Abstract

A novel approach to generating an ultraflat and stable optical frequency comb with tunable frequency spacing is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The proposed generator consists of a polarization modulator (PolM) and a polarizer. The joint operation of a PolM and a polarizer is equivalent to intensity modulation, but with a third controllable parameter in addition to the two controllable parameters in conventional intensity modulation. By tuning the three parameters, an ultraflat optical frequency comb with five comb lines is generated. By cascading the PolM with a second PolM, an ultra-flat optical frequency comb with 25 lines is generated. An experiment using two cascaded PolMs is performed. A 25- line frequency comb with the comb flatness within 1 dB is generated.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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  1. Z. Jiang, C. B. Huang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, Nature Photon. 1, 463 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  9. X. Zhou, X. P. Zheng, H. Wen, H. Y. Zhang, Y. L. Guo, and B. K. Zhou, Opt. Commun. 284, 3706 (2011).
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2012 (2)

P. J. Delfyett, I. Ozdur, N. Hoghooghi, M. Akbulut, J. Davila-Rodriguez, and S. Bhooplapur, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18, 258 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Yu, Z. Dong, J. W. Zhang, X. Xiao, H. C. Chien, and N. Chi, J. Lightwave Technol. 30, 458 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (2)

X. Zhou, X. P. Zheng, H. Wen, H. Y. Zhang, Y. L. Guo, and B. K. Zhou, Opt. Commun. 284, 3706 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Dou, H. M. Zhang, and M. Y. Yao, Opt. Lett. 36, 2749 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (4)

S. A. Diddams, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27, B51 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Hamidi, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 58, 3269 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Wu, V. Supradeepa, C. M. Long, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, Opt. Lett. 35, 3234 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Gagliardi, M. Salza, S. Avino, P. Ferraro, and P. De Natale, Science 330, 1081 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Nenadovic, and N. R. Newbury, Nature Photon. 3, 351 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Yamamoto, T. Komukai, K. Suzuki, and A. Takada, J. Lightwave Technol. 27, 4297 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

S. Ozharar, F. Quinlan, I. Ozdur, S. Gee, and P. J. Delfyett, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 36 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

Z. Jiang, C. B. Huang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, Nature Photon. 1, 463 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

J. D. Bull, N. A. F. Jaeger, H. Kato, M. Fairburn, A. Reid, and P. Ghanipour, Proc. SPIE 5577, 133 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Akbulut, M.

P. J. Delfyett, I. Ozdur, N. Hoghooghi, M. Akbulut, J. Davila-Rodriguez, and S. Bhooplapur, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18, 258 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Avino, S.

G. Gagliardi, M. Salza, S. Avino, P. Ferraro, and P. De Natale, Science 330, 1081 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bhooplapur, S.

P. J. Delfyett, I. Ozdur, N. Hoghooghi, M. Akbulut, J. Davila-Rodriguez, and S. Bhooplapur, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18, 258 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bull, J. D.

J. D. Bull, N. A. F. Jaeger, H. Kato, M. Fairburn, A. Reid, and P. Ghanipour, Proc. SPIE 5577, 133 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chi, N.

Chien, H. C.

Coddington, I.

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Nenadovic, and N. R. Newbury, Nature Photon. 3, 351 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Davila-Rodriguez, J.

P. J. Delfyett, I. Ozdur, N. Hoghooghi, M. Akbulut, J. Davila-Rodriguez, and S. Bhooplapur, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18, 258 (2012).
[CrossRef]

De Natale, P.

G. Gagliardi, M. Salza, S. Avino, P. Ferraro, and P. De Natale, Science 330, 1081 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Delfyett, P. J.

P. J. Delfyett, I. Ozdur, N. Hoghooghi, M. Akbulut, J. Davila-Rodriguez, and S. Bhooplapur, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18, 258 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Ozharar, F. Quinlan, I. Ozdur, S. Gee, and P. J. Delfyett, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 36 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Diddams, S. A.

Dong, Z.

Dou, Y. J.

Fairburn, M.

J. D. Bull, N. A. F. Jaeger, H. Kato, M. Fairburn, A. Reid, and P. Ghanipour, Proc. SPIE 5577, 133 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ferraro, P.

