Abstract

Defect-mediated subbandgap absorption is observed in ion-implanted silicon-on-oxide waveguides that experience a rapid thermal annealing at 1075°C. With this effect, general carrier-depletion silicon modulators exhibit the capability of optical power monitoring. Responsivity is measured to be 22mA/W for a 3 mm long Mach–Zehnder modulator of 2×1018cm3 doping concentration at 7.1V bias voltage and 5.9mA/W for a ring modulator of 1×1018cm3 doping concentration at 10V bias voltage. The former is used to demonstrate data detection of up to 35Gbits/s.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. Michel, J. Liu, and L. C. Kimerling, Nat. Photonics 4, 527 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. Chen, X. Luo, and A. W. Poon, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 171111 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  8. M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, J. U. Yoon, D. M. Lennon, S. Deneault, F. Gan, F. X. Kaertner, and T. M. Lyszczarz, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 152 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, M. E. Grein, R. J. Schulein, J. U. Yoon, D. M. Lennon, C. M. Wynn, S. T. Palmacci, F. Gan, F. X. Käertner, and T. M. Lyszczarz, Opt. Express 15, 16886 (2007).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  16. H. Yu, M. Pantouvaki, J. Van Campenhout, D. Korn, K. Komorowska, P. Dumon, Y. Li, P. Verheyen, P. Absil, L. Alloatti, D. Hillerkuss, J. Leuthold, R. Baets, and W. Bogaerts, Opt. Express 20, 12926 (2012).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (1)

2010 (7)

J. K. Doylend, P. E. Jessop, and A. P. Knights, Opt. Express 18, 14671 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Doylend, A. P. Knights, B. J. Luff, R. Shafiiha, M. Asghari, and R. M. Gwilliam, Electron. Lett. 46, 234 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Michel, J. Liu, and L. C. Kimerling, Nat. Photonics 4, 527 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Chen and A. W. Poon, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 191106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. D. Haret, X. Checoury, Z. Han, P. Boucaud, S. Combrié, and A. De Rossi, Opt. Express 18, 23965 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Tanabe, H. Sumikura, H. Taniyama, A. Shinya, and M. Notomi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 101103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. F. Logan, P. Velha, M. Sorel, R. M. De La Rue, A. P. Knights, and P. E. Jessop, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1530 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

2008 (1)

2007 (2)

M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, J. U. Yoon, D. M. Lennon, S. Deneault, F. Gan, F. X. Kaertner, and T. M. Lyszczarz, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 152 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, M. E. Grein, R. J. Schulein, J. U. Yoon, D. M. Lennon, C. M. Wynn, S. T. Palmacci, F. Gan, F. X. Käertner, and T. M. Lyszczarz, Opt. Express 15, 16886 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

Y. Liu, C. W. Cho, W. Y. Cheung, and H. K. Tsang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1882 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

J. D. B. Bradley, P. E. Jessop, and A. P. Knights, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 241103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Absil, P.

H. Yu, M. Pantouvaki, J. Van Campenhout, D. Korn, K. Komorowska, P. Dumon, Y. Li, P. Verheyen, P. Absil, L. Alloatti, D. Hillerkuss, J. Leuthold, R. Baets, and W. Bogaerts, Opt. Express 20, 12926 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Pantouvaki, H. Yu, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, W. Bogaerts, M. Moelants, J. Wouters, D. Radisic, P. Absil, and J. Van Campenhout, in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Optical Interconncects (IEEE, 2012), pp. 44–45.

Alloatti, L.

Asghari, M.

J. K. Doylend, A. P. Knights, B. J. Luff, R. Shafiiha, M. Asghari, and R. M. Gwilliam, Electron. Lett. 46, 234 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Baehr-Jones, T.

Baets, R.

Bogaerts, W.

H. Yu, M. Pantouvaki, J. Van Campenhout, D. Korn, K. Komorowska, P. Dumon, Y. Li, P. Verheyen, P. Absil, L. Alloatti, D. Hillerkuss, J. Leuthold, R. Baets, and W. Bogaerts, Opt. Express 20, 12926 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Pantouvaki, H. Yu, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, W. Bogaerts, M. Moelants, J. Wouters, D. Radisic, P. Absil, and J. Van Campenhout, in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Optical Interconncects (IEEE, 2012), pp. 44–45.

Boucaud, P.

Bradley, J. D. B.

J. D. B. Bradley, P. E. Jessop, and A. P. Knights, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 241103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Checoury, X.

Chen, H.

H. Chen and A. W. Poon, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 191106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Chen, X. Luo, and A. W. Poon, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 171111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cheung, W. Y.

Y. Liu, C. W. Cho, W. Y. Cheung, and H. K. Tsang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1882 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cho, C. W.

Y. Liu, C. W. Cho, W. Y. Cheung, and H. K. Tsang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1882 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Combrié, S.

De La Rue, R. M.

D. F. Logan, P. Velha, M. Sorel, R. M. De La Rue, A. P. Knights, and P. E. Jessop, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1530 (2010).
[CrossRef]

De Rossi, A.

Deneault, S.

