud, P. Haguenauer, and P. Benech, Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 139, 173 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fedeli, J. M.

E. Le Coarer, S. Blaize, P. Benech, I. Stefanon, A. Morand, G. Lerondel, G. Leblond, P. Kern, J. M. Fedeli, and P. Royer, Nat. Photon. 1, 473 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Freund, F.

D. Ouzounov and F. Freund, Adv. Space Res. 33, 268 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fried, A.

F. K. Tittel, D. Richter, and A. Fried, in Solid-State Mid-Infrared Laser Sources, I. T. Sorokina and K. L. Vodopyanov, eds., Topics in Applied Physics, Vol. 89 (Springer-Verlag, 2003), pp. 445–516.

Gai, X.

Gannot, I.

R. W. Waynant, I. K. Ilev, and I. Gannot, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. Ser. A 359, 635 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Haguenauer, P.

J. P. Berger, K. R. Perraut, P. Kern, F. Malbet, I. S. Duport, F. Reynaud, P. Haguenauer, and P. Benech, Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 139, 173 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Han, T.

Hill, C. J.

C. J. Hill, L. Huang, and A. Jha, J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 20 , 202 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hirao, K.

Huang, L.

C. J. Hill, L. Huang, and A. Jha, J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 20 , 202 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ilev, I. K.

R. W. Waynant, I. K. Ilev, and I. Gannot, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. Ser. A 359, 635 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jha, A.

C. J. Hill, L. Huang, and A. Jha, J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 20 , 202 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kar, A.

A. Rodenas, B. Arezki, G. Martin, J. McCarthy, H. Bookey, A. Kar, P. Kern, and R. Thomson, in CLEO/Europe and EQEC 2011 Conference Digest, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper JSIII_P2.

Kar, A. K.

Kern, P.

L. Labadie, G. Martin, N. C. Anheier, B. Arezki, H. A. Qiao, B. Bernacki, and P. Kern, Astron. Astrophys. 531, A48 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. Le Coarer, S. Blaize, P. Benech, I. Stefanon, A. Morand, G. Lerondel, G. Leblond, P. Kern, J. M. Fedeli, and P. Royer, Nat. Photon. 1, 473 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Berger, K. R. Perraut, P. Kern, F. Malbet, I. S. Duport, F. Reynaud, P. Haguenauer, and P. Benech, Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 139, 173 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Rodenas, B. Arezki, G. Martin, J. McCarthy, H. Bookey, A. Kar, P. Kern, and R. Thomson, in CLEO/Europe and EQEC 2011 Conference Digest, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper JSIII_P2.

Labadie, L.

L. Labadie, G. Martin, N. C. Anheier, B. Arezki, H. A. Qiao, B. Bernacki, and P. Kern, Astron. Astrophys. 531, A48 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Labadie and O. Wallner, Opt. Express 17, 1947 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Le Coarer, E.

E. Le Coarer, S. Blaize, P. Benech, I. Stefanon, A. Morand, G. Lerondel, G. Leblond, P. Kern, J. M. Fedeli, and P. Royer, Nat. Photon. 1, 473 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Leblond, G.

E. Le Coarer, S. Blaize, P. Benech, I. Stefanon, A. Morand, G. Lerondel, G. Leblond, P. Kern, J. M. Fedeli, and P. Royer, Nat. Photon. 1, 473 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lerondel, G.

E. Le Coarer, S. Blaize, P. Benech, I. Stefanon, A. Morand, G. Lerondel, G. Leblond, P. Kern, J. M. Fedeli, and P. Royer, Nat. Photon. 1, 473 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, E.

R. Muda, E. Lewis, S. O’Keeffe, G. Dooly, and J. Clifford, J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 178, 012008 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Luther-Davis, B.

Madden, S.

Malbet, F.

J. P. Berger, K. R. Perraut, P. Kern, F. Malbet, I. S. Duport, F. Reynaud, P. Haguenauer, and P. Benech, Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 139, 173 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Martin, G.

L. Labadie, G. Martin, N. C. Anheier, B. Arezki, H. A. Qiao, B. Bernacki, and P. Kern, Astron. Astrophys. 531, A48 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Rodenas, B. Arezki, G. Martin, J. McCarthy, H. Bookey, A. Kar, P. Kern, and R. Thomson, in CLEO/Europe and EQEC 2011 Conference Digest, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper JSIII_P2.

McCarthy, J.

A. Rodenas, B. Arezki, G. Martin, J. McCarthy, H. Bookey, A. Kar, P. Kern, and R. Thomson, in CLEO/Europe and EQEC 2011 Conference Digest, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper JSIII_P2.

McCarthy, J. E.

Minardi, S.

Miura, K.

Morand, A.

E. Le Coarer, S. Blaize, P. Benech, I. Stefanon, A. Morand, G. Lerondel, G. Leblond, P. Kern, J. M. Fedeli, and P. Royer, Nat. Photon. 1, 473 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Muda, R.

R. Muda, E. Lewis, S. O’Keeffe, G. Dooly, and J. Clifford, J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 178, 012008 (2009).
[CrossRef]

O’Keeffe, S.

R. Muda, E. Lewis, S. O’Keeffe, G. Dooly, and J. Clifford, J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 178, 012008 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ouzounov, D.

