Abstract

A homogeneous randomly distributed microlens array (MLA) and a corresponding micropattern array are integrated onto a layer of polyester film aiming to give rise to a special dynamic Glass pattern. Integrating an MLA and a micropattern array, and applying a small geometrical transformation, it is possible to show the parallactic or the orthoparallactic motion effect when varying the viewing angle. Both numerical simulation and experimental results are present in this Letter. Such devices can find potential applications in precision optical alignment, image registration, and document security and authentication.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. L. Glass, Nature 223, 578 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  3. I. Amidror, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20, 1900 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. Cardinal and D. C. Kiper, J. Vis. 3, 199 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  5. W. Schuette, “Glass patterns in image alignment and analysis,” U.S. patent 5,613,013 (March18, 1997).
  6. J. Huck, Proceedings of the Fifth Interdisciplinary Conference of the International Society of the Arts(Mathematics and Architecture, Chicago, 2004).
  7. J. G. Chang and C.-T. Lee, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 839(2007).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. W. Kang, K. X. Guo, Z. L. Liu, Z. H. Zhang, B. Chen, and R. Z. Wang, J. Disp. Tech. 6, 166 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. C. Hutley, R. Hunt, R. F. Stevens, and P. Savander, Pure Appl. Opt. 3, 133 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  10. I. Amidror, The Theory of the Moiré Phenomenon: Aperiodic Layers (Springer, 2007).
  11. F. T. Oneill and J. T. Sheridan, Optik 113, 391 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. A. Stenblik, M. J. Hurt, and G. R. Jordan, “Micro-optic security and image presentation system providing modulated appearance of an in-plane image,” U.S. patent 7,738,175 (June15, 2010).
  13. I. Amidror, Proc. SPIE 4677, 89 (2002).
    [CrossRef]

2010

M. W. Kang, K. X. Guo, Z. L. Liu, Z. H. Zhang, B. Chen, and R. Z. Wang, J. Disp. Tech. 6, 166 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2007

2003

2002

F. T. Oneill and J. T. Sheridan, Optik 113, 391 (2002).
[CrossRef]

I. Amidror, Proc. SPIE 4677, 89 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1994

M. C. Hutley, R. Hunt, R. F. Stevens, and P. Savander, Pure Appl. Opt. 3, 133 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1969

L. Glass, Nature 223, 578 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Amidror, I.

I. Amidror, Opt. Lett. 28, 7 (2003).
[CrossRef]

I. Amidror, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20, 1900 (2003).
[CrossRef]

I. Amidror, Proc. SPIE 4677, 89 (2002).
[CrossRef]

I. Amidror, The Theory of the Moiré Phenomenon: Aperiodic Layers (Springer, 2007).

Cardinal, D.

D. Cardinal and D. C. Kiper, J. Vis. 3, 199 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chang, J. G.

Chen, B.

M. W. Kang, K. X. Guo, Z. L. Liu, Z. H. Zhang, B. Chen, and R. Z. Wang, J. Disp. Tech. 6, 166 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Glass, L.

L. Glass, Nature 223, 578 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Guo, K. X.

M. W. Kang, K. X. Guo, Z. L. Liu, Z. H. Zhang, B. Chen, and R. Z. Wang, J. Disp. Tech. 6, 166 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Huck, J.

J. Huck, Proceedings of the Fifth Interdisciplinary Conference of the International Society of the Arts(Mathematics and Architecture, Chicago, 2004).

Hunt, R.

M. C. Hutley, R. Hunt, R. F. Stevens, and P. Savander, Pure Appl. Opt. 3, 133 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hurt, M. J.

R. A. Stenblik, M. J. Hurt, and G. R. Jordan, “Micro-optic security and image presentation system providing modulated appearance of an in-plane image,” U.S. patent 7,738,175 (June15, 2010).

Hutley, M. C.

M. C. Hutley, R. Hunt, R. F. Stevens, and P. Savander, Pure Appl. Opt. 3, 133 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Jordan, G. R.

R. A. Stenblik, M. J. Hurt, and G. R. Jordan, “Micro-optic security and image presentation system providing modulated appearance of an in-plane image,” U.S. patent 7,738,175 (June15, 2010).

Kang, M. W.

M. W. Kang, K. X. Guo, Z. L. Liu, Z. H. Zhang, B. Chen, and R. Z. Wang, J. Disp. Tech. 6, 166 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kiper, D. C.

