Deep-UV lithography using high-efficiency phase mask has been developed to print 100 nm period grating on sol-gel based thin layer. High efficiency phase mask has been designed to produce a high-contrast interferogram (periodic fringes) under water immersion conditions for 244 nm laser. The demonstration has been applied to a new developed immersion-compatible sol-gel layer. A sol-gel photoresist prepared from zirconium alkoxides caped with methacrylic acids was developed to achieve 50 nm resolution in a single step exposure. The nanostructures can be thermally annealed into . Such route considerably simplifies the process for elaborating nanopatterned surfaces of transition metal oxides, and opens new routes for integrating materials of interest for applications in the field of photocatalysis, photovoltaic, optics, photonics or microelectronics.
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