Abstract

Fresnel zone plates are used for imaging at extreme ultraviolet and soft x-ray wavelengths. Fabricating these zone plates is challenging due to small structure sizes (<150nm) and complex nanostructuring processes. Fabrication techniques such as electron-beam lithography followed by etching and electroplating processes have been developed over the years. We are reporting on the development of a technique incorporating focused gallium ion-beam lithography to fabricate Fresnel zone plates with 120 nm outermost structure size in a process that combines pattern exposure and structure transfer in one single step. The fabricated zone plates were successfully applied in a microscopic setup at λ=13nm wavelength.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. Attwood, Soft X-Rays and Extreme Ultraviolet Radiation: Principles and Applications, 1st ed. (Cambridge University, 2007).
  2. J. Reinspach, M. Lindblom, M. Bertilson, O. von Hofsten, H. M. Hertz, and A. Holmberg, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 29, 011012 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Sakdinawat and D. Attwood, Nat. Photonics 4, 840 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  4. L. Juschkin, A. Maryasov, S. Herbert, A. Aretz, K. Bergmann, and R. Lebert, in AIP Conference Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on X-Ray Microscopy (2010), Vol. 1365, p. 265.
  5. G. Schmahl, D. Rudolph, G. Schneider, J. Thieme, T. Schliebe, B. Kaulich, and M. Hettwer, Microelectron. Eng. 32, 351 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Mayer, C. Grevent, A. Szeghalmi, M. Knez, M. Weigand, S. Rehbein, G. Schneider, B. Baretzky, and G. Schütz, Ultramicroscopy 111, 1706 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. Lenz, T. Wilhein, and S. Irsen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 191118 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. Surpi, S. Valizadeh, K. Leifer, and S. Lagomarsino, J. Micromech. Microeng. 17, 617 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  9. P. P. Ilinski, B. P. Lai, N. J. Bassom, J. Donald, and G. J. Athas, Proc. SPIE 4145, 311 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  10. B. Henke, E. Gullikson, and J. Davis, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. Michette, J. X-Ray Sci. Technol. 2, 1 (1990).
    [CrossRef]

2011

M. Mayer, C. Grevent, A. Szeghalmi, M. Knez, M. Weigand, S. Rehbein, G. Schneider, B. Baretzky, and G. Schütz, Ultramicroscopy 111, 1706 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Reinspach, M. Lindblom, M. Bertilson, O. von Hofsten, H. M. Hertz, and A. Holmberg, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 29, 011012 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

A. Sakdinawat and D. Attwood, Nat. Photonics 4, 840 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

J. Lenz, T. Wilhein, and S. Irsen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 191118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007

A. Surpi, S. Valizadeh, K. Leifer, and S. Lagomarsino, J. Micromech. Microeng. 17, 617 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2001

P. P. Ilinski, B. P. Lai, N. J. Bassom, J. Donald, and G. J. Athas, Proc. SPIE 4145, 311 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1996

G. Schmahl, D. Rudolph, G. Schneider, J. Thieme, T. Schliebe, B. Kaulich, and M. Hettwer, Microelectron. Eng. 32, 351 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993

B. Henke, E. Gullikson, and J. Davis, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1990

A. Michette, J. X-Ray Sci. Technol. 2, 1 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Aretz, A.

L. Juschkin, A. Maryasov, S. Herbert, A. Aretz, K. Bergmann, and R. Lebert, in AIP Conference Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on X-Ray Microscopy (2010), Vol. 1365, p. 265.

Athas, G. J.

P. P. Ilinski, B. P. Lai, N. J. Bassom, J. Donald, and G. J. Athas, Proc. SPIE 4145, 311 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Attwood, D.

A. Sakdinawat and D. Attwood, Nat. Photonics 4, 840 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Attwood, Soft X-Rays and Extreme Ultraviolet Radiation: Principles and Applications, 1st ed. (Cambridge University, 2007).

Baretzky, B.

M. Mayer, C. Grevent, A. Szeghalmi, M. Knez, M. Weigand, S. Rehbein, G. Schneider, B. Baretzky, and G. Schütz, Ultramicroscopy 111, 1706 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bassom, N. J.

P. P. Ilinski, B. P. Lai, N. J. Bassom, J. Donald, and G. J. Athas, Proc. SPIE 4145, 311 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bergmann, K.

L. Juschkin, A. Maryasov, S. Herbert, A. Aretz, K. Bergmann, and R. Lebert, in AIP Conference Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on X-Ray Microscopy (2010), Vol. 1365, p. 265.

Bertilson, M.

J. Reinspach, M. Lindblom, M. Bertilson, O. von Hofsten, H. M. Hertz, and A. Holmberg, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 29, 011012 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Davis, J.

