Abstract

Soliton fusion is a fascinating and delicate phenomenon that manifests itself in optical fibers in case of interaction between copropagating solitons with small temporal and wavelength separation. We show that the mechanism of acceleration of a trailing soliton by dispersive waves radiated from the preceding one provides necessary conditions for soliton fusion at the advanced stage of supercontinuum generation in photonic-crystal fibers. As a result of fusion, large-intensity robust light structures arise and propagate over significant distances. In the presence of small random noise the delicate condition for the effective fusion between solitons can easily be broken, making the fusion-induced giant waves a rare statistical event. Thus oblong-shaped giant accelerated waves become excellent candidates for optical rogue waves.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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A. Antikainen, M. Erkintalo, J. M. Dudley, and G. Genty, Nonlinearity 25, R73 (2012).
[CrossRef]

I. Kaminer, R. Bekenstein, J. Nemirovsky, and M. Segev, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 163901 (2012).
[CrossRef]

F. Baronio, A. Degasperis, M. Conforti, and S. Wabnitz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 044102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Demircan, S. Amiranashvili, C. Brée, C. Mahnke, F. Mitschke, and G. Steinmeyer, Sci. Rep. 2, 850 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

A. Demircan, Sh. Amiranashvili, and G. Steinmeyer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 163901 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

G. Genty, C. M. De Sterke, O. Bang, F. Dias, N. Akhmediev, and J. M. Dudley, Phys. Lett. A 374, 989 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Erkintalo, G. Genty, and J. M. Dudley, Eur. J. Phys. Special Topics 185135 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Kibler, J. Fatome, C. Finot, G. Millot, F. Dias, G. Genty, N. Akhmediev, and J. M. Dudley, Nat. Phys. 6, 790 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Skryabin and A. V. Gorbach, Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 1287 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Erkintalo, G. Genty, and J. M. Dudley, Opt. Lett. 35, 658 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Driben and N. Zhavoronkov, Opt. Express 18, 16733 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Driben, F. Mitschke, and N. Zhavoronkov, Opt. Express 18, 25993 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

A. Mussot, A. Kudlinski, M. Kolobov, E. Louvergneaux, M. Douay, and M. Taki, Opt. Express 17, 17010 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, F. Dias, B. Kibler, and N. Akhmediev, Opt. Express 17, 21497 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Akhmediev, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and A. Ankiewicz, Phys. Rev. A 80, 043818 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Akhmediev, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and A. Ankiewicz, Phys. Lett. A 373, 2137 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

2007

2006

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, Rev. Mod. Phys. 781135 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Rotschild, B. Alfassi, M. Segev, and O. Cohen, Nat. Phys. 2, 769 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2002

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, and G. Korn, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173901 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

R. Driben and B. A. Malomed, Opt. Commun. 197, 481 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1991

Y. S. Kivshar and B. A. Malomed, Rev. Mod. Phys. 63, 211 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1986

Agrawal, G. P.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 4th ed. (Academic, 2007).

Akhmediev, N.

B. Kibler, J. Fatome, C. Finot, G. Millot, F. Dias, G. Genty, N. Akhmediev, and J. M. Dudley, Nat. Phys. 6, 790 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Genty, C. M. De Sterke, O. Bang, F. Dias, N. Akhmediev, and J. M. Dudley, Phys. Lett. A 374, 989 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Akhmediev, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and A. Ankiewicz, Phys. Rev. A 80, 043818 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Akhmediev, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and A. Ankiewicz, Phys. Lett. A 373, 2137 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, F. Dias, B. Kibler, and N. Akhmediev, Opt. Express 17, 21497 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Akhmediev and V. I. Korneev, Theor. Math. Phys. 69, 1089 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Alfassi, B.

C. Rotschild, B. Alfassi, M. Segev, and O. Cohen, Nat. Phys. 2, 769 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Amiranashvili, S.