M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, J. U. Yoon, D. M. Lennon, S. Deneault, F. Gan, F. X. Kaertner, and T. M. Lyszczarz, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 152 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Doylend, J. K.

J. K. Doylend, A. P. Knights, B. J. Luff, R. Shafiiha, M. Asghari, and R. M. Gwilliam, Electron. Lett. 46, 234 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Doylend, P. E. Jessop, and A. P. Knights, Opt. Express 18, 14671 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dumon, P.

Gan, F.

M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, J. U. Yoon, D. M. Lennon, S. Deneault, F. Gan, F. X. Kaertner, and T. M. Lyszczarz, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 152 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, M. E. Grein, R. J. Schulein, J. U. Yoon, D. M. Lennon, C. M. Wynn, S. T. Palmacci, F. Gan, F. X. Käertner, and T. M. Lyszczarz, Opt. Express 15, 16886 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Geis, M. W.

Grein, M. E.

Gwilliam, R. M.

J. K. Doylend, A. P. Knights, B. J. Luff, R. Shafiiha, M. Asghari, and R. M. Gwilliam, Electron. Lett. 46, 234 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Han, Z.

Haret, L. D.

Hillerkuss, D.

Hochberg, M.

Jessop, P. E.

D. F. Logan, P. Velha, M. Sorel, R. M. De La Rue, A. P. Knights, and P. E. Jessop, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1530 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Doylend, P. E. Jessop, and A. P. Knights, Opt. Express 18, 14671 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. D. B. Bradley, P. E. Jessop, and A. P. Knights, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 241103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kaertner, F. X.

M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, J. U. Yoon, D. M. Lennon, S. Deneault, F. Gan, F. X. Kaertner, and T. M. Lyszczarz, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 152 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Käertner, F. X.

Kimerling, L. C.

J. Michel, J. Liu, and L. C. Kimerling, Nat. Photonics 4, 527 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Knights, A. P.

J. K. Doylend, A. P. Knights, B. J. Luff, R. Shafiiha, M. Asghari, and R. M. Gwilliam, Electron. Lett. 46, 234 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. F. Logan, P. Velha, M. Sorel, R. M. De La Rue, A. P. Knights, and P. E. Jessop, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1530 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Doylend, P. E. Jessop, and A. P. Knights, Opt. Express 18, 14671 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. D. B. Bradley, P. E. Jessop, and A. P. Knights, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 241103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Komorowska, K.

Korn, D.

Lennon, D. M.

Lepage, G.

M. Pantouvaki, H. Yu, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, W. Bogaerts, M. Moelants, J. Wouters, D. Radisic, P. Absil, and J. Van Campenhout, in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Optical Interconncects (IEEE, 2012), pp. 44–45.

Leuthold, J.

Li, Y.

Liu, J.

J. Michel, J. Liu, and L. C. Kimerling, Nat. Photonics 4, 527 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

Y. Liu, C. W. Cho, W. Y. Cheung, and H. K. Tsang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1882 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Logan, D. F.

D. F. Logan, P. Velha, M. Sorel, R. M. De La Rue, A. P. Knights, and P. E. Jessop, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1530 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Luff, B. J.

J. K. Doylend, A. P. Knights, B. J. Luff, R. Shafiiha, M. Asghari, and R. M. Gwilliam, Electron. Lett. 46, 234 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Luo, X.

H. Chen, X. Luo, and A. W. Poon, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 171111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lyszczarz, T. M.

Michel, J.

J. Michel, J. Liu, and L. C. Kimerling, Nat. Photonics 4, 527 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Moelants, M.

M. Pantouvaki, H. Yu, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, W. Bogaerts, M. Moelants, J. Wouters, D. Radisic, P. Absil, and J. Van Campenhout, in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Optical Interconncects (IEEE, 2012), pp. 44–45.

Notomi, M.

T. Tanabe, H. Sumikura, H. Taniyama, A. Shinya, and M. Notomi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 101103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Palmacci, S. T.

Pantouvaki, M.

H. Yu, M. Pantouvaki, J. Van Campenhout, D. Korn, K. Komorowska, P. Dumon, Y. Li, P. Verheyen, P. Absil, L. Alloatti, D. Hillerkuss, J. Leuthold, R. Baets, and W. Bogaerts, Opt. Express 20, 12926 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Pantouvaki, H. Yu, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, W. Bogaerts, M. Moelants, J. Wouters, D. Radisic, P. Absil, and J. Van Campenhout, in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Optical Interconncects (IEEE, 2012), pp. 44–45.

Poon, A. W.

H. Chen and A. W. Poon, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 191106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Chen, X. Luo, and A. W. Poon, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 171111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Radisic, D.

M. Pantouvaki, H. Yu, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, W. Bogaerts, M. Moelants, J. Wouters, D. Radisic, P. Absil, and J. Van Campenhout, in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Optical Interconncects (IEEE, 2012), pp. 44–45.

Scherer, A.

Schulein, R. J.

Schulein, R. T.

M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, J. U. Yoon, D. M. Lennon, S. Deneault, F. Gan, F. X. Kaertner, and T. M. Lyszczarz, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 152 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shafiiha, R.