D. Cardinal and D. C. Kiper, J. Vis. 3, 199 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C.-T.

Liu, Z. L.

M. W. Kang, K. X. Guo, Z. L. Liu, Z. H. Zhang, B. Chen, and R. Z. Wang, J. Disp. Tech. 6, 166 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Oneill, F. T.

F. T. Oneill and J. T. Sheridan, Optik 113, 391 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Savander, P.

M. C. Hutley, R. Hunt, R. F. Stevens, and P. Savander, Pure Appl. Opt. 3, 133 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Schuette, W.

W. Schuette, “Glass patterns in image alignment and analysis,” U.S. patent 5,613,013 (March18, 1997).

Sheridan, J. T.

F. T. Oneill and J. T. Sheridan, Optik 113, 391 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Stenblik, R. A.

R. A. Stenblik, M. J. Hurt, and G. R. Jordan, “Micro-optic security and image presentation system providing modulated appearance of an in-plane image,” U.S. patent 7,738,175 (June15, 2010).

Stevens, R. F.

M. C. Hutley, R. Hunt, R. F. Stevens, and P. Savander, Pure Appl. Opt. 3, 133 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wang, R. Z.

M. W. Kang, K. X. Guo, Z. L. Liu, Z. H. Zhang, B. Chen, and R. Z. Wang, J. Disp. Tech. 6, 166 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Z. H.

M. W. Kang, K. X. Guo, Z. L. Liu, Z. H. Zhang, B. Chen, and R. Z. Wang, J. Disp. Tech. 6, 166 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Disp. Tech.

M. W. Kang, K. X. Guo, Z. L. Liu, Z. H. Zhang, B. Chen, and R. Z. Wang, J. Disp. Tech. 6, 166 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

J. Vis.

D. Cardinal and D. C. Kiper, J. Vis. 3, 199 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nature

L. Glass, Nature 223, 578 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Optik

F. T. Oneill and J. T. Sheridan, Optik 113, 391 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

I. Amidror, Proc. SPIE 4677, 89 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pure Appl. Opt.

M. C. Hutley, R. Hunt, R. F. Stevens, and P. Savander, Pure Appl. Opt. 3, 133 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Other

I. Amidror, The Theory of the Moiré Phenomenon: Aperiodic Layers (Springer, 2007).

W. Schuette, “Glass patterns in image alignment and analysis,” U.S. patent 5,613,013 (March18, 1997).

J. Huck, Proceedings of the Fifth Interdisciplinary Conference of the International Society of the Arts(Mathematics and Architecture, Chicago, 2004).

R. A. Stenblik, M. J. Hurt, and G. R. Jordan, “Micro-optic security and image presentation system providing modulated appearance of an in-plane image,” U.S. patent 7,738,175 (June15, 2010).

Supplementary Material (4)

» Media 1: AVI (1398 KB)     
» Media 2: AVI (1321 KB)     
» Media 3: MOV (817 KB)     
» Media 4: MOV (1702 KB)     

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematics of the proposed Glass pattern device.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Scaling ratio r (solid curve) and skew angle θ (dot curve) versus magnification factor M. The top inset is a schematic diagram under tilt viewing angle Φ. The bottom insets are single-frame images in Media 1 and Media 2 at 15° viewing-angle.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Fabrication process of dynamic Glass pattern device: (a) exposure, (b) development, (c) thermal reflow to form MLA, (d) MLA nickel master mold by electroplating, (e) MLA replication by UV nanoimprinting, (f) MPA nickel master mold with similar process, (g) MPA replication on the other side of PET substrate with alignment, (f) submicron particle pigment filled in the grooves of MPA.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Surface profile of randomized MLA and MPA based on a piece of PET substrate. The aperture of the microlens is 50 μm and its sag height is 6 μm. The dimensions of the micro icon V is 40μm×40μm, (b), (c) and (d), (e) are single-frame excerpts from Media 3 showing the orthoparallactic motion effect and from Media 4 clearly showing the parallactic motion effect. The scale bar in (b)–(e) is 15 mm.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

M(r,θ)=r(1+r22rcosθ)12,
φ=arctan(sinθrcosθ),
L=0ΦLΦdkΦ,
LΦ=bM(r,θ)sin2φ+cos2φcos2Φ,
kΦ=htanΦb.

Metrics