A. Demircan, S. Amiranashvili, C. Brée, C. Mahnke, F. Mitschke, and G. Steinmeyer, Sci. Rep. 2, 850 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Amiranashvili, Sh.

A. Demircan, Sh. Amiranashvili, and G. Steinmeyer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 163901 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ankiewicz, A.

N. Akhmediev, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and A. Ankiewicz, Phys. Lett. A 373, 2137 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Akhmediev, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and A. Ankiewicz, Phys. Rev. A 80, 043818 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Antikainen, A.

A. Antikainen, M. Erkintalo, J. M. Dudley, and G. Genty, Nonlinearity 25, R73 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Babushkin, I.

Bang, O.

G. Genty, C. M. De Sterke, O. Bang, F. Dias, N. Akhmediev, and J. M. Dudley, Phys. Lett. A 374, 989 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Baronio, F.

F. Baronio, A. Degasperis, M. Conforti, and S. Wabnitz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 044102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bekenstein, R.

I. Kaminer, R. Bekenstein, J. Nemirovsky, and M. Segev, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 163901 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Brée, C.

A. Demircan, S. Amiranashvili, C. Brée, C. Mahnke, F. Mitschke, and G. Steinmeyer, Sci. Rep. 2, 850 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Coen, S.

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, Rev. Mod. Phys. 781135 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, O.

C. Rotschild, B. Alfassi, M. Segev, and O. Cohen, Nat. Phys. 2, 769 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Conforti, M.

F. Baronio, A. Degasperis, M. Conforti, and S. Wabnitz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 044102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

De Sterke, C. M.

G. Genty, C. M. De Sterke, O. Bang, F. Dias, N. Akhmediev, and J. M. Dudley, Phys. Lett. A 374, 989 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Degasperis, A.

F. Baronio, A. Degasperis, M. Conforti, and S. Wabnitz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 044102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Demircan, A.

A. Demircan, S. Amiranashvili, C. Brée, C. Mahnke, F. Mitschke, and G. Steinmeyer, Sci. Rep. 2, 850 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Demircan, Sh. Amiranashvili, and G. Steinmeyer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 163901 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dias, F.

B. Kibler, J. Fatome, C. Finot, G. Millot, F. Dias, G. Genty, N. Akhmediev, and J. M. Dudley, Nat. Phys. 6, 790 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Genty, C. M. De Sterke, O. Bang, F. Dias, N. Akhmediev, and J. M. Dudley, Phys. Lett. A 374, 989 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, F. Dias, B. Kibler, and N. Akhmediev, Opt. Express 17, 21497 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Douay, M.

Driben, R.

Dudley, J. M.

A. Antikainen, M. Erkintalo, J. M. Dudley, and G. Genty, Nonlinearity 25, R73 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Kibler, J. Fatome, C. Finot, G. Millot, F. Dias, G. Genty, N. Akhmediev, and J. M. Dudley, Nat. Phys. 6, 790 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Erkintalo, G. Genty, and J. M. Dudley, Opt. Lett. 35, 658 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Erkintalo, G. Genty, and J. M. Dudley, Eur. J. Phys. Special Topics 185135 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Genty, C. M. De Sterke, O. Bang, F. Dias, N. Akhmediev, and J. M. Dudley, Phys. Lett. A 374, 989 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, F. Dias, B. Kibler, and N. Akhmediev, Opt. Express 17, 21497 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, Rev. Mod. Phys. 781135 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Erkintalo, M.

A. Antikainen, M. Erkintalo, J. M. Dudley, and G. Genty, Nonlinearity 25, R73 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Erkintalo, G. Genty, and J. M. Dudley, Opt. Lett. 35, 658 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Erkintalo, G. Genty, and J. M. Dudley, Eur. J. Phys. Special Topics 185135 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fatome, J.

B. Kibler, J. Fatome, C. Finot, G. Millot, F. Dias, G. Genty, N. Akhmediev, and J. M. Dudley, Nat. Phys. 6, 790 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Finot, C.

