Abstract

We propose and demonstrate a compact, alignment-free dark-field microscopy technique, termed as organic light-emitting-diode-based plasmonic dark-field microscopy. Experimental results show that it is capable of forming dark-field images of the specimens utilizing a highly integrated chip-scale plasmonic condenser. This technique has high z resolution and high imaging contrast and is suitable for the dynamics study near the contact regions of living cells and the substrate.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. B. Murphy, Fundamentals of Light Microscopy and Electronic Imaging (Wiley-Liss, 2001).
  2. S. M. Prince and W. G. McGuigan, Proc. SPIE 6676, 66760K (2007).
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  3. H. Hu, C. Ma, and Z. Liu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 113107 (2010).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  9. M. F. Lin, L. Wang, W. K. Wong, K. W. Cheah, H. L. Tam, M. T. Lee, M. H. Ho, and C. H. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 073517 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  11. Y. Xiong, Z. Liu, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, Nano Lett. 7, 3360 (2007).
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    [CrossRef]
  16. J. Park, H. Chae, H. K. Chung, and S. I. Lee, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26, 034001 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  17. T. Riedl, J. Meyer, H. Schmidt, T. Winkler, and W. Kowalsky, “Thin film encapsulation of top-emitting OLEDs using atomic layer deposition,” presented at Solid-State and Organic Lighting, Karlsruhe, Germany, June 21–24, 2010, p. SOWB5.
  18. D. Axelrod, Traffic 2, 764 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  19. D. Axelrod, Methods Cell Biol. 89, 169 (2008).
    [CrossRef]

2011

J. Park, H. Chae, H. K. Chung, and S. I. Lee, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26, 034001 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Balci, E. Karademir, C. Kocabas, and A. Aydinli, Opt. Lett. 36, 3401 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

H. Hu, C. Ma, and Z. Liu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 113107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Zheng, X. Cui, and C. Yang, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 9043 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008

C. L. Ho, M. F. Lin, W. Y. Wong, W. K. Wong, and C. H. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 083301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Axelrod, Methods Cell Biol. 89, 169 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

S. M. Prince and W. G. McGuigan, Proc. SPIE 6676, 66760K (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Xiong, Z. Liu, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, Nano Lett. 7, 3360 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Lin, L. Wang, W. K. Wong, K. W. Cheah, H. L. Tam, M. T. Lee, M. H. Ho, and C. H. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 073517 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

M. F. Lin, L. Wang, W. K. Wong, K. W. Cheah, H. L. Tam, M. T. Lee, and C. H. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 121913 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, M. C. Pitter, S. Liu, C. See, and M. G. Somekh, Appl. Opt. 45, 7977 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

S. K. Park, J. Oh, C. Hwang, J. Lee, Y. S. Yang, and H. Y. Chu, Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 8, H21 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

P. Andrew and W. L. Barnes, Science 306, 1002 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001

D. Axelrod, Traffic 2, 764 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998

W. L. Barnes, J. Mod. Opt. 45, 661 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1984

G. W. Ford and W. H. Weber, Phys. Rep. 113, 195 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Andrew, P.

P. Andrew and W. L. Barnes, Science 306, 1002 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Axelrod, D.

D. Axelrod, Methods Cell Biol. 89, 169 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Axelrod, Traffic 2, 764 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Aydinli, A.

Balci, S.

Barnes, W. L.

P. Andrew and W. L. Barnes, Science 306, 1002 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Barnes, J. Mod. Opt. 45, 661 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chae, H.

J. Park, H. Chae, H. K. Chung, and S. I. Lee, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26, 034001 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cheah, K. W.

M. F. Lin, L. Wang, W. K. Wong, K. W. Cheah, H. L. Tam, M. T. Lee, M. H. Ho, and C. H. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 073517 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Lin, L. Wang, W. K. Wong, K. W. Cheah, H. L. Tam, M. T. Lee, and C. H. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 121913 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. H.

C. L. Ho, M. F. Lin, W. Y. Wong, W. K. Wong, and C. H. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 083301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Lin, L. Wang, W. K. Wong, K. W. Cheah, H. L. Tam, M. T. Lee, M. H. Ho, and C. H. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 073517 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Lin, L. Wang, W. K. Wong, K. W. Cheah, H. L. Tam, M. T. Lee, and C. H. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 121913 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chu, H. Y.

S. K. Park, J. Oh, C. Hwang, J. Lee, Y. S. Yang, and H. Y. Chu, Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 8, H21 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chung, H. K.

J. Park, H. Chae, H. K. Chung, and S. I. Lee, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26, 034001 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cui, X.

G. Zheng, X. Cui, and C. Yang, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 9043 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ford, G. W.