D. Ouzounov and F. Freund, Adv. Space Res. 33, 268 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Perraut, K. R.

J. P. Berger, K. R. Perraut, P. Kern, F. Malbet, I. S. Duport, F. Reynaud, P. Haguenauer, and P. Benech, Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 139, 173 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pertsch, T.

Prasad, A.

Psaila, N. D.

Qiao, H. A.

L. Labadie, G. Martin, N. C. Anheier, B. Arezki, H. A. Qiao, B. Bernacki, and P. Kern, Astron. Astrophys. 531, A48 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Reynaud, F.

J. P. Berger, K. R. Perraut, P. Kern, F. Malbet, I. S. Duport, F. Reynaud, P. Haguenauer, and P. Benech, Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 139, 173 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Richter, D.

F. K. Tittel, D. Richter, and A. Fried, in Solid-State Mid-Infrared Laser Sources, I. T. Sorokina and K. L. Vodopyanov, eds., Topics in Applied Physics, Vol. 89 (Springer-Verlag, 2003), pp. 445–516.

Rodenas, A.

A. Rodenas and A. K. Kar, Opt. Express 19, 17820 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Rodenas, B. Arezki, G. Martin, J. McCarthy, H. Bookey, A. Kar, P. Kern, and R. Thomson, in CLEO/Europe and EQEC 2011 Conference Digest, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper JSIII_P2.

Royer, P.

E. Le Coarer, S. Blaize, P. Benech, I. Stefanon, A. Morand, G. Lerondel, G. Leblond, P. Kern, J. M. Fedeli, and P. Royer, Nat. Photon. 1, 473 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Stefanon, I.

E. Le Coarer, S. Blaize, P. Benech, I. Stefanon, A. Morand, G. Lerondel, G. Leblond, P. Kern, J. M. Fedeli, and P. Royer, Nat. Photon. 1, 473 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sugimoto, N.

Thomson, R.

A. Rodenas, B. Arezki, G. Martin, J. McCarthy, H. Bookey, A. Kar, P. Kern, and R. Thomson, in CLEO/Europe and EQEC 2011 Conference Digest, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper JSIII_P2.

Thomson, R. R.

Tittel, F. K.

F. K. Tittel, D. Richter, and A. Fried, in Solid-State Mid-Infrared Laser Sources, I. T. Sorokina and K. L. Vodopyanov, eds., Topics in Applied Physics, Vol. 89 (Springer-Verlag, 2003), pp. 445–516.

Wallner, O.

Wang, R.

Waynant, R. W.

R. W. Waynant, I. K. Ilev, and I. Gannot, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. Ser. A 359, 635 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Space Res. (1)

D. Ouzounov and F. Freund, Adv. Space Res. 33, 268 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Astron. Astrophys. (1)

L. Labadie, G. Martin, N. C. Anheier, B. Arezki, H. A. Qiao, B. Bernacki, and P. Kern, Astron. Astrophys. 531, A48 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. (1)

J. P. Berger, K. R. Perraut, P. Kern, F. Malbet, I. S. Duport, F. Reynaud, P. Haguenauer, and P. Benech, Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 139, 173 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. (1)

C. J. Hill, L. Huang, and A. Jha, J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 20 , 202 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Conf. Ser. (1)

R. Muda, E. Lewis, S. O’Keeffe, G. Dooly, and J. Clifford, J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 178, 012008 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photon. (1)

E. Le Coarer, S. Blaize, P. Benech, I. Stefanon, A. Morand, G. Lerondel, G. Leblond, P. Kern, J. M. Fedeli, and P. Royer, Nat. Photon. 1, 473 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. Ser. A (1)

R. W. Waynant, I. K. Ilev, and I. Gannot, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. Ser. A 359, 635 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

F. K. Tittel, D. Richter, and A. Fried, in Solid-State Mid-Infrared Laser Sources, I. T. Sorokina and K. L. Vodopyanov, eds., Topics in Applied Physics, Vol. 89 (Springer-Verlag, 2003), pp. 445–516.

A. Rodenas, B. Arezki, G. Martin, J. McCarthy, H. Bookey, A. Kar, P. Kern, and R. Thomson, in CLEO/Europe and EQEC 2011 Conference Digest, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper JSIII_P2.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Attenuation spectra of GCIS glass, (b) example of a 2D waveguide array for the MIR, (c) microscope image of a single-mode waveguide at 3.39 μm, (d), (e) microscope images of single- and bi-mode waveguides at 10.6 μm, (f)–(h) near-field mode images of waveguides shown in (c)–(e), respectively.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Photograph of our first component in GCIS glass with 10 different 3D three-beam combiner prototypes for 10.6 μm operation, (b) sketch of a second 3D three-beam combiner design with 62.5 mm and 125 mm bend radii. All units in (b) are in mm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a)–(e) MIR 10.6 μm near-field mode outputs after input 2 injection. The core size and index change of the GCIS glass combiners is shown.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Monochromatic visibility at 10.6 μm as a function of time for 100 μm variations of total optical path difference (OPD), (b) visibility in the region 3–11 μm, (c) postprocessed uncalibrated visibility for the 9–11 μm range.

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