B. Henke, E. Gullikson, and J. Davis, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Donald, J.

P. P. Ilinski, B. P. Lai, N. J. Bassom, J. Donald, and G. J. Athas, Proc. SPIE 4145, 311 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Grevent, C.

M. Mayer, C. Grevent, A. Szeghalmi, M. Knez, M. Weigand, S. Rehbein, G. Schneider, B. Baretzky, and G. Schütz, Ultramicroscopy 111, 1706 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gullikson, E.

B. Henke, E. Gullikson, and J. Davis, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Henke, B.

B. Henke, E. Gullikson, and J. Davis, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Herbert, S.

L. Juschkin, A. Maryasov, S. Herbert, A. Aretz, K. Bergmann, and R. Lebert, in AIP Conference Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on X-Ray Microscopy (2010), Vol. 1365, p. 265.

Hertz, H. M.

J. Reinspach, M. Lindblom, M. Bertilson, O. von Hofsten, H. M. Hertz, and A. Holmberg, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 29, 011012 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hettwer, M.

G. Schmahl, D. Rudolph, G. Schneider, J. Thieme, T. Schliebe, B. Kaulich, and M. Hettwer, Microelectron. Eng. 32, 351 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Holmberg, A.

J. Reinspach, M. Lindblom, M. Bertilson, O. von Hofsten, H. M. Hertz, and A. Holmberg, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 29, 011012 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ilinski, P. P.

P. P. Ilinski, B. P. Lai, N. J. Bassom, J. Donald, and G. J. Athas, Proc. SPIE 4145, 311 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Irsen, S.

J. Lenz, T. Wilhein, and S. Irsen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 191118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Juschkin, L.

L. Juschkin, A. Maryasov, S. Herbert, A. Aretz, K. Bergmann, and R. Lebert, in AIP Conference Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on X-Ray Microscopy (2010), Vol. 1365, p. 265.

Kaulich, B.

G. Schmahl, D. Rudolph, G. Schneider, J. Thieme, T. Schliebe, B. Kaulich, and M. Hettwer, Microelectron. Eng. 32, 351 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Knez, M.

M. Mayer, C. Grevent, A. Szeghalmi, M. Knez, M. Weigand, S. Rehbein, G. Schneider, B. Baretzky, and G. Schütz, Ultramicroscopy 111, 1706 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lagomarsino, S.

A. Surpi, S. Valizadeh, K. Leifer, and S. Lagomarsino, J. Micromech. Microeng. 17, 617 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lai, B. P.

P. P. Ilinski, B. P. Lai, N. J. Bassom, J. Donald, and G. J. Athas, Proc. SPIE 4145, 311 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lebert, R.

L. Juschkin, A. Maryasov, S. Herbert, A. Aretz, K. Bergmann, and R. Lebert, in AIP Conference Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on X-Ray Microscopy (2010), Vol. 1365, p. 265.

Leifer, K.

A. Surpi, S. Valizadeh, K. Leifer, and S. Lagomarsino, J. Micromech. Microeng. 17, 617 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lenz, J.

J. Lenz, T. Wilhein, and S. Irsen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 191118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lindblom, M.

J. Reinspach, M. Lindblom, M. Bertilson, O. von Hofsten, H. M. Hertz, and A. Holmberg, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 29, 011012 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Maryasov, A.

L. Juschkin, A. Maryasov, S. Herbert, A. Aretz, K. Bergmann, and R. Lebert, in AIP Conference Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on X-Ray Microscopy (2010), Vol. 1365, p. 265.

Mayer, M.

M. Mayer, C. Grevent, A. Szeghalmi, M. Knez, M. Weigand, S. Rehbein, G. Schneider, B. Baretzky, and G. Schütz, Ultramicroscopy 111, 1706 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Michette, A.

A. Michette, J. X-Ray Sci. Technol. 2, 1 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Rehbein, S.

M. Mayer, C. Grevent, A. Szeghalmi, M. Knez, M. Weigand, S. Rehbein, G. Schneider, B. Baretzky, and G. Schütz, Ultramicroscopy 111, 1706 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Reinspach, J.

J. Reinspach, M. Lindblom, M. Bertilson, O. von Hofsten, H. M. Hertz, and A. Holmberg, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 29, 011012 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rudolph, D.

G. Schmahl, D. Rudolph, G. Schneider, J. Thieme, T. Schliebe, B. Kaulich, and M. Hettwer, Microelectron. Eng. 32, 351 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sakdinawat, A.

A. Sakdinawat and D. Attwood, Nat. Photonics 4, 840 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schliebe, T.

G. Schmahl, D. Rudolph, G. Schneider, J. Thieme, T. Schliebe, B. Kaulich, and M. Hettwer, Microelectron. Eng. 32, 351 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Schmahl, G.

G. Schmahl, D. Rudolph, G. Schneider, J. Thieme, T. Schliebe, B. Kaulich, and M. Hettwer, Microelectron. Eng. 32, 351 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, G.

