Abstract

Record high quality (Q) factors of 5400 in vertical microtube ring resonators operated in emission mode are demonstrated. This is achieved by rolling-up a differentially strained SiO2 layer. We also present a theoretical model to investigate the limit of the Q factor. This model especially includes the effect of interlayer voids in the rolled-up geometry, which is found to have a larger effect than scattering due to notches in the spiral shape.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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  1. G. S. Huang, S. Kiravittaya, V. A. Bolaños Quiñones, F. Ding, M. Benyoucef, A. Rastelli, Y. F. Mei, and O. G. Schmidt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 141901 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. Strelow, H. Rehberg, C. M. Schultz, H. Welsch, C. Heyn, D. Heitmann, and T. Kipp, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 127403 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. M. Harazim, V. A. Bolaños Quiñones, S. Kiravittaya, S. Sanchez, and O. G. Schmidt, Lab Chip 12, 2649 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Z. B. Tian, V. Veerasubramanian, P. Bianucci, S. Mukherjee, Z. T. Mi, A. G. Kirk, and D. V. Plant, Opt. Express 19, 12164 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. Songmuang, A. Rastelli, S. Mendach, and O. G. Schmidt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 091905 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Y. Mei, G. Huang, A. A. Solovev, E. B. Ureña, I. Mönch, F. Ding, T. Reindl, R. K. Y. Fu, P. K. Chu, and O. G. Schmidt, Adv. Mater. 20, 4085 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  7. V. A. Bolaños Quiñones, L. B. Ma, S. Li, M. Jorgensen, S. Kiravittaya, and O. G. Schmidt, Opt. Lett. 37, 4284 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  8. C. Strelow, C. M. Schultz, H. Rehberg, M. Sauer, H. Welsch, A. Stemmann, C. Heyn, D. Heitmann, and T. Kipp, Phys. Rev. B 85, 127403 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  15. E. J. Smith, S. Schulze, S. Kiravittaya, Y. F. Mei, S. Sanchez, and O. G. Schmidt, Nano Lett. 11, 4037 (2011).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (3)

S. M. Harazim, V. A. Bolaños Quiñones, S. Kiravittaya, S. Sanchez, and O. G. Schmidt, Lab Chip 12, 2649 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Strelow, C. M. Schultz, H. Rehberg, M. Sauer, H. Welsch, A. Stemmann, C. Heyn, D. Heitmann, and T. Kipp, Phys. Rev. B 85, 127403 (2012).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Bolaños Quiñones, L. B. Ma, S. Li, M. Jorgensen, S. Kiravittaya, and O. G. Schmidt, Opt. Lett. 37, 4284 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (2)

Z. B. Tian, V. Veerasubramanian, P. Bianucci, S. Mukherjee, Z. T. Mi, A. G. Kirk, and D. V. Plant, Opt. Express 19, 12164 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Smith, S. Schulze, S. Kiravittaya, Y. F. Mei, S. Sanchez, and O. G. Schmidt, Nano Lett. 11, 4037 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

M. Sumetsky, Opt. Lett. 35, 2385 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. B. Ma, T. Schmidt, C. Jäger, and F. Huisken, Phys. Rev. B 82, 165411 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

G. S. Huang, S. Kiravittaya, V. A. Bolaños Quiñones, F. Ding, M. Benyoucef, A. Rastelli, Y. F. Mei, and O. G. Schmidt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 141901 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

C. Strelow, H. Rehberg, C. M. Schultz, H. Welsch, C. Heyn, D. Heitmann, and T. Kipp, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 127403 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Kekatpure and M. L. Brongersma, Phys. Rev. A 78, 023829 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Mei, G. Huang, A. A. Solovev, E. B. Ureña, I. Mönch, F. Ding, T. Reindl, R. K. Y. Fu, P. K. Chu, and O. G. Schmidt, Adv. Mater. 20, 4085 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

R. Songmuang, A. Rastelli, S. Mendach, and O. G. Schmidt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 091905 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

T. Kipp, H. Welsch, C. Strelow, C. Heyn, and D. Heitmann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 077403 (2006).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1970 (1)

D. Marcuse, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 49, 273 (1970).

Benyoucef, M.

G. S. Huang, S. Kiravittaya, V. A. Bolaños Quiñones, F. Ding, M. Benyoucef, A. Rastelli, Y. F. Mei, and O. G. Schmidt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 141901 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bianucci, P.

Bolaños Quiñones, V. A.

S. M. Harazim, V. A. Bolaños Quiñones, S. Kiravittaya, S. Sanchez, and O. G. Schmidt, Lab Chip 12, 2649 (2012).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Bolaños Quiñones, L. B. Ma, S. Li, M. Jorgensen, S. Kiravittaya, and O. G. Schmidt, Opt. Lett. 37, 4284 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Huang, S. Kiravittaya, V. A. Bolaños Quiñones, F. Ding, M. Benyoucef, A. Rastelli, Y. F. Mei, and O. G. Schmidt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 141901 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Brongersma, M. L.

