Abstract

A simple and low-cost vibration sensor based on single-mode nonadiabatic fiber tapers is proposed and demonstrated. The environmental vibrations can be detected by demodulating the transmission loss of the nonadiabatic fiber taper. Theoretical simulations show that the transmission loss is related to the microbending of the fiber taper induced by vibrations. Unlike interferometric sensors, this vibration sensor does not need any feedback loop to control the quadrature point to obtain a stable performance. In addition, it has no requirement for the coherence of the light source and is insensitive to temperature changes. Experimental results show that this sensing system has a wide frequency response range from a few hertz to tens of kilohertz with the maximal signal to noise ratio up to 73 dB.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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F. Xie, Z. Chen, J. Ren, and Q. Feng, Opt. Eng. 48, 043608 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Lam, K. T. Lau, H. Y. Ling, Z. Q. Su, and H. Y. Tam, Opt. Laser Eng. 47, 1049 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

T. Guo, A. Ivanov, C. Chen, and J. Albert, Opt. Lett. 33, 1004 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Wild and S. Hinckley, IEEE Sens. J. 8, 1184 (2008).
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H. Tsuda, Compos. Sci. Technol. 66, 676 (2006).
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T. S. Jang, S. S. Lee, and Y. G. Kim, Ultrasonics 42, 837 (2004).
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R. Chen, G. F. Fernando, T. Butler, and R. A. Badcock, Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 1490 (2004).
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Y. N. Zhu, P. Shum, C. Lu, M. B. Lacquet, P. L. Swart, and S. J. Spammer, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1437(2003).
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1991

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Albert, J.

Araujo, L.

Azmi, A. I.

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R. Chen, G. F. Fernando, T. Butler, and R. A. Badcock, Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 1490 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bao, X.

Barton, J. S.

A. Fender, W. N. Macpherson, R. R. J. Maier, J. S. Barton, D. S. George, R. I. Howden, G. W. Smith, B. J. S. Jones, S. Mcculloch, X. Chen, R. Suo, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, IEEE Sensors J. 8, 1292 (2008).
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A. Fender, W. N. Macpherson, R. R. J. Maier, J. S. Barton, D. S. George, R. I. Howden, G. W. Smith, B. J. S. Jones, S. Mcculloch, X. Chen, R. Suo, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, IEEE Sensors J. 8, 1292 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bouwmans, G.

Butler, T.

R. Chen, G. F. Fernando, T. Butler, and R. A. Badcock, Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 1490 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Canning, J.

Chan, C. C.

W. Zhou, X. Dong, K. Ni, C. C. Chan, and P. Shum, Sensor Actuators A: Phys 157, 15 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C.

Chen, R.

R. Chen, G. F. Fernando, T. Butler, and R. A. Badcock, Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 1490 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X.

A. Fender, W. N. Macpherson, R. R. J. Maier, J. S. Barton, D. S. George, R. I. Howden, G. W. Smith, B. J. S. Jones, S. Mcculloch, X. Chen, R. Suo, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, IEEE Sensors J. 8, 1292 (2008).
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Chen, Z.

F. Xie, Z. Chen, J. Ren, and Q. Feng, Opt. Eng. 48, 043608 (2009).
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Chtcherbakov, A. A.

Claus, R. O.

Dong, X.

W. Zhou, X. Dong, K. Ni, C. C. Chan, and P. Shum, Sensor Actuators A: Phys 157, 15 (2010).
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J. F. Dorighi, S. Krishnaswamy, and J. D. Achenbach, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 42, 820 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Elliott, S. R.

Favero, F. C.

Fender, A.

A. Fender, W. N. Macpherson, R. R. J. Maier, J. S. Barton, D. S. George, R. I. Howden, G. W. Smith, B. J. S. Jones, S. Mcculloch, X. Chen, R. Suo, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, IEEE Sensors J. 8, 1292 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Feng, Q.

F. Xie, Z. Chen, J. Ren, and Q. Feng, Opt. Eng. 48, 043608 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fernando, G. F.

R. Chen, G. F. Fernando, T. Butler, and R. A. Badcock, Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 1490 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Finazzi, V.

George, D. S.

A. Fender, W. N. Macpherson, R. R. J. Maier, J. S. Barton, D. S. George, R. I. Howden, G. W. Smith, B. J. S. Jones, S. Mcculloch, X. Chen, R. Suo, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, IEEE Sensors J. 8, 1292 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gunther, M. F.

Guo, H.

Guo, T.

Y. Huang, T. Guo, C. Lu, and H. Y. Tam, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1235 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Guo, A. Ivanov, C. Chen, and J. Albert, Opt. Lett. 33, 1004 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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Hinckley, S.

G. Wild and S. Hinckley, IEEE Sens. J. 8, 1184 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hong, X.

Horinaka, H.

Howden, R. I.

A. Fender, W. N. Macpherson, R. R. J. Maier, J. S. Barton, D. S. George, R. I. Howden, G. W. Smith, B. J. S. Jones, S. Mcculloch, X. Chen, R. Suo, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, IEEE Sensors J. 8, 1292 (2008).
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Y. Huang, T. Guo, C. Lu, and H. Y. Tam, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1235 (2010).
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Jang, T. S.