M. Mayer, C. Grevent, A. Szeghalmi, M. Knez, M. Weigand, S. Rehbein, G. Schneider, B. Baretzky, and G. Schütz, Ultramicroscopy 111, 1706 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Schmahl, D. Rudolph, G. Schneider, J. Thieme, T. Schliebe, B. Kaulich, and M. Hettwer, Microelectron. Eng. 32, 351 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Schütz, G.

M. Mayer, C. Grevent, A. Szeghalmi, M. Knez, M. Weigand, S. Rehbein, G. Schneider, B. Baretzky, and G. Schütz, Ultramicroscopy 111, 1706 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Surpi, A.

A. Surpi, S. Valizadeh, K. Leifer, and S. Lagomarsino, J. Micromech. Microeng. 17, 617 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Szeghalmi, A.

M. Mayer, C. Grevent, A. Szeghalmi, M. Knez, M. Weigand, S. Rehbein, G. Schneider, B. Baretzky, and G. Schütz, Ultramicroscopy 111, 1706 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Thieme, J.

G. Schmahl, D. Rudolph, G. Schneider, J. Thieme, T. Schliebe, B. Kaulich, and M. Hettwer, Microelectron. Eng. 32, 351 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Valizadeh, S.

A. Surpi, S. Valizadeh, K. Leifer, and S. Lagomarsino, J. Micromech. Microeng. 17, 617 (2007).
[CrossRef]

von Hofsten, O.

J. Reinspach, M. Lindblom, M. Bertilson, O. von Hofsten, H. M. Hertz, and A. Holmberg, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 29, 011012 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Weigand, M.

M. Mayer, C. Grevent, A. Szeghalmi, M. Knez, M. Weigand, S. Rehbein, G. Schneider, B. Baretzky, and G. Schütz, Ultramicroscopy 111, 1706 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wilhein, T.

J. Lenz, T. Wilhein, and S. Irsen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 191118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

J. Lenz, T. Wilhein, and S. Irsen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 191118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

At. Data Nucl. Data Tables

B. Henke, E. Gullikson, and J. Davis, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Micromech. Microeng.

A. Surpi, S. Valizadeh, K. Leifer, and S. Lagomarsino, J. Micromech. Microeng. 17, 617 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B

J. Reinspach, M. Lindblom, M. Bertilson, O. von Hofsten, H. M. Hertz, and A. Holmberg, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 29, 011012 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. X-Ray Sci. Technol.

A. Michette, J. X-Ray Sci. Technol. 2, 1 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Microelectron. Eng.

G. Schmahl, D. Rudolph, G. Schneider, J. Thieme, T. Schliebe, B. Kaulich, and M. Hettwer, Microelectron. Eng. 32, 351 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics

A. Sakdinawat and D. Attwood, Nat. Photonics 4, 840 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

P. P. Ilinski, B. P. Lai, N. J. Bassom, J. Donald, and G. J. Athas, Proc. SPIE 4145, 311 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ultramicroscopy

M. Mayer, C. Grevent, A. Szeghalmi, M. Knez, M. Weigand, S. Rehbein, G. Schneider, B. Baretzky, and G. Schütz, Ultramicroscopy 111, 1706 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Other

L. Juschkin, A. Maryasov, S. Herbert, A. Aretz, K. Bergmann, and R. Lebert, in AIP Conference Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on X-Ray Microscopy (2010), Vol. 1365, p. 265.

D. Attwood, Soft X-Rays and Extreme Ultraviolet Radiation: Principles and Applications, 1st ed. (Cambridge University, 2007).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Scanning electron microscope images of zone plates M52 (a)–(c) and W2 (d). (a) M52: the inner 20 zones were left out for placing the drift correction mark in the center of the write field. Drift correction was performed every eight zones (7.5 min). Measured structure height=113nm. The dark ring at r/2 of the zone plate is due to a short instability of the ion source. (d) W2: basic dose was 62mC/cm2, increased gradually to 80mC/cm2 for the outer structures to increase zone quality. Measured structure height=260nm.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Scheme of the microscope setup. The EUV light from the laser plasma source (LIP) is filtered by a 200 nm Zr foil. MoSi multilayer mirrors are used as condenser system. An MZP is used to image the object (Obj) on a CCD detector. To suppress the zeroth order of diffraction, a sharp edge is used as central stop (MS).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Full field x-ray microscopic images acquired with IBL-fabricated zone plates and corresponding plots showing edge profiles and visible feature sizes (ImageJ, averaged over five lines). (a) Zone plate: W2. Object: diatoms on 2000 mesh copper grid. Magnification: 859-fold. Exposure time: 30 min. Binning 2×2. (b) Zone plate: M52. Object: diatoms on 400 mesh lacey carbon film. Magnification: 698-fold. Exposure time: 15 min. No binning.

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