Abstract

Laser speckle imaging (LSI) is a noninvasive optical imaging technique able to provide wide-field two-dimensional maps of moving particles. Raw laser speckle images are typically taken with a scientific-grade monochrome camera. We demonstrate that a digital single-lens reflex (dSLR) camera with a Bayer filter is able to provide similar sensitivity despite taking information only from a specific pixel color. Here we demonstrate the effect of changing three primary dSLR exposure settings (i.e., aperture, exposure time/shutter speed, and gain/sensitivity (ISO)) on speckle contrast. In addition, we present data from an in vivo reactive hyperemia experiment that demonstrates the qualitative similarity in blood-flow dynamics visualized with a color dSLR and a scientific-grade monochrome camera.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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2012 (1)

A. K. Dunn, Ann. Biomed. Eng. 40, 367 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (1)

O. Yang, D. Cuccia, and B. Choi, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 016009 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (3)

D. A. Boas and A. K. Dunn, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 011109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Parthasarathy, E. L. Weber, L. M. Richards, D. J. Fox, and A. K. Dunn, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 066030 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Qiu, P. Li, W. Luo, J. Wang, H. Zhang, and Q. Luo, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 016003 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

Y. C. Huang, N. Tran, P. R. Shumaker, K. Kelly, E. V. Ross, J. S. Nelson, and B. Choi, Lasers Surg. Med. 41, 563(2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

A. G. Frederick Ayers, Danny Kuo, A. J. Durkin, and D. Cuccia, Proc. SPIE 6870, 687007 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Tom, A. Ponticorvo, and A. K. Dunn, IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 27, 1728 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Ramirez-San-Juan, R. Ramos-Garcia, I. Guizar-Iturbide, G. Martinez-Niconoff, and B. Choi, Opt. Express 16, 3197 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

1981 (1)

A. F. Fercher and J. D. Briers, Opt. Commun. 37, 326 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Boas, D. A.

D. A. Boas and A. K. Dunn, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 011109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Briers, J. D.

A. F. Fercher and J. D. Briers, Opt. Commun. 37, 326 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Choi, B.

O. Yang, D. Cuccia, and B. Choi, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 016009 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Huang, N. Tran, P. R. Shumaker, K. Kelly, E. V. Ross, J. S. Nelson, and B. Choi, Lasers Surg. Med. 41, 563(2009).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Ramirez-San-Juan, R. Ramos-Garcia, I. Guizar-Iturbide, G. Martinez-Niconoff, and B. Choi, Opt. Express 16, 3197 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cuccia, D.

O. Yang, D. Cuccia, and B. Choi, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 016009 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Frederick Ayers, Danny Kuo, A. J. Durkin, and D. Cuccia, Proc. SPIE 6870, 687007 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Duncan, D. D.

Dunn, A. K.

A. K. Dunn, Ann. Biomed. Eng. 40, 367 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Parthasarathy, E. L. Weber, L. M. Richards, D. J. Fox, and A. K. Dunn, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 066030 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Boas and A. K. Dunn, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 011109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Tom, A. Ponticorvo, and A. K. Dunn, IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 27, 1728 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Durkin, A. J.

A. G. Frederick Ayers, Danny Kuo, A. J. Durkin, and D. Cuccia, Proc. SPIE 6870, 687007 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fercher, A. F.

A. F. Fercher and J. D. Briers, Opt. Commun. 37, 326 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Fox, D. J.

A. B. Parthasarathy, E. L. Weber, L. M. Richards, D. J. Fox, and A. K. Dunn, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 066030 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Frederick Ayers, A. G.

A. G. Frederick Ayers, Danny Kuo, A. J. Durkin, and D. Cuccia, Proc. SPIE 6870, 687007 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Guizar-Iturbide, I.

Hinds, M. T.

Huang, Y. C.

Y. C. Huang, N. Tran, P. R. Shumaker, K. Kelly, E. V. Ross, J. S. Nelson, and B. Choi, Lasers Surg. Med. 41, 563(2009).
[CrossRef]

Kelly, K.

Y. C. Huang, N. Tran, P. R. Shumaker, K. Kelly, E. V. Ross, J. S. Nelson, and B. Choi, Lasers Surg. Med. 41, 563(2009).
[CrossRef]

Kirkpatrick, S. J.

Kuo, Danny

A. G. Frederick Ayers, Danny Kuo, A. J. Durkin, and D. Cuccia, Proc. SPIE 6870, 687007 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, P.

J. Qiu, P. Li, W. Luo, J. Wang, H. Zhang, and Q. Luo, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 016003 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Luo, Q.

J. Qiu, P. Li, W. Luo, J. Wang, H. Zhang, and Q. Luo, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 016003 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Luo, W.

