Abstract

Herein we propose, theoretically investigate, and numerically demonstrate the first use to our knowledge of frequency chirping to achieve broadband, efficient subwavelength vertical emission from a dielectric waveguide. We demonstrate this unique and effective approach in the telecom C band in a nanophotonic frequency-chirped dipole antenna. The structure utilizes a plasmonic antenna placed above an Si3N4 waveguide and a ground plane to enhance emission efficiency. Three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain simulations reveal up to 55% vertical emission efficiency, and a bandwidth of 500 nm is possible in a structure less than half a wavelength long. The design methodology and theoretical underpinnings of frequency-chirped nanophotonic antennas coupled to dielectric waveguides are presented.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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2012

2011

D. Dregely, R. Taubert, J. Dorfmuller, R. Vogelgesang, K. Kern, and H. Giessen, Nat. Commun. 2, 267 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Doylend, M. J. R. Heck, J. T. Bovington, J. D. Peters, L. A. Coldren, and J. E. Bowers, Opt. Express 19, 21595 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Roelkens, D. Vermeulen, S. Selvaraja, R. Halir, W. Bogaerts, and D. V. Thourhout, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 571 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

2007

J. Li and N. Engheta, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 55, 3018 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Roelkens, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, Opt. Lett. 32, 1495 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005

B. Wang, J. Jiang, and G. P. Nordin, IEEE Photonics. Technol. Lett. 17, 1884 (2005).
[CrossRef]

1997

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J. P. Laine, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 998 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1991

H. A. Haus and W. P. Huang, Proc. IEEE 79, 1505 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Acoleyen, K. V.

Baets, R.

Bogaerts, W.

G. Roelkens, D. Vermeulen, S. Selvaraja, R. Halir, W. Bogaerts, and D. V. Thourhout, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 571 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bovington, J. T.

Bowers, J. E.

Chu, S. T.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J. P. Laine, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 998 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Coldren, L. A.

Dorfmuller, J.

D. Dregely, R. Taubert, J. Dorfmuller, R. Vogelgesang, K. Kern, and H. Giessen, Nat. Commun. 2, 267 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Doylend, J. K.

Dregely, D.

D. Dregely, R. Taubert, J. Dorfmuller, R. Vogelgesang, K. Kern, and H. Giessen, Nat. Commun. 2, 267 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Engheta, N.

J. Li and N. Engheta, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 55, 3018 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fan, M.

M. Fan, M. A. Popović, and F. X. Kärtner, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper CTuDD3.

Foresi, J.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J. P. Laine, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 998 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Giessen, H.

D. Dregely, R. Taubert, J. Dorfmuller, R. Vogelgesang, K. Kern, and H. Giessen, Nat. Commun. 2, 267 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Halir, R.

G. Roelkens, D. Vermeulen, S. Selvaraja, R. Halir, W. Bogaerts, and D. V. Thourhout, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 571 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Haus, H. A.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J. P. Laine, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 998 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Haus and W. P. Huang, Proc. IEEE 79, 1505 (1991).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Haus, in Waves and Fields in Optoelectronics(Prentice-Hall, 1984), pp. 197–207.

Heck, M. J. R.

Hofmann, H. F.

T. Kosako, Y. Kadoya, and H. F. Hofmann, Nat. Photonics 4, 312 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Huang, W. P.

H. A. Haus and W. P. Huang, Proc. IEEE 79, 1505 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, J.

B. Wang, J. Jiang, and G. P. Nordin, IEEE Photonics. Technol. Lett. 17, 1884 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kadoya, Y.

T. Kosako, Y. Kadoya, and H. F. Hofmann, Nat. Photonics 4, 312 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kärtner, F. X.

M. Fan, M. A. Popović, and F. X. Kärtner, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper CTuDD3.

Kern, K.

D. Dregely, R. Taubert, J. Dorfmuller, R. Vogelgesang, K. Kern, and H. Giessen, Nat. Commun. 2, 267 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kintaka, K.

Kita, Y.

Kosako, T.