B. Kibler, J. Fatome, C. Finot, G. Millot, F. Dias, G. Genty, N. Akhmediev, and J. M. Dudley, Nat. Phys. 6, 790 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Genty, G.

A. Antikainen, M. Erkintalo, J. M. Dudley, and G. Genty, Nonlinearity 25, R73 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Kibler, J. Fatome, C. Finot, G. Millot, F. Dias, G. Genty, N. Akhmediev, and J. M. Dudley, Nat. Phys. 6, 790 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Erkintalo, G. Genty, and J. M. Dudley, Opt. Lett. 35, 658 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Erkintalo, G. Genty, and J. M. Dudley, Eur. J. Phys. Special Topics 185135 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Genty, C. M. De Sterke, O. Bang, F. Dias, N. Akhmediev, and J. M. Dudley, Phys. Lett. A 374, 989 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, F. Dias, B. Kibler, and N. Akhmediev, Opt. Express 17, 21497 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, Rev. Mod. Phys. 781135 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gorbach, A. V.

D. V. Skryabin and A. V. Gorbach, Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 1287 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, J. P.

Griebner, U.

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, and G. Korn, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173901 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Herrmann, J.

I. Babushkin, A. Husakou, J. Herrmann, and Y. S. Kivshar, Opt. Express 15, 11978 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, and G. Korn, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173901 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Husakou, A.

I. Babushkin, A. Husakou, J. Herrmann, and Y. S. Kivshar, Opt. Express 15, 11978 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, and G. Korn, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173901 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jalali, B.

D. R. Solli, C. Ropers, P. Koonath, and B. Jalali, Nature (London) 450, 1054 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Joly, N. Y.

Kaminer, I.

I. Kaminer, R. Bekenstein, J. Nemirovsky, and M. Segev, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 163901 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kibler, B.

B. Kibler, J. Fatome, C. Finot, G. Millot, F. Dias, G. Genty, N. Akhmediev, and J. M. Dudley, Nat. Phys. 6, 790 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, F. Dias, B. Kibler, and N. Akhmediev, Opt. Express 17, 21497 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kivshar, Y. S.

Knight, J. C.

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, and G. Korn, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173901 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kolobov, M.

Koonath, P.

D. R. Solli, C. Ropers, P. Koonath, and B. Jalali, Nature (London) 450, 1054 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Korn, G.

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, and G. Korn, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173901 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Korneev, V. I.

N. Akhmediev and V. I. Korneev, Theor. Math. Phys. 69, 1089 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Kudlinski, A.

Louvergneaux, E.

Mahnke, C.

A. Demircan, S. Amiranashvili, C. Brée, C. Mahnke, F. Mitschke, and G. Steinmeyer, Sci. Rep. 2, 850 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Malomed, B. A.

R. Driben and B. A. Malomed, Opt. Commun. 197, 481 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. S. Kivshar and B. A. Malomed, Rev. Mod. Phys. 63, 211 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Millot, G.

B. Kibler, J. Fatome, C. Finot, G. Millot, F. Dias, G. Genty, N. Akhmediev, and J. M. Dudley, Nat. Phys. 6, 790 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mitschke, F.

A. Demircan, S. Amiranashvili, C. Brée, C. Mahnke, F. Mitschke, and G. Steinmeyer, Sci. Rep. 2, 850 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Driben, F. Mitschke, and N. Zhavoronkov, Opt. Express 18, 25993 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mitschke, F. M.

Mollenauer, L. F.

Mussot, A.

Nemirovsky, J.

I. Kaminer, R. Bekenstein, J. Nemirovsky, and M. Segev, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 163901 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nickel, D.

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, and G. Korn, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173901 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Podlipensky, A.

Poulton, C. G.

Ropers, C.

D. R. Solli, C. Ropers, P. Koonath, and B. Jalali, Nature (London) 450, 1054 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rotschild, C.