R. D. Kekatpure and M. L. Brongersma, Phys. Rev. A 78, 023829 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chu, P. K.

Y. Mei, G. Huang, A. A. Solovev, E. B. Ureña, I. Mönch, F. Ding, T. Reindl, R. K. Y. Fu, P. K. Chu, and O. G. Schmidt, Adv. Mater. 20, 4085 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ding, F.

G. S. Huang, S. Kiravittaya, V. A. Bolaños Quiñones, F. Ding, M. Benyoucef, A. Rastelli, Y. F. Mei, and O. G. Schmidt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 141901 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Mei, G. Huang, A. A. Solovev, E. B. Ureña, I. Mönch, F. Ding, T. Reindl, R. K. Y. Fu, P. K. Chu, and O. G. Schmidt, Adv. Mater. 20, 4085 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fu, R. K. Y.

Y. Mei, G. Huang, A. A. Solovev, E. B. Ureña, I. Mönch, F. Ding, T. Reindl, R. K. Y. Fu, P. K. Chu, and O. G. Schmidt, Adv. Mater. 20, 4085 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gorodetsky, M. L.

Harazim, S. M.

S. M. Harazim, V. A. Bolaños Quiñones, S. Kiravittaya, S. Sanchez, and O. G. Schmidt, Lab Chip 12, 2649 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Heitmann, D.

C. Strelow, C. M. Schultz, H. Rehberg, M. Sauer, H. Welsch, A. Stemmann, C. Heyn, D. Heitmann, and T. Kipp, Phys. Rev. B 85, 127403 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Strelow, H. Rehberg, C. M. Schultz, H. Welsch, C. Heyn, D. Heitmann, and T. Kipp, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 127403 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Kipp, H. Welsch, C. Strelow, C. Heyn, and D. Heitmann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 077403 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Heyn, C.

C. Strelow, C. M. Schultz, H. Rehberg, M. Sauer, H. Welsch, A. Stemmann, C. Heyn, D. Heitmann, and T. Kipp, Phys. Rev. B 85, 127403 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Strelow, H. Rehberg, C. M. Schultz, H. Welsch, C. Heyn, D. Heitmann, and T. Kipp, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 127403 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Kipp, H. Welsch, C. Strelow, C. Heyn, and D. Heitmann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 077403 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Huang, G.

Y. Mei, G. Huang, A. A. Solovev, E. B. Ureña, I. Mönch, F. Ding, T. Reindl, R. K. Y. Fu, P. K. Chu, and O. G. Schmidt, Adv. Mater. 20, 4085 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Huang, G. S.

G. S. Huang, S. Kiravittaya, V. A. Bolaños Quiñones, F. Ding, M. Benyoucef, A. Rastelli, Y. F. Mei, and O. G. Schmidt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 141901 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Huisken, F.

L. B. Ma, T. Schmidt, C. Jäger, and F. Huisken, Phys. Rev. B 82, 165411 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ilchenko, V. S.

Jäger, C.

L. B. Ma, T. Schmidt, C. Jäger, and F. Huisken, Phys. Rev. B 82, 165411 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jorgensen, M.

Kekatpure, R. D.

R. D. Kekatpure and M. L. Brongersma, Phys. Rev. A 78, 023829 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kipp, T.

C. Strelow, C. M. Schultz, H. Rehberg, M. Sauer, H. Welsch, A. Stemmann, C. Heyn, D. Heitmann, and T. Kipp, Phys. Rev. B 85, 127403 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Strelow, H. Rehberg, C. M. Schultz, H. Welsch, C. Heyn, D. Heitmann, and T. Kipp, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 127403 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Kipp, H. Welsch, C. Strelow, C. Heyn, and D. Heitmann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 077403 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kiravittaya, S.

V. A. Bolaños Quiñones, L. B. Ma, S. Li, M. Jorgensen, S. Kiravittaya, and O. G. Schmidt, Opt. Lett. 37, 4284 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Harazim, V. A. Bolaños Quiñones, S. Kiravittaya, S. Sanchez, and O. G. Schmidt, Lab Chip 12, 2649 (2012).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Smith, S. Schulze, S. Kiravittaya, Y. F. Mei, S. Sanchez, and O. G. Schmidt, Nano Lett. 11, 4037 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Huang, S. Kiravittaya, V. A. Bolaños Quiñones, F. Ding, M. Benyoucef, A. Rastelli, Y. F. Mei, and O. G. Schmidt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 141901 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kirk, A. G.

Li, S.

