Abstract

Plasmonic vortices (PVs) are generated by focusing a radially polarized optical vortex (OV) beam onto a metal surface. The intensity distribution of the PV is registered with a near-field scanning optical microscopy and agrees well with a theoretical prediction as well as numerical calculation. Beside the dark central spot, the numerical calculation also shows an azimuthal Poynting vector belonging to the PV, implying that the orbital angular momentum (OAM) was transferred from the radially polarized OV. To directly verify the OAM, plasmonic trapping experiments with gold micrometer particles are performed and the particle rotation is visualized. Further experiments by varying the topological charge of radially polarized OVs show the corresponding changes in rotation in terms of speed and radius.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
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2011 (3)

M. Padgett and R. Bowman, Nat. Photonics 5, 343 (2011).
[CrossRef]

V. E. Lembessis, S. Al-Awfi, M. Babiker, and D. L. Andrews, J. Opt. 13, 064002 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. S. Tan, G. H. Yuan, Q. Wang, N. Zhang, D. H. Zhang, and X.-C. Yuan, Opt. Lett. 36, 3287 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (3)

H. Kim, J. Park, S. W. Cho, S. Y. Lee, M. Kang, and B. Lee, Nano Lett. 10, 529 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Andrews, M. Babiker, V. E. Lembessis, and S. Al-Awfi, Phys. Stat. Sol. Rapid Res. Lett. 4, 241 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. S. Tan, X.-C. Yuan, G. H. Yuan, and Q. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 241109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

Y. Gorodetski, N. Shitrit, I. Bretner, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, Nano Lett. 9, 3016 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Yang, W. B. Chen, R. L. Nelson, and Q. W. Zhan, Opt. Lett. 34, 3047 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

Y. Gorodetski, A. Niv, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 043903 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

G. Molina-Terriza, J. P. Torres, and L. Torner, Nat. Phys. 3, 305 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Q. Zhao, J. S. Edgar, G. D. M. Jeffries, D. McGloin, and D. T. Chiu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 073901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Moh, X.-C. Yuan, J. Bu, R. E. Burge, and Bruce Z. Gao, Appl. Opt. 46, 7544 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2002 (1)

A. T. O’Neil, I. MacVicar, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 053601 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1996 (1)

M. E. J. Friese, J. Enger, H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, and N. R. Heckenberg, Phys. Rev. A 54, 1593 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

H. He, M. E. J. Friese, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 826 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

S. M. Barnett and L. Allen, Opt. Commun. 110, 670 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1959 (1)

B. Richard and E. Wolf, Proc. Roy. Soc. A 253, 358 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Al-Awfi, S.

V. E. Lembessis, S. Al-Awfi, M. Babiker, and D. L. Andrews, J. Opt. 13, 064002 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Andrews, M. Babiker, V. E. Lembessis, and S. Al-Awfi, Phys. Stat. Sol. Rapid Res. Lett. 4, 241 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Allen, L.

A. T. O’Neil, I. MacVicar, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 053601 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Barnett and L. Allen, Opt. Commun. 110, 670 (1994).
[CrossRef]

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Andrews, D. L.

V. E. Lembessis, S. Al-Awfi, M. Babiker, and D. L. Andrews, J. Opt. 13, 064002 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Andrews, M. Babiker, V. E. Lembessis, and S. Al-Awfi, Phys. Stat. Sol. Rapid Res. Lett. 4, 241 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Babiker, M.

V. E. Lembessis, S. Al-Awfi, M. Babiker, and D. L. Andrews, J. Opt. 13, 064002 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Andrews, M. Babiker, V. E. Lembessis, and S. Al-Awfi, Phys. Stat. Sol. Rapid Res. Lett. 4, 241 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Barnett, S. M.

S. M. Barnett and L. Allen, Opt. Commun. 110, 670 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Beijersbergen, M. W.

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bowman, R.

M. Padgett and R. Bowman, Nat. Photonics 5, 343 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bretner, I.

Y. Gorodetski, N. Shitrit, I. Bretner, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, Nano Lett. 9, 3016 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Brown, T. G.

Bu, J.

Burge, R. E.

Chen, W. B.

Chiu, D. T.

Y. Q. Zhao, J. S. Edgar, G. D. M. Jeffries, D. McGloin, and D. T. Chiu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 073901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cho, S. W.