J. K. Doylend, A. P. Knights, B. J. Luff, R. Shafiiha, M. Asghari, and R. M. Gwilliam, Electron. Lett. 46, 234 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shinya, A.

T. Tanabe, H. Sumikura, H. Taniyama, A. Shinya, and M. Notomi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 101103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sorel, M.

D. F. Logan, P. Velha, M. Sorel, R. M. De La Rue, A. P. Knights, and P. E. Jessop, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1530 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Spector, S. J.

Sumikura, H.

T. Tanabe, H. Sumikura, H. Taniyama, A. Shinya, and M. Notomi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 101103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tanabe, T.

T. Tanabe, H. Sumikura, H. Taniyama, A. Shinya, and M. Notomi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 101103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Taniyama, H.

T. Tanabe, H. Sumikura, H. Taniyama, A. Shinya, and M. Notomi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 101103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tsang, H. K.

Y. Liu, C. W. Cho, W. Y. Cheung, and H. K. Tsang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1882 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Van Campenhout, J.

H. Yu, M. Pantouvaki, J. Van Campenhout, D. Korn, K. Komorowska, P. Dumon, Y. Li, P. Verheyen, P. Absil, L. Alloatti, D. Hillerkuss, J. Leuthold, R. Baets, and W. Bogaerts, Opt. Express 20, 12926 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Pantouvaki, H. Yu, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, W. Bogaerts, M. Moelants, J. Wouters, D. Radisic, P. Absil, and J. Van Campenhout, in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Optical Interconncects (IEEE, 2012), pp. 44–45.

Velha, P.

D. F. Logan, P. Velha, M. Sorel, R. M. De La Rue, A. P. Knights, and P. E. Jessop, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1530 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Verheyen, P.

H. Yu, M. Pantouvaki, J. Van Campenhout, D. Korn, K. Komorowska, P. Dumon, Y. Li, P. Verheyen, P. Absil, L. Alloatti, D. Hillerkuss, J. Leuthold, R. Baets, and W. Bogaerts, Opt. Express 20, 12926 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Pantouvaki, H. Yu, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, W. Bogaerts, M. Moelants, J. Wouters, D. Radisic, P. Absil, and J. Van Campenhout, in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Optical Interconncects (IEEE, 2012), pp. 44–45.

Wouters, J.

M. Pantouvaki, H. Yu, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, W. Bogaerts, M. Moelants, J. Wouters, D. Radisic, P. Absil, and J. Van Campenhout, in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Optical Interconncects (IEEE, 2012), pp. 44–45.

Wynn, C. M.

Yoon, J. U.

Yu, H.

H. Yu, M. Pantouvaki, J. Van Campenhout, D. Korn, K. Komorowska, P. Dumon, Y. Li, P. Verheyen, P. Absil, L. Alloatti, D. Hillerkuss, J. Leuthold, R. Baets, and W. Bogaerts, Opt. Express 20, 12926 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Pantouvaki, H. Yu, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, W. Bogaerts, M. Moelants, J. Wouters, D. Radisic, P. Absil, and J. Van Campenhout, in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Optical Interconncects (IEEE, 2012), pp. 44–45.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

H. Chen, X. Luo, and A. W. Poon, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 171111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Chen and A. W. Poon, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 191106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Tanabe, H. Sumikura, H. Taniyama, A. Shinya, and M. Notomi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 101103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. D. B. Bradley, P. E. Jessop, and A. P. Knights, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 241103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

J. K. Doylend, A. P. Knights, B. J. Luff, R. Shafiiha, M. Asghari, and R. M. Gwilliam, Electron. Lett. 46, 234 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

Y. Liu, C. W. Cho, W. Y. Cheung, and H. K. Tsang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1882 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. F. Logan, P. Velha, M. Sorel, R. M. De La Rue, A. P. Knights, and P. E. Jessop, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1530 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, J. U. Yoon, D. M. Lennon, S. Deneault, F. Gan, F. X. Kaertner, and T. M. Lyszczarz, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 152 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

J. Michel, J. Liu, and L. C. Kimerling, Nat. Photonics 4, 527 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (6)

Other (1)

M. Pantouvaki, H. Yu, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, W. Bogaerts, M. Moelants, J. Wouters, D. Radisic, P. Absil, and J. Van Campenhout, in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Optical Interconncects (IEEE, 2012), pp. 44–45.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic diagram of lateral PN-junction-based ring and Mach–Zehnder modulators. PMD, pre-metal dielectric.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Transmission spectra of the ring at different biases. (b) Resonance wavelength shift and propagation loss of the ring versus bias. (c) Power P1 inside the ring for different biases.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Spectra of DC photocurrent at different biases. (b) Photocurrent versus optical power in the ring. (c) Photocurrent versus optical power in one phase shifter of the Mach–Zehnder modulator. (d) Carrier generation efficiency γ versus bias for two doping concentrations.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Eye diagrams of detection at (a) 25Gbit/s and (b) 35Gbit/s.

Equations (1)

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iph=1exp(αL)αγP1,

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