Abstract

Electromagnetic wave emission based on optical rectification at terahertz (THz) wavelengths was observed from surface-immobilized gold nanospheres (SIGNs) above a gold surface. Although the excitation wavelength is off-resonant with the localized surface plasmons, the THz emission field was observed to be approximately 4.8 times greater than that from a percolated gold thin film of 10 nm thickness. A theoretical calculation predicts that the light electric field is enhanced in the SIGN system, even at off-resonance wavelengths. The observed THz field amplitude was quadratic with the illumination light field, suggesting that the THz generation is due to a second-order nonlinear optical process.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]

2012 (1)

2011 (2)

G. Ramakrishnan and P. C. M. Planken, Opt. Lett. 36, 2572 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Polyushkin, E. Hendry, E. K. Stone, and W. L. Barnes, Nano Lett. 11, 4718 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

Y. Uchiho, M. Shimojo, and K. Kajikawa, J. Phys. D 43, 495101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (3)

Y. Uchiho and K. Kajikawa, Chem. Phys. Lett. 478, 211 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Uzawa, D. Tanaka, H. Okawa, K. Hashimoto, and K. Kajikawa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 021107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. H. Welsh and K. Wynne, Opt. Express 17, 2470(2009).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

S. Abe and K. Kajikawa, Phys. Rev. B 74, 035416 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

T. Okamoto and I. Yamaguchi, J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 10321 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

M. M. Wind, J. Vlieger, and D. Bedeaux, Physica A 141, 33 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1962 (1)

M. Bass, P. A. Franken, J. F. Ward, and G. Weinreich, Phys. Rev. Lett 9, 446 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Abe, S.

S. Abe and K. Kajikawa, Phys. Rev. B 74, 035416 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, W. L.

D. K. Polyushkin, E. Hendry, E. K. Stone, and W. L. Barnes, Nano Lett. 11, 4718 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bass, M.

M. Bass, P. A. Franken, J. F. Ward, and G. Weinreich, Phys. Rev. Lett 9, 446 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Bedeaux, D.

M. M. Wind, J. Vlieger, and D. Bedeaux, Physica A 141, 33 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Coutaz, J.-L.

Franken, P. A.

M. Bass, P. A. Franken, J. F. Ward, and G. Weinreich, Phys. Rev. Lett 9, 446 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Hashimoto, K.

R. Uzawa, D. Tanaka, H. Okawa, K. Hashimoto, and K. Kajikawa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 021107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hendry, E.

D. K. Polyushkin, E. Hendry, E. K. Stone, and W. L. Barnes, Nano Lett. 11, 4718 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kadlec, F.

Kajikawa, K.

G. Ramakrishnan, N. Kumar, P. C. M. Planken, D. Tanaka, and K. Kajikawa, Opt. Express 20, 4067 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Uchiho, M. Shimojo, and K. Kajikawa, J. Phys. D 43, 495101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Uzawa, D. Tanaka, H. Okawa, K. Hashimoto, and K. Kajikawa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 021107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Uchiho and K. Kajikawa, Chem. Phys. Lett. 478, 211 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Abe and K. Kajikawa, Phys. Rev. B 74, 035416 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, N.

Kužel, P.

Okamoto, T.

T. Okamoto and I. Yamaguchi, J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 10321 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Okawa, H.

R. Uzawa, D. Tanaka, H. Okawa, K. Hashimoto, and K. Kajikawa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 021107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Planken, P. C. M.

Polyushkin, D. K.

D. K. Polyushkin, E. Hendry, E. K. Stone, and W. L. Barnes, Nano Lett. 11, 4718 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ramakrishnan, G.

Shimojo, M.

Y. Uchiho, M. Shimojo, and K. Kajikawa, J. Phys. D 43, 495101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Stone, E. K.

D. K. Polyushkin, E. Hendry, E. K. Stone, and W. L. Barnes, Nano Lett. 11, 4718 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, D.

G. Ramakrishnan, N. Kumar, P. C. M. Planken, D. Tanaka, and K. Kajikawa, Opt. Express 20, 4067 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Uzawa, D. Tanaka, H. Okawa, K. Hashimoto, and K. Kajikawa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 021107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Uchiho, Y.

Y. Uchiho, M. Shimojo, and K. Kajikawa, J. Phys. D 43, 495101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Uchiho and K. Kajikawa, Chem. Phys. Lett. 478, 211 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Uzawa, R.

R. Uzawa, D. Tanaka, H. Okawa, K. Hashimoto, and K. Kajikawa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 021107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vlieger, J.

M. M. Wind, J. Vlieger, and D. Bedeaux, Physica A 141, 33 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Ward, J. F.

M. Bass, P. A. Franken, J. F. Ward, and G. Weinreich, Phys. Rev. Lett 9, 446 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Weinreich, G.

M. Bass, P. A. Franken, J. F. Ward, and G. Weinreich, Phys. Rev. Lett 9, 446 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Welsh, G. H.

Wind, M. M.

M. M. Wind, J. Vlieger, and D. Bedeaux, Physica A 141, 33 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Wynne, K.

Yamaguchi, I.

T. Okamoto and I. Yamaguchi, J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 10321 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

R. Uzawa, D. Tanaka, H. Okawa, K. Hashimoto, and K. Kajikawa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 021107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

Y. Uchiho and K. Kajikawa, Chem. Phys. Lett. 478, 211 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

T. Okamoto and I. Yamaguchi, J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 10321 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D (1)

Y. Uchiho, M. Shimojo, and K. Kajikawa, J. Phys. D 43, 495101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (1)

D. K. Polyushkin, E. Hendry, E. K. Stone, and W. L. Barnes, Nano Lett. 11, 4718 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

S. Abe and K. Kajikawa, Phys. Rev. B 74, 035416 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett (1)

M. Bass, P. A. Franken, J. F. Ward, and G. Weinreich, Phys. Rev. Lett 9, 446 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Physica A (1)

M. M. Wind, J. Vlieger, and D. Bedeaux, Physica A 141, 33 (1987).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Schematic structure, (b) SEM image, and (c) reflection absorption spectra of SIGN.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

p-polarized THz amplitude generated by p-polarized illumination from the SIGN and 10 nm thick percolated gold film.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

p-polarized THz amplitude generated by p- and s-polarized illumination, from the SIGN.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Calculated local electric field amplitudes Eloc (a) on the SIGN surface and (b) on the substrate surface when using p-polarized illumination of amplitude E0, and those (c) on the SIGN surface and (d) on the substrate surface with s-polarized illumination. The electric field amplitude is normalized by E0.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

p-polarized THz emission amplitude as a function of the p-polarized illumination intensity.

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