H. Kim, J. Park, S. W. Cho, S. Y. Lee, M. Kang, and B. Lee, Nano Lett. 10, 529 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Edgar, J. S.

Y. Q. Zhao, J. S. Edgar, G. D. M. Jeffries, D. McGloin, and D. T. Chiu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 073901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Enger, J.

M. E. J. Friese, J. Enger, H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, and N. R. Heckenberg, Phys. Rev. A 54, 1593 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Friese, M. E. J.

M. E. J. Friese, J. Enger, H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, and N. R. Heckenberg, Phys. Rev. A 54, 1593 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. He, M. E. J. Friese, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 826 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gao, Bruce Z.

Gorodetski, Y.

Y. Gorodetski, N. Shitrit, I. Bretner, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, Nano Lett. 9, 3016 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Gorodetski, A. Niv, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 043903 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hasman, E.

Y. Gorodetski, N. Shitrit, I. Bretner, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, Nano Lett. 9, 3016 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Gorodetski, A. Niv, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 043903 (2008).
[CrossRef]

He, H.

H. He, M. E. J. Friese, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 826 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Heckenberg, N. R.

M. E. J. Friese, J. Enger, H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, and N. R. Heckenberg, Phys. Rev. A 54, 1593 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. He, M. E. J. Friese, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 826 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Jeffries, G. D. M.

Y. Q. Zhao, J. S. Edgar, G. D. M. Jeffries, D. McGloin, and D. T. Chiu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 073901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kang, M.

H. Kim, J. Park, S. W. Cho, S. Y. Lee, M. Kang, and B. Lee, Nano Lett. 10, 529 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H.

H. Kim, J. Park, S. W. Cho, S. Y. Lee, M. Kang, and B. Lee, Nano Lett. 10, 529 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kleiner, V.

Y. Gorodetski, N. Shitrit, I. Bretner, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, Nano Lett. 9, 3016 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Gorodetski, A. Niv, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 043903 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, B.

H. Kim, J. Park, S. W. Cho, S. Y. Lee, M. Kang, and B. Lee, Nano Lett. 10, 529 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. Y.

H. Kim, J. Park, S. W. Cho, S. Y. Lee, M. Kang, and B. Lee, Nano Lett. 10, 529 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lembessis, V. E.

V. E. Lembessis, S. Al-Awfi, M. Babiker, and D. L. Andrews, J. Opt. 13, 064002 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Andrews, M. Babiker, V. E. Lembessis, and S. Al-Awfi, Phys. Stat. Sol. Rapid Res. Lett. 4, 241 (2010).
[CrossRef]

MacVicar, I.

A. T. O’Neil, I. MacVicar, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 053601 (2002).
[CrossRef]

McGloin, D.

Y. Q. Zhao, J. S. Edgar, G. D. M. Jeffries, D. McGloin, and D. T. Chiu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 073901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Miyanishi, S.

Moh, K. J.

Molina-Terriza, G.

G. Molina-Terriza, J. P. Torres, and L. Torner, Nat. Phys. 3, 305 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, R. L.

Niv, A.

Y. Gorodetski, A. Niv, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 043903 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O’Neil, A. T.

A. T. O’Neil, I. MacVicar, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 053601 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ohno, T.

Padgett, M.

M. Padgett and R. Bowman, Nat. Photonics 5, 343 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Padgett, M. J.

A. T. O’Neil, I. MacVicar, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 053601 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Park, J.

H. Kim, J. Park, S. W. Cho, S. Y. Lee, M. Kang, and B. Lee, Nano Lett. 10, 529 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Richard, B.

B. Richard and E. Wolf, Proc. Roy. Soc. A 253, 358 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Rubinsztein-Dunlop, H.

M. E. J. Friese, J. Enger, H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, and N. R. Heckenberg, Phys. Rev. A 54, 1593 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. He, M. E. J. Friese, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 826 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Shitrit, N.

Y. Gorodetski, N. Shitrit, I. Bretner, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, Nano Lett. 9, 3016 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Spreeuw, R. J. C.

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Tan, P. S.