T. Kosako, Y. Kadoya, and H. F. Hofmann, Nat. Photonics 4, 312 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Laine, J. P.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J. P. Laine, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 998 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

J. Li and N. Engheta, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 55, 3018 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Little, B. E.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J. P. Laine, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 998 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Matsuoka, H.

Nishii, J.

Nordin, G. P.

B. Wang, J. Jiang, and G. P. Nordin, IEEE Photonics. Technol. Lett. 17, 1884 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Peters, J. D.

Philipp, H. R.

H. R. Philipp, in Handbook of Opt. Const. of Solids, E. D. Palik, ed. (Elsevier, 1998), pp. 760–774.

Popovic, M. A.

M. Fan, M. A. Popović, and F. X. Kärtner, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper CTuDD3.

Roelkens, G.

G. Roelkens, D. Vermeulen, S. Selvaraja, R. Halir, W. Bogaerts, and D. V. Thourhout, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 571 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Roelkens, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, Opt. Lett. 32, 1495 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rogier, H.

Selvaraja, S.

G. Roelkens, D. Vermeulen, S. Selvaraja, R. Halir, W. Bogaerts, and D. V. Thourhout, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 571 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shimizu, K.

Taubert, R.

D. Dregely, R. Taubert, J. Dorfmuller, R. Vogelgesang, K. Kern, and H. Giessen, Nat. Commun. 2, 267 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Thourhout, D. V.

G. Roelkens, D. Vermeulen, S. Selvaraja, R. Halir, W. Bogaerts, and D. V. Thourhout, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 571 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Roelkens, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, Opt. Lett. 32, 1495 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Timurdogan, E.

Ura, S.

Vermeulen, D.

G. Roelkens, D. Vermeulen, S. Selvaraja, R. Halir, W. Bogaerts, and D. V. Thourhout, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 571 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Vogelgesang, R.

D. Dregely, R. Taubert, J. Dorfmuller, R. Vogelgesang, K. Kern, and H. Giessen, Nat. Commun. 2, 267 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, B.

B. Wang, J. Jiang, and G. P. Nordin, IEEE Photonics. Technol. Lett. 17, 1884 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Watts, M.

Yaacobi, A.

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

G. Roelkens, D. Vermeulen, S. Selvaraja, R. Halir, W. Bogaerts, and D. V. Thourhout, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 571 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics. Technol. Lett.

B. Wang, J. Jiang, and G. P. Nordin, IEEE Photonics. Technol. Lett. 17, 1884 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag.

J. Li and N. Engheta, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 55, 3018 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J. P. Laine, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 998 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Commun.

D. Dregely, R. Taubert, J. Dorfmuller, R. Vogelgesang, K. Kern, and H. Giessen, Nat. Commun. 2, 267 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics

T. Kosako, Y. Kadoya, and H. F. Hofmann, Nat. Photonics 4, 312 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Proc. IEEE

H. A. Haus and W. P. Huang, Proc. IEEE 79, 1505 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Other

H. R. Philipp, in Handbook of Opt. Const. of Solids, E. D. Palik, ed. (Elsevier, 1998), pp. 760–774.

H. A. Haus, in Waves and Fields in Optoelectronics(Prentice-Hall, 1984), pp. 197–207.

M. Fan, M. A. Popović, and F. X. Kärtner, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper CTuDD3.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Side view of a single resonator (here a dipole) driven by a plane wavefront, (b) a set of chirped resonators design for right-angle wave coupling driven with the same source as (a), and (c) side and top view of a set of resonators designed for vertical coupling from a waveguide to free space. Total structure length is smaller than λ/2neff.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Amplitude R (top) and phase Δφ (bottom) versus rod length for lateral repetition of specified number of rods and wavelength of 1550 nm (a three-rod example is shown on the right).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Simulated vertical emission for different structures, each with a ground plane and (b) final structure with the time-integrated field box around it. (c) Free-space far-field pattern of the same structure at λ=1550nm.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ddta=(jω01τ)ajμs,
a=jμsj(ωω0)+1/τsRejΔφ,
daidt=(jωi1τi)aijkμikak,

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