Ma, L. B.

Marcuse, D.

D. Marcuse, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 49, 273 (1970).

Mei, Y.

Y. Mei, G. Huang, A. A. Solovev, E. B. Ureña, I. Mönch, F. Ding, T. Reindl, R. K. Y. Fu, P. K. Chu, and O. G. Schmidt, Adv. Mater. 20, 4085 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mei, Y. F.

E. J. Smith, S. Schulze, S. Kiravittaya, Y. F. Mei, S. Sanchez, and O. G. Schmidt, Nano Lett. 11, 4037 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Huang, S. Kiravittaya, V. A. Bolaños Quiñones, F. Ding, M. Benyoucef, A. Rastelli, Y. F. Mei, and O. G. Schmidt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 141901 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mendach, S.

R. Songmuang, A. Rastelli, S. Mendach, and O. G. Schmidt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 091905 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mi, Z. T.

Mönch, I.

Y. Mei, G. Huang, A. A. Solovev, E. B. Ureña, I. Mönch, F. Ding, T. Reindl, R. K. Y. Fu, P. K. Chu, and O. G. Schmidt, Adv. Mater. 20, 4085 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mukherjee, S.

Plant, D. V.

Rastelli, A.

G. S. Huang, S. Kiravittaya, V. A. Bolaños Quiñones, F. Ding, M. Benyoucef, A. Rastelli, Y. F. Mei, and O. G. Schmidt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 141901 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Songmuang, A. Rastelli, S. Mendach, and O. G. Schmidt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 091905 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rehberg, H.

C. Strelow, C. M. Schultz, H. Rehberg, M. Sauer, H. Welsch, A. Stemmann, C. Heyn, D. Heitmann, and T. Kipp, Phys. Rev. B 85, 127403 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Strelow, H. Rehberg, C. M. Schultz, H. Welsch, C. Heyn, D. Heitmann, and T. Kipp, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 127403 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Reindl, T.

Y. Mei, G. Huang, A. A. Solovev, E. B. Ureña, I. Mönch, F. Ding, T. Reindl, R. K. Y. Fu, P. K. Chu, and O. G. Schmidt, Adv. Mater. 20, 4085 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sanchez, S.

S. M. Harazim, V. A. Bolaños Quiñones, S. Kiravittaya, S. Sanchez, and O. G. Schmidt, Lab Chip 12, 2649 (2012).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Smith, S. Schulze, S. Kiravittaya, Y. F. Mei, S. Sanchez, and O. G. Schmidt, Nano Lett. 11, 4037 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sauer, M.

C. Strelow, C. M. Schultz, H. Rehberg, M. Sauer, H. Welsch, A. Stemmann, C. Heyn, D. Heitmann, and T. Kipp, Phys. Rev. B 85, 127403 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Savchenkov, A. A.

Schmidt, O. G.

V. A. Bolaños Quiñones, L. B. Ma, S. Li, M. Jorgensen, S. Kiravittaya, and O. G. Schmidt, Opt. Lett. 37, 4284 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Harazim, V. A. Bolaños Quiñones, S. Kiravittaya, S. Sanchez, and O. G. Schmidt, Lab Chip 12, 2649 (2012).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Smith, S. Schulze, S. Kiravittaya, Y. F. Mei, S. Sanchez, and O. G. Schmidt, Nano Lett. 11, 4037 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Huang, S. Kiravittaya, V. A. Bolaños Quiñones, F. Ding, M. Benyoucef, A. Rastelli, Y. F. Mei, and O. G. Schmidt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 141901 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Mei, G. Huang, A. A. Solovev, E. B. Ureña, I. Mönch, F. Ding, T. Reindl, R. K. Y. Fu, P. K. Chu, and O. G. Schmidt, Adv. Mater. 20, 4085 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Songmuang, A. Rastelli, S. Mendach, and O. G. Schmidt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 091905 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, T.

L. B. Ma, T. Schmidt, C. Jäger, and F. Huisken, Phys. Rev. B 82, 165411 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schultz, C. M.

C. Strelow, C. M. Schultz, H. Rehberg, M. Sauer, H. Welsch, A. Stemmann, C. Heyn, D. Heitmann, and T. Kipp, Phys. Rev. B 85, 127403 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Strelow, H. Rehberg, C. M. Schultz, H. Welsch, C. Heyn, D. Heitmann, and T. Kipp, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 127403 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schulze, S.

E. J. Smith, S. Schulze, S. Kiravittaya, Y. F. Mei, S. Sanchez, and O. G. Schmidt, Nano Lett. 11, 4037 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Smith, E. J.

E. J. Smith, S. Schulze, S. Kiravittaya, Y. F. Mei, S. Sanchez, and O. G. Schmidt, Nano Lett. 11, 4037 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Solovev, A. A.