J. Qiu, P. Li, W. Luo, J. Wang, H. Zhang, and Q. Luo, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 016003 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Martinez-Niconoff, G.

Nelson, J. S.

Y. C. Huang, N. Tran, P. R. Shumaker, K. Kelly, E. V. Ross, J. S. Nelson, and B. Choi, Lasers Surg. Med. 41, 563(2009).
[CrossRef]

Parthasarathy, A. B.

A. B. Parthasarathy, E. L. Weber, L. M. Richards, D. J. Fox, and A. K. Dunn, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 066030 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ponticorvo, A.

W. J. Tom, A. Ponticorvo, and A. K. Dunn, IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 27, 1728 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, J.

J. Qiu, P. Li, W. Luo, J. Wang, H. Zhang, and Q. Luo, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 016003 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ramirez-San-Juan, J. C.

Ramos-Garcia, R.

Richards, L. M.

A. B. Parthasarathy, E. L. Weber, L. M. Richards, D. J. Fox, and A. K. Dunn, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 066030 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ross, E. V.

Y. C. Huang, N. Tran, P. R. Shumaker, K. Kelly, E. V. Ross, J. S. Nelson, and B. Choi, Lasers Surg. Med. 41, 563(2009).
[CrossRef]

Shumaker, P. R.

Y. C. Huang, N. Tran, P. R. Shumaker, K. Kelly, E. V. Ross, J. S. Nelson, and B. Choi, Lasers Surg. Med. 41, 563(2009).
[CrossRef]

Tom, W. J.

W. J. Tom, A. Ponticorvo, and A. K. Dunn, IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 27, 1728 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tran, N.

Y. C. Huang, N. Tran, P. R. Shumaker, K. Kelly, E. V. Ross, J. S. Nelson, and B. Choi, Lasers Surg. Med. 41, 563(2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

J. Qiu, P. Li, W. Luo, J. Wang, H. Zhang, and Q. Luo, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 016003 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, R. K.

Weber, E. L.

A. B. Parthasarathy, E. L. Weber, L. M. Richards, D. J. Fox, and A. K. Dunn, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 066030 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yang, O.

O. Yang, D. Cuccia, and B. Choi, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 016009 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H.

J. Qiu, P. Li, W. Luo, J. Wang, H. Zhang, and Q. Luo, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 016003 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ann. Biomed. Eng. (1)

A. K. Dunn, Ann. Biomed. Eng. 40, 367 (2012).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging (1)

W. J. Tom, A. Ponticorvo, and A. K. Dunn, IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 27, 1728 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (4)

J. Qiu, P. Li, W. Luo, J. Wang, H. Zhang, and Q. Luo, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 016003 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Parthasarathy, E. L. Weber, L. M. Richards, D. J. Fox, and A. K. Dunn, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 066030 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Boas and A. K. Dunn, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 011109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

O. Yang, D. Cuccia, and B. Choi, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 016009 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Lasers Surg. Med. (1)

Y. C. Huang, N. Tran, P. R. Shumaker, K. Kelly, E. V. Ross, J. S. Nelson, and B. Choi, Lasers Surg. Med. 41, 563(2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

A. F. Fercher and J. D. Briers, Opt. Commun. 37, 326 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Proc. SPIE (1)

A. G. Frederick Ayers, Danny Kuo, A. J. Durkin, and D. Cuccia, Proc. SPIE 6870, 687007 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

D. Coffin, “Decoding raw digital photos in Linux” (2012), http://www.cybercom.net/~dcoffin/dcraw/ .

Supplementary Material (1)

» Media 1: AVI (3983 KB)     

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Pixels of monochrome cameras are sensitive to light covering both visible and near-IR wavelengths. Color cameras have a Bayer matrix of pixels that only allow a certain wavelength range to pass through (namely red, green, and blue) to each pixel. For LSI, we used only the red pixels from the raw Bayer image of the color camera.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Plot of average speckle contrast value versus aperture for monochrome and color camera imaging of suspensions of methylcellulose and Intralipid.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Semilog plot of average speckle contrast value versus exposure time/shutter speed for monochrome and color camera imaging of suspensions of methylcellulose and Intralipid.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Plot of average speckle contrast value versus gain/ISO for monochrome and color camera imaging, respectively, of suspensions of methylcellulose and Intralipid.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Single frame excerpt of video taken from simultaneous imaging of a human palm during a reactive hyperemia experiment using both monochrome and color cameras (Media 1). The upper left and upper right images are SFI maps using raw images taken concurrently from a monochrome and a color camera, respectively. The bottom graph is a time trace of the average SFI value of an ROI (bounded by black lines) taken within the palm.

Metrics