P. S. Tan, G. H. Yuan, Q. Wang, N. Zhang, D. H. Zhang, and X.-C. Yuan, Opt. Lett. 36, 3287 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. S. Tan, X.-C. Yuan, G. H. Yuan, and Q. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 241109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Torner, L.

G. Molina-Terriza, J. P. Torres, and L. Torner, Nat. Phys. 3, 305 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Torres, J. P.

G. Molina-Terriza, J. P. Torres, and L. Torner, Nat. Phys. 3, 305 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Q.

P. S. Tan, G. H. Yuan, Q. Wang, N. Zhang, D. H. Zhang, and X.-C. Yuan, Opt. Lett. 36, 3287 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. S. Tan, X.-C. Yuan, G. H. Yuan, and Q. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 241109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Woerdman, J. P.

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, E.

B. Richard and E. Wolf, Proc. Roy. Soc. A 253, 358 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Yang, S. Y.

Youngworth, K. S.

Yuan, G. H.

P. S. Tan, G. H. Yuan, Q. Wang, N. Zhang, D. H. Zhang, and X.-C. Yuan, Opt. Lett. 36, 3287 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. S. Tan, X.-C. Yuan, G. H. Yuan, and Q. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 241109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, X.-C.

Zhan, Q. W.

Zhang, D. H.

Zhang, N.

Zhao, Y. Q.

Y. Q. Zhao, J. S. Edgar, G. D. M. Jeffries, D. McGloin, and D. T. Chiu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 073901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

P. S. Tan, X.-C. Yuan, G. H. Yuan, and Q. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 241109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. (1)

V. E. Lembessis, S. Al-Awfi, M. Babiker, and D. L. Andrews, J. Opt. 13, 064002 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (2)

Y. Gorodetski, N. Shitrit, I. Bretner, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, Nano Lett. 9, 3016 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Kim, J. Park, S. W. Cho, S. Y. Lee, M. Kang, and B. Lee, Nano Lett. 10, 529 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

M. Padgett and R. Bowman, Nat. Photonics 5, 343 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Phys. (1)

G. Molina-Terriza, J. P. Torres, and L. Torner, Nat. Phys. 3, 305 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

S. M. Barnett and L. Allen, Opt. Commun. 110, 670 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. A (2)

M. E. J. Friese, J. Enger, H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, and N. R. Heckenberg, Phys. Rev. A 54, 1593 (1996).
[CrossRef]

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

A. T. O’Neil, I. MacVicar, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 053601 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Gorodetski, A. Niv, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 043903 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. He, M. E. J. Friese, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 826 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Y. Q. Zhao, J. S. Edgar, G. D. M. Jeffries, D. McGloin, and D. T. Chiu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 073901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Stat. Sol. Rapid Res. Lett. (1)

D. L. Andrews, M. Babiker, V. E. Lembessis, and S. Al-Awfi, Phys. Stat. Sol. Rapid Res. Lett. 4, 241 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Roy. Soc. A (1)

B. Richard and E. Wolf, Proc. Roy. Soc. A 253, 358 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Supplementary Material (2)

» Media 1: MOV (5419 KB)     
» Media 2: MOV (7768 KB)     

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic diagram of experimental setup. The polarization states corresponding to the positions denoted by capital letters A, B, C, and D in the optical path are given in the yellow square. The phase distribution of a spiral phase plate with topological charge l=1 is given in the lower right dashed box as an example. The phase distribution of the Ez component of the PV of l=2 is given at the right side of the Au film. The red, green, blue, and yellow arrows in the upper right inset show the corresponding Ez component with relative phase differences of 0, π/2, π, and 3π/2, respectively.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Experimental NSOM image of the SPP distribution excited by the highly focused, radially polarized OV at 633 nm incident wavelength. (b) Intensity distribution along the white line in (a).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Amplitude distributions of the Ez component with topological charge l=2. (b) Time-averaged Poynting vector near the primary ring of the PV.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Successive frames of video recordings that show the rotation of a single gold particle trapped by PVs of l=2 (top row, Media 1) and l=5 (bottom row, Media 2). The circular arrow denotes the rotation direction, and the dashed circles show the particle’s orbital trajectory.

Equations (1)

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E1z(r,φ,z)=02πE1zeilθekzzeiksper·(rR0)dθ=E1zekzzeikspR0eilφJl(kspr),

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