Y. Mei, G. Huang, A. A. Solovev, E. B. Ureña, I. Mönch, F. Ding, T. Reindl, R. K. Y. Fu, P. K. Chu, and O. G. Schmidt, Adv. Mater. 20, 4085 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Songmuang, R.

R. Songmuang, A. Rastelli, S. Mendach, and O. G. Schmidt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 091905 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Stemmann, A.

C. Strelow, C. M. Schultz, H. Rehberg, M. Sauer, H. Welsch, A. Stemmann, C. Heyn, D. Heitmann, and T. Kipp, Phys. Rev. B 85, 127403 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Strelow, C.

C. Strelow, C. M. Schultz, H. Rehberg, M. Sauer, H. Welsch, A. Stemmann, C. Heyn, D. Heitmann, and T. Kipp, Phys. Rev. B 85, 127403 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Strelow, H. Rehberg, C. M. Schultz, H. Welsch, C. Heyn, D. Heitmann, and T. Kipp, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 127403 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Kipp, H. Welsch, C. Strelow, C. Heyn, and D. Heitmann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 077403 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sumetsky, M.

Tian, Z. B.

Ureña, E. B.

Y. Mei, G. Huang, A. A. Solovev, E. B. Ureña, I. Mönch, F. Ding, T. Reindl, R. K. Y. Fu, P. K. Chu, and O. G. Schmidt, Adv. Mater. 20, 4085 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Veerasubramanian, V.

Welsch, H.

C. Strelow, C. M. Schultz, H. Rehberg, M. Sauer, H. Welsch, A. Stemmann, C. Heyn, D. Heitmann, and T. Kipp, Phys. Rev. B 85, 127403 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Strelow, H. Rehberg, C. M. Schultz, H. Welsch, C. Heyn, D. Heitmann, and T. Kipp, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 127403 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Kipp, H. Welsch, C. Strelow, C. Heyn, and D. Heitmann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 077403 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (1)

Y. Mei, G. Huang, A. A. Solovev, E. B. Ureña, I. Mönch, F. Ding, T. Reindl, R. K. Y. Fu, P. K. Chu, and O. G. Schmidt, Adv. Mater. 20, 4085 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

G. S. Huang, S. Kiravittaya, V. A. Bolaños Quiñones, F. Ding, M. Benyoucef, A. Rastelli, Y. F. Mei, and O. G. Schmidt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 141901 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Songmuang, A. Rastelli, S. Mendach, and O. G. Schmidt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 091905 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bell Syst. Tech. J. (1)

D. Marcuse, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 49, 273 (1970).

Lab Chip (1)

S. M. Harazim, V. A. Bolaños Quiñones, S. Kiravittaya, S. Sanchez, and O. G. Schmidt, Lab Chip 12, 2649 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (1)

E. J. Smith, S. Schulze, S. Kiravittaya, Y. F. Mei, S. Sanchez, and O. G. Schmidt, Nano Lett. 11, 4037 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

R. D. Kekatpure and M. L. Brongersma, Phys. Rev. A 78, 023829 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (2)

L. B. Ma, T. Schmidt, C. Jäger, and F. Huisken, Phys. Rev. B 82, 165411 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Strelow, C. M. Schultz, H. Rehberg, M. Sauer, H. Welsch, A. Stemmann, C. Heyn, D. Heitmann, and T. Kipp, Phys. Rev. B 85, 127403 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

T. Kipp, H. Welsch, C. Strelow, C. Heyn, and D. Heitmann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 077403 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Strelow, H. Rehberg, C. M. Schultz, H. Welsch, C. Heyn, D. Heitmann, and T. Kipp, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 127403 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Colored SEM image of a rolled-up vertical microcavity. The U-shaped pattern used for the roll-up is visible in the background. (b) PL emission signal of a rolled-up microcavity. Two fundamental mode peaks with a quality factor of 5400 followed by axial modes at shorter wavelengths are visible.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Ellipsometry measurement of the refractive index n and extinction coefficient κ of the electron beam deposited SiO2. (b) AFM measurement of the outer and inner tube wall roughness.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Schematic cross section of a VRUM (unscaled). (a) The radii R1 and R2 and wall thicknesses t1 and t2 of the thin- and thick-walled resonator parts are indicated. (b) The simplified geometry is used to calculate radiative losses for each part and (c) the waveguide geometry is used to calculate losses introduced by the two notches.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Rapid drop of the quality factor Qvoid with increasing void height was simulated by assuming Gaussian shaped voids, which symmetrically split-up the waveguide structure. The inset shows the simulated scattering of the electric field at a void height of 0.45 μm.

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

1/Q=1/Qabs.+1/Qrough.+1/Qrad.+1/Qnotch+1/Qvoid,

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