C. Rotschild, B. Alfassi, M. Segev, and O. Cohen, Nat. Phys. 2, 769 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P. St. J.

A. Podlipensky, P. Szarniak, N. Y. Joly, and P. St. J. Russell, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 2049 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Podlipensky, P. Szarniak, N. Y. Joly, C. G. Poulton, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Express 15, 1653 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, and G. Korn, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173901 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Segev, M.

I. Kaminer, R. Bekenstein, J. Nemirovsky, and M. Segev, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 163901 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Rotschild, B. Alfassi, M. Segev, and O. Cohen, Nat. Phys. 2, 769 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Skryabin, D. V.

D. V. Skryabin and A. V. Gorbach, Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 1287 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Solli, D. R.

D. R. Solli, C. Ropers, P. Koonath, and B. Jalali, Nature (London) 450, 1054 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Soto-Crespo, J. M.

N. Akhmediev, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and A. Ankiewicz, Phys. Lett. A 373, 2137 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Akhmediev, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and A. Ankiewicz, Phys. Rev. A 80, 043818 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Steinmeyer, G.

A. Demircan, S. Amiranashvili, C. Brée, C. Mahnke, F. Mitschke, and G. Steinmeyer, Sci. Rep. 2, 850 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Demircan, Sh. Amiranashvili, and G. Steinmeyer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 163901 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Szarniak, P.

Taki, M.

Wabnitz, S.

F. Baronio, A. Degasperis, M. Conforti, and S. Wabnitz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 044102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wadsworth, W. J.

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, and G. Korn, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173901 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhavoronkov, N.

R. Driben and N. Zhavoronkov, Opt. Express 18, 16733 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Driben, F. Mitschke, and N. Zhavoronkov, Opt. Express 18, 25993 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, and G. Korn, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173901 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Eur. J. Phys. Special Topics

M. Erkintalo, G. Genty, and J. M. Dudley, Eur. J. Phys. Special Topics 185135 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Nat. Phys.

B. Kibler, J. Fatome, C. Finot, G. Millot, F. Dias, G. Genty, N. Akhmediev, and J. M. Dudley, Nat. Phys. 6, 790 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Rotschild, B. Alfassi, M. Segev, and O. Cohen, Nat. Phys. 2, 769 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nature (London)

D. R. Solli, C. Ropers, P. Koonath, and B. Jalali, Nature (London) 450, 1054 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nonlinearity

A. Antikainen, M. Erkintalo, J. M. Dudley, and G. Genty, Nonlinearity 25, R73 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

R. Driben and B. A. Malomed, Opt. Commun. 197, 481 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Lett. A

G. Genty, C. M. De Sterke, O. Bang, F. Dias, N. Akhmediev, and J. M. Dudley, Phys. Lett. A 374, 989 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Akhmediev, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and A. Ankiewicz, Phys. Lett. A 373, 2137 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A

N. Akhmediev, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and A. Ankiewicz, Phys. Rev. A 80, 043818 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, and G. Korn, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173901 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Fusion resulting from copropagation of two fundamental solitons with wavelengths λ1=820nm and λ2=755nm. Initial pulse separation is 0.3 ps and their widths TFWHM=105fs. The inset displays an image of an oceanic rogue wave demonstrating similar wave-crest shape.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Dynamics of 105 fs, 800 nm pulse with Pin=100KW in (a) temporal domain and (b) spectral domains. The region of soliton collision is highlighted.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Properties of the first (dashed green curve) and the second (dotted blue curve) red-shifted solitons shown in Fig. 2 from Z=100mm to Z=250mm. Displayed: (a) peak powers and (b) central wavelengths. Red curves represent the joint dynamics of the fusion product.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Dynamics of several 105 fs pulses in the PCF in temporal domain with Pin=80KW, λ0=820nm. (b) Snapshots of wave dynamics at five different locations Z. Wave intensities at each of 5 Z-locations are represented with different colors.

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