G. W. Ford and W. H. Weber, Phys. Rep. 113, 195 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Ho, C. L.

C. L. Ho, M. F. Lin, W. Y. Wong, W. K. Wong, and C. H. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 083301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ho, M. H.

M. F. Lin, L. Wang, W. K. Wong, K. W. Cheah, H. L. Tam, M. T. Lee, M. H. Ho, and C. H. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 073517 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hu, H.

H. Hu, C. Ma, and Z. Liu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 113107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, C.

S. K. Park, J. Oh, C. Hwang, J. Lee, Y. S. Yang, and H. Y. Chu, Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 8, H21 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Karademir, E.

Kocabas, C.

Kowalsky, W.

T. Riedl, J. Meyer, H. Schmidt, T. Winkler, and W. Kowalsky, “Thin film encapsulation of top-emitting OLEDs using atomic layer deposition,” presented at Solid-State and Organic Lighting, Karlsruhe, Germany, June 21–24, 2010, p. SOWB5.

Lee, J.

S. K. Park, J. Oh, C. Hwang, J. Lee, Y. S. Yang, and H. Y. Chu, Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 8, H21 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M. T.

M. F. Lin, L. Wang, W. K. Wong, K. W. Cheah, H. L. Tam, M. T. Lee, M. H. Ho, and C. H. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 073517 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Lin, L. Wang, W. K. Wong, K. W. Cheah, H. L. Tam, M. T. Lee, and C. H. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 121913 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. I.

J. Park, H. Chae, H. K. Chung, and S. I. Lee, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26, 034001 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lin, M. F.

C. L. Ho, M. F. Lin, W. Y. Wong, W. K. Wong, and C. H. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 083301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Lin, L. Wang, W. K. Wong, K. W. Cheah, H. L. Tam, M. T. Lee, M. H. Ho, and C. H. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 073517 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Lin, L. Wang, W. K. Wong, K. W. Cheah, H. L. Tam, M. T. Lee, and C. H. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 121913 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liu, S.

Liu, Z.

H. Hu, C. Ma, and Z. Liu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 113107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Xiong, Z. Liu, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, Nano Lett. 7, 3360 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ma, C.

H. Hu, C. Ma, and Z. Liu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 113107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

McGuigan, W. G.

S. M. Prince and W. G. McGuigan, Proc. SPIE 6676, 66760K (2007).
[CrossRef]

Meyer, J.

T. Riedl, J. Meyer, H. Schmidt, T. Winkler, and W. Kowalsky, “Thin film encapsulation of top-emitting OLEDs using atomic layer deposition,” presented at Solid-State and Organic Lighting, Karlsruhe, Germany, June 21–24, 2010, p. SOWB5.

Murphy, D. B.

D. B. Murphy, Fundamentals of Light Microscopy and Electronic Imaging (Wiley-Liss, 2001).

Oh, J.

S. K. Park, J. Oh, C. Hwang, J. Lee, Y. S. Yang, and H. Y. Chu, Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 8, H21 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Park, J.

J. Park, H. Chae, H. K. Chung, and S. I. Lee, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26, 034001 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Park, S. K.

S. K. Park, J. Oh, C. Hwang, J. Lee, Y. S. Yang, and H. Y. Chu, Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 8, H21 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pitter, M. C.

Prince, S. M.

S. M. Prince and W. G. McGuigan, Proc. SPIE 6676, 66760K (2007).
[CrossRef]

Raether, H.

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer-Verlag1988).

Riedl, T.

T. Riedl, J. Meyer, H. Schmidt, T. Winkler, and W. Kowalsky, “Thin film encapsulation of top-emitting OLEDs using atomic layer deposition,” presented at Solid-State and Organic Lighting, Karlsruhe, Germany, June 21–24, 2010, p. SOWB5.

Schmidt, H.

T. Riedl, J. Meyer, H. Schmidt, T. Winkler, and W. Kowalsky, “Thin film encapsulation of top-emitting OLEDs using atomic layer deposition,” presented at Solid-State and Organic Lighting, Karlsruhe, Germany, June 21–24, 2010, p. SOWB5.

See, C.

Somekh, M. G.

Sun, C.

Y. Xiong, Z. Liu, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, Nano Lett. 7, 3360 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tam, H. L.

M. F. Lin, L. Wang, W. K. Wong, K. W. Cheah, H. L. Tam, M. T. Lee, M. H. Ho, and C. H. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 073517 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Lin, L. Wang, W. K. Wong, K. W. Cheah, H. L. Tam, M. T. Lee, and C. H. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 121913 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L.

M. F. Lin, L. Wang, W. K. Wong, K. W. Cheah, H. L. Tam, M. T. Lee, M. H. Ho, and C. H. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 073517 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Lin, L. Wang, W. K. Wong, K. W. Cheah, H. L. Tam, M. T. Lee, and C. H. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 121913 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Weber, W. H.

