Abstract

Excited by a 980 nm laser, upconversion emissions centered at 384 (Er3+:G411/2I415/2) and 408 nm (Er3+:H29/2I415/2) in Er3+/Yb3+ codoped polycrystalline CaWO4 were successfully obtained. The G11/24 and H9/22 states of Er3+ were verified to be thermally coupled levels, which can emit the shortest wavelength emissions for optical thermometry known so far. Based on the change of their intensity ratio with temperature, an excellent optical thermometer can be designed, which can provide accurate temperature measurement from room temperature up to 873 K. More importantly, the sensitivity achieved here is much higher than reported temperature sensors based on Er3+ green luminescence.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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X. Wang, X. G. Kong, Y. Yu, Y. J. Sun, and H. Zhang, J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 15119 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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W. Xu, X. Y. Gao, L. J. Zheng, Z. G. Zhang, and W. W. Cao, Sens. Actuators B 173, 250 (2012) .
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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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P.V. dos Santos, M. T. de Araujo, A. S. Gouveia-Neto, J. A. Medeiros Neto, and A. S. B. Sombra, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 578 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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M. P. Hehlen, N. J. Cockroft, T. R. Gosnell, and A. J. Bruce, Phys. Rev. B 56, 9302 (1997).
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X. Wang, X. G. Kong, Y. Yu, Y. J. Sun, and H. Zhang, J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 15119 (2007).
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S. F. León-Luis, U. R. Rodríguez-Mendoza, E. Lalla, and V. Lavín, Sens. Actuators B 158, 208 (2011).
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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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Maciel, G. S.

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[CrossRef]

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N. Rakov and G. S. Maciel, Sens. Actuators B 164, 96 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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S. F. León-Luis, U. R. Rodríguez-Mendoza, E. Lalla, and V. Lavín, Sens. Actuators B 158, 208 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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Sombra, A. S. B.

P.V. dos Santos, M. T. de Araujo, A. S. Gouveia-Neto, J. A. Medeiros Neto, and A. S. B. Sombra, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 578 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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X. Wang, X. G. Kong, Y. Yu, Y. J. Sun, and H. Zhang, J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 15119 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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S. A. Wade, S. F. Collins, and G. W. Baxter, J. Appl. Phys. 94, 4743 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wang, P.

W. Xu, X. Y. Gao, L. J. Zheng, P. Wang, Z. G. Zhang, and W. W. Cao, Appl. Phys. Express 5, 072201 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

X. Wang, X. G. Kong, Y. Yu, Y. J. Sun, and H. Zhang, J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 15119 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Xu, W.

W. Xu, X. Y. Gao, L. J. Zheng, Z. G. Zhang, and W. W. Cao, Sens. Actuators B 173, 250 (2012) .
[CrossRef]

W. Xu, X. Y. Gao, L. J. Zheng, P. Wang, Z. G. Zhang, and W. W. Cao, Appl. Phys. Express 5, 072201 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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X. Wang, X. G. Kong, Y. Yu, Y. J. Sun, and H. Zhang, J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 15119 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, D. S.

Zhang, H.

X. Wang, X. G. Kong, Y. Yu, Y. J. Sun, and H. Zhang, J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 15119 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Z. G.

W. Xu, X. Y. Gao, L. J. Zheng, P. Wang, Z. G. Zhang, and W. W. Cao, Appl. Phys. Express 5, 072201 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. Xu, X. Y. Gao, L. J. Zheng, Z. G. Zhang, and W. W. Cao, Sens. Actuators B 173, 250 (2012) .
[CrossRef]

Zhao, D.

Zheng, K. Z.

Zheng, L. J.

W. Xu, X. Y. Gao, L. J. Zheng, P. Wang, Z. G. Zhang, and W. W. Cao, Appl. Phys. Express 5, 072201 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. Xu, X. Y. Gao, L. J. Zheng, Z. G. Zhang, and W. W. Cao, Sens. Actuators B 173, 250 (2012) .
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Express

W. Xu, X. Y. Gao, L. J. Zheng, P. Wang, Z. G. Zhang, and W. W. Cao, Appl. Phys. Express 5, 072201 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

M. A. R. C. Alencar, G. S. Maciel, C. B. de Araújo, and A. Patra, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4753 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P.V. dos Santos, M. T. de Araujo, A. S. Gouveia-Neto, J. A. Medeiros Neto, and A. S. B. Sombra, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 578 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

S. A. Wade, S. F. Collins, and G. W. Baxter, J. Appl. Phys. 94, 4743 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. C

X. Wang, X. G. Kong, Y. Yu, Y. J. Sun, and H. Zhang, J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 15119 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. B

M. P. Hehlen, N. J. Cockroft, T. R. Gosnell, and A. J. Bruce, Phys. Rev. B 56, 9302 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators B

W. Xu, X. Y. Gao, L. J. Zheng, Z. G. Zhang, and W. W. Cao, Sens. Actuators B 173, 250 (2012) .
[CrossRef]

S. F. León-Luis, U. R. Rodríguez-Mendoza, E. Lalla, and V. Lavín, Sens. Actuators B 158, 208 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Rakov and G. S. Maciel, Sens. Actuators B 164, 96 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

UC emission spectra of Er 3 + / Yb 3 + codoped polycrystalline CaWO 4 under 980 nm laser excitation with the power of 100 mW.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Energy level diagram of Er 3 + and Yb 3 + as well as the proposed UC mechanisms; inset figure shows the log-log plots of UC emission intensity as a function of a 980 nm laser pumping power.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) The normalized short-wavelength UC emission spectra at 303 and 873 K and (b) FIR between the 384 and 408 nm emissions as a function of temperature in the range of 303–873 K.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Calculated relative sensitivity (curve) and the measured values (squares) for the sample at temperatures from 303 to 873 K.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Sensitivities of Optical Temperature Sensors Based on the Short-Wavelength and the Green UC Fluorescence of Materials with Er 3 + as Activator

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

FIR I i / I j = A exp ( Δ E / k B T ) + B ,
S a Δ E / k B T 2 .
S r FIR × Δ E / k B T 2 .
Δ T = Δ FIR × k B T 2 / FIR × Δ E .

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