T. S. Jang, S. S. Lee, and Y. G. Kim, Ultrasonics 42, 837 (2004).
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Jones, B. J. S.

A. Fender, W. N. Macpherson, R. R. J. Maier, J. S. Barton, D. S. George, R. I. Howden, G. W. Smith, B. J. S. Jones, S. Mcculloch, X. Chen, R. Suo, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, IEEE Sensors J. 8, 1292 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y. G.

T. S. Jang, S. S. Lee, and Y. G. Kim, Ultrasonics 42, 837 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Krishnaswamy, S.

J. F. Dorighi, S. Krishnaswamy, and J. D. Achenbach, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 42, 820 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lacquet, M. B.

Y. N. Zhu, P. Shum, C. Lu, M. B. Lacquet, P. L. Swart, and S. J. Spammer, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1437(2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhu, P. Shum, C. Lu, M. B. Lacquet, P. L. Swart, A. A. Chtcherbakov, and S. J. Spammer, Opt. Express 11, 1918 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lam, P. M.

P. M. Lam, K. T. Lau, H. Y. Ling, Z. Q. Su, and H. Y. Tam, Opt. Laser Eng. 47, 1049 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lau, K. T.

P. M. Lam, K. T. Lau, H. Y. Ling, Z. Q. Su, and H. Y. Tam, Opt. Laser Eng. 47, 1049 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. S.

T. S. Jang, S. S. Lee, and Y. G. Kim, Ultrasonics 42, 837 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

Ling, H. Y.

P. M. Lam, K. T. Lau, H. Y. Ling, Z. Q. Su, and H. Y. Tam, Opt. Laser Eng. 47, 1049 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, D.

Q. Sun, D. Liu, J. Wang, and H. Liu, Opt. Commun. 281, 1538 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, F.

Liu, H.

Q. Sun, D. Liu, J. Wang, and H. Liu, Opt. Commun. 281, 1538 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Love, J. D.

A. W. Snyder and J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory (Chapman and Hall, 1983).

Lu, C.

Y. Huang, T. Guo, C. Lu, and H. Y. Tam, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1235 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhu, P. Shum, C. Lu, M. B. Lacquet, P. L. Swart, A. A. Chtcherbakov, and S. J. Spammer, Opt. Express 11, 1918 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. N. Zhu, P. Shum, C. Lu, M. B. Lacquet, P. L. Swart, and S. J. Spammer, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1437(2003).
[CrossRef]

Macpherson, W. N.

A. Fender, W. N. Macpherson, R. R. J. Maier, J. S. Barton, D. S. George, R. I. Howden, G. W. Smith, B. J. S. Jones, S. Mcculloch, X. Chen, R. Suo, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, IEEE Sensors J. 8, 1292 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Maier, R. R. J.

A. Fender, W. N. Macpherson, R. R. J. Maier, J. S. Barton, D. S. George, R. I. Howden, G. W. Smith, B. J. S. Jones, S. Mcculloch, X. Chen, R. Suo, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, IEEE Sensors J. 8, 1292 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Matsuyama, T.

Mcculloch, S.

A. Fender, W. N. Macpherson, R. R. J. Maier, J. S. Barton, D. S. George, R. I. Howden, G. W. Smith, B. J. S. Jones, S. Mcculloch, X. Chen, R. Suo, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, IEEE Sensors J. 8, 1292 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Murphy, K. A.

Narui, H.

Ni, K.

W. Zhou, X. Dong, K. Ni, C. C. Chan, and P. Shum, Sensor Actuators A: Phys 157, 15 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Peng, G.

Pruneri, V.

Ren, J.

F. Xie, Z. Chen, J. Ren, and Q. Feng, Opt. Eng. 48, 043608 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Saha, P.

P. Saha, “Noise analysis of a suspended high power Michelson interferometer,” Ph.D. dissertation (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1997).

Sen, D.

Sheng, W.

Shum, P.

W. Zhou, X. Dong, K. Ni, C. C. Chan, and P. Shum, Sensor Actuators A: Phys 157, 15 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. N. Zhu, P. Shum, C. Lu, M. B. Lacquet, P. L. Swart, and S. J. Spammer, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1437(2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhu, P. Shum, C. Lu, M. B. Lacquet, P. L. Swart, A. A. Chtcherbakov, and S. J. Spammer, Opt. Express 11, 1918 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Smith, G. W.

A. Fender, W. N. Macpherson, R. R. J. Maier, J. S. Barton, D. S. George, R. I. Howden, G. W. Smith, B. J. S. Jones, S. Mcculloch, X. Chen, R. Suo, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, IEEE Sensors J. 8, 1292 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Snyder, A. W.

A. W. Snyder and J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory (Chapman and Hall, 1983).

Spammer, S. J.

Y. Zhu, P. Shum, C. Lu, M. B. Lacquet, P. L. Swart, A. A. Chtcherbakov, and S. J. Spammer, Opt. Express 11, 1918 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. N. Zhu, P. Shum, C. Lu, M. B. Lacquet, P. L. Swart, and S. J. Spammer, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1437(2003).
[CrossRef]

Su, L.