G. W. Ford and W. H. Weber, Phys. Rep. 113, 195 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Winkler, T.

T. Riedl, J. Meyer, H. Schmidt, T. Winkler, and W. Kowalsky, “Thin film encapsulation of top-emitting OLEDs using atomic layer deposition,” presented at Solid-State and Organic Lighting, Karlsruhe, Germany, June 21–24, 2010, p. SOWB5.

Wong, W. K.

C. L. Ho, M. F. Lin, W. Y. Wong, W. K. Wong, and C. H. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 083301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Lin, L. Wang, W. K. Wong, K. W. Cheah, H. L. Tam, M. T. Lee, M. H. Ho, and C. H. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 073517 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Lin, L. Wang, W. K. Wong, K. W. Cheah, H. L. Tam, M. T. Lee, and C. H. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 121913 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wong, W. Y.

C. L. Ho, M. F. Lin, W. Y. Wong, W. K. Wong, and C. H. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 083301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Xiong, Y.

Y. Xiong, Z. Liu, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, Nano Lett. 7, 3360 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yang, C.

G. Zheng, X. Cui, and C. Yang, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 9043 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Y. S.

S. K. Park, J. Oh, C. Hwang, J. Lee, Y. S. Yang, and H. Y. Chu, Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 8, H21 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

Zhang, X.

Y. Xiong, Z. Liu, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, Nano Lett. 7, 3360 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, G.

G. Zheng, X. Cui, and C. Yang, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 9043 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

M. F. Lin, L. Wang, W. K. Wong, K. W. Cheah, H. L. Tam, M. T. Lee, and C. H. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 121913 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Lin, L. Wang, W. K. Wong, K. W. Cheah, H. L. Tam, M. T. Lee, M. H. Ho, and C. H. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 073517 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Ho, M. F. Lin, W. Y. Wong, W. K. Wong, and C. H. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 083301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Hu, C. Ma, and Z. Liu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 113107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Electrochem. Solid-State Lett.

S. K. Park, J. Oh, C. Hwang, J. Lee, Y. S. Yang, and H. Y. Chu, Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 8, H21 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt.

W. L. Barnes, J. Mod. Opt. 45, 661 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Methods Cell Biol.

D. Axelrod, Methods Cell Biol. 89, 169 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett.

Y. Xiong, Z. Liu, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, Nano Lett. 7, 3360 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rep.

G. W. Ford and W. H. Weber, Phys. Rep. 113, 195 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA

G. Zheng, X. Cui, and C. Yang, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 9043 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

S. M. Prince and W. G. McGuigan, Proc. SPIE 6676, 66760K (2007).
[CrossRef]

Science

P. Andrew and W. L. Barnes, Science 306, 1002 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Semicond. Sci. Technol.

J. Park, H. Chae, H. K. Chung, and S. I. Lee, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26, 034001 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Traffic

D. Axelrod, Traffic 2, 764 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other

T. Riedl, J. Meyer, H. Schmidt, T. Winkler, and W. Kowalsky, “Thin film encapsulation of top-emitting OLEDs using atomic layer deposition,” presented at Solid-State and Organic Lighting, Karlsruhe, Germany, June 21–24, 2010, p. SOWB5.

D. B. Murphy, Fundamentals of Light Microscopy and Electronic Imaging (Wiley-Liss, 2001).

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer-Verlag1988).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic configuration of (a) conventional transmission mode DF microscope and (b) OLED-based PDF microscopy system.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematic configurations of the device in (a) top view and (b) cross-sectional view. The purple area (labeled with “+”), brown area (labeled with “-”), and blue area are anode, cathode, and organic films (from 2-TNATA to Alq 3 ), respectively. The overlap region is the light-emitting area, indicated by the (yellow) dashed square. (c) Photo of the OLED taken from the ITO side with 6 V DC voltage applied between the electrodes and (d) electric luminescence spectrum of the OLED at 20 mA / cm 2 .

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Image obtained by OLED-based PDF microscopy, (b) magnified image of chosen area in (a), (c) interpolation of (b), and (d) noise reduction and deconvolution of (c). The objects are self-assembled polystyrene beads (diameter 2 μm ). The observed image contrast (signal/background) enhancement is approximately 9 dB compared with bright field measurement.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Energy coupled to evansecent field at NPB/air interface for isotropically oriented dipole with emission wavelength at 460 nm, and (b) total E field intensity profile (log scale) with contribution from both SP modes supported by 30 nm Al (red [upper] curve) and 60 nm Al (blue [lower] curve), respectively.

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