Su, Z. Q.

P. M. Lam, K. T. Lau, H. Y. Ling, Z. Q. Su, and H. Y. Tam, Opt. Laser Eng. 47, 1049 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Q.

Q. Sun, D. Liu, J. Wang, and H. Liu, Opt. Commun. 281, 1538 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Suo, R.

A. Fender, W. N. Macpherson, R. R. J. Maier, J. S. Barton, D. S. George, R. I. Howden, G. W. Smith, B. J. S. Jones, S. Mcculloch, X. Chen, R. Suo, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, IEEE Sensors J. 8, 1292 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Swart, P. L.

Y. N. Zhu, P. Shum, C. Lu, M. B. Lacquet, P. L. Swart, and S. J. Spammer, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1437(2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhu, P. Shum, C. Lu, M. B. Lacquet, P. L. Swart, A. A. Chtcherbakov, and S. J. Spammer, Opt. Express 11, 1918 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tam, H. Y.

Y. Huang, T. Guo, C. Lu, and H. Y. Tam, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1235 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Lam, K. T. Lau, H. Y. Ling, Z. Q. Su, and H. Y. Tam, Opt. Laser Eng. 47, 1049 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tsuda, H.

H. Tsuda, Opt. Lett. 35, 2349 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Tsuda, Compos. Sci. Technol. 66, 676 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vengsarkar, A. M.

Villatoro, J.

Wada, K.

Wang, J.

Q. Sun, D. Liu, J. Wang, and H. Liu, Opt. Commun. 281, 1538 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

Wild, G.

G. Wild and S. Hinckley, IEEE Sens. J. 8, 1184 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wu, J.

Xie, F.

F. Xie, Z. Chen, J. Ren, and Q. Feng, Opt. Eng. 48, 043608 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xu, K.

Yamamoto, D.

Zhang, L.

A. Fender, W. N. Macpherson, R. R. J. Maier, J. S. Barton, D. S. George, R. I. Howden, G. W. Smith, B. J. S. Jones, S. Mcculloch, X. Chen, R. Suo, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, IEEE Sensors J. 8, 1292 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, W.

W. Zhou, X. Dong, K. Ni, C. C. Chan, and P. Shum, Sensor Actuators A: Phys 157, 15 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, Y.

Zhu, Y. N.

Y. N. Zhu, P. Shum, C. Lu, M. B. Lacquet, P. L. Swart, and S. J. Spammer, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1437(2003).
[CrossRef]

Zuo, C.

Appl. Opt.

Compos. Sci. Technol.

H. Tsuda, Compos. Sci. Technol. 66, 676 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

Y. N. Zhu, P. Shum, C. Lu, M. B. Lacquet, P. L. Swart, and S. J. Spammer, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1437(2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Huang, T. Guo, C. Lu, and H. Y. Tam, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1235 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Sens. J.

G. Wild and S. Hinckley, IEEE Sens. J. 8, 1184 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Sensors J.

A. Fender, W. N. Macpherson, R. R. J. Maier, J. S. Barton, D. S. George, R. I. Howden, G. W. Smith, B. J. S. Jones, S. Mcculloch, X. Chen, R. Suo, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, IEEE Sensors J. 8, 1292 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control

J. F. Dorighi, S. Krishnaswamy, and J. D. Achenbach, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 42, 820 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

Meas. Sci. Technol.

R. Chen, G. F. Fernando, T. Butler, and R. A. Badcock, Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 1490 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

Q. Sun, D. Liu, J. Wang, and H. Liu, Opt. Commun. 281, 1538 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

F. Xie, Z. Chen, J. Ren, and Q. Feng, Opt. Eng. 48, 043608 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Laser Eng.

P. M. Lam, K. T. Lau, H. Y. Ling, Z. Q. Su, and H. Y. Tam, Opt. Laser Eng. 47, 1049 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Sensor Actuators A: Phys

W. Zhou, X. Dong, K. Ni, C. C. Chan, and P. Shum, Sensor Actuators A: Phys 157, 15 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ultrasonics

T. S. Jang, S. S. Lee, and Y. G. Kim, Ultrasonics 42, 837 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other

P. Saha, “Noise analysis of a suspended high power Michelson interferometer,” Ph.D. dissertation (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1997).

A. W. Snyder and J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory (Chapman and Hall, 1983).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Side view of the nonadiabatic tapered fiber in optical microscopy. (b) Experimental setup for acoustic vibration sensing.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Responses of acoustic vibration sensor to speaker driven by a 5 V, 1 kHz sinusoidal wave in (a) time and (b) corresponding frequency domain.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Amplitude distribution of a nonadiabatic tapered fiber in the xy plane calculated by WABPM. The red and white solid lines indicate the profiles of core and cladding, respectively. (b) Transmission power of the nonadiabatic taper with different bending angles.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Impulse responses of the sensor in signal (a) time domain and (b) corresponding frequency domain. The red dashed line stands for the background level.

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