G. Gagliardi, M. Salza, S. Avino, P. Ferraro, and P. De Natale, Science 330, 1081 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gagliardi, G.

G. Gagliardi, M. Salza, S. Avino, P. Ferraro, and P. De Natale, Science 330, 1081 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gee, S.

S. Ozharar, F. Quinlan, I. Ozdur, S. Gee, and P. J. Delfyett, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 36 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ghanipour, P.

J. D. Bull, N. A. F. Jaeger, H. Kato, M. Fairburn, A. Reid, and P. Ghanipour, Proc. SPIE 5577, 133 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Guo, Y. L.

X. Zhou, X. P. Zheng, H. Wen, H. Y. Zhang, Y. L. Guo, and B. K. Zhou, Opt. Commun. 284, 3706 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hamidi, E.

E. Hamidi, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 58, 3269 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hoghooghi, N.

P. J. Delfyett, I. Ozdur, N. Hoghooghi, M. Akbulut, J. Davila-Rodriguez, and S. Bhooplapur, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18, 258 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Huang, C. B.

Z. Jiang, C. B. Huang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, Nature Photon. 1, 463 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jaeger, N. A. F.

J. D. Bull, N. A. F. Jaeger, H. Kato, M. Fairburn, A. Reid, and P. Ghanipour, Proc. SPIE 5577, 133 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, Z.

Z. Jiang, C. B. Huang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, Nature Photon. 1, 463 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kato, H.

J. D. Bull, N. A. F. Jaeger, H. Kato, M. Fairburn, A. Reid, and P. Ghanipour, Proc. SPIE 5577, 133 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Komukai, T.

Leaird, D. E.

R. Wu, V. Supradeepa, C. M. Long, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, Opt. Lett. 35, 3234 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Hamidi, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 58, 3269 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Jiang, C. B. Huang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, Nature Photon. 1, 463 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Long, C. M.

Nenadovic, L.

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Nenadovic, and N. R. Newbury, Nature Photon. 3, 351 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Newbury, N. R.

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Nenadovic, and N. R. Newbury, Nature Photon. 3, 351 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ozdur, I.

P. J. Delfyett, I. Ozdur, N. Hoghooghi, M. Akbulut, J. Davila-Rodriguez, and S. Bhooplapur, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18, 258 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Ozharar, F. Quinlan, I. Ozdur, S. Gee, and P. J. Delfyett, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 36 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ozharar, S.

S. Ozharar, F. Quinlan, I. Ozdur, S. Gee, and P. J. Delfyett, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 36 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Quinlan, F.

S. Ozharar, F. Quinlan, I. Ozdur, S. Gee, and P. J. Delfyett, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 36 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Reid, A.

J. D. Bull, N. A. F. Jaeger, H. Kato, M. Fairburn, A. Reid, and P. Ghanipour, Proc. SPIE 5577, 133 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Salza, M.

G. Gagliardi, M. Salza, S. Avino, P. Ferraro, and P. De Natale, Science 330, 1081 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Supradeepa, V.

Suzuki, K.

Swann, W. C.

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Nenadovic, and N. R. Newbury, Nature Photon. 3, 351 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Takada, A.

Weiner, A. M.

R. Wu, V. Supradeepa, C. M. Long, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, Opt. Lett. 35, 3234 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Hamidi, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 58, 3269 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Jiang, C. B. Huang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, Nature Photon. 1, 463 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wen, H.

X. Zhou, X. P. Zheng, H. Wen, H. Y. Zhang, Y. L. Guo, and B. K. Zhou, Opt. Commun. 284, 3706 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wu, R.

Xiao, X.

Yamamoto, T.

Yao, M. Y.

Yu, J. J.

Zhang, H. M.

Zhang, H. Y.

X. Zhou, X. P. Zheng, H. Wen, H. Y. Zhang, Y. L. Guo, and B. K. Zhou, Opt. Commun. 284, 3706 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J. W.

Zheng, X. P.

X. Zhou, X. P. Zheng, H. Wen, H. Y. Zhang, Y. L. Guo, and B. K. Zhou, Opt. Commun. 284, 3706 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, B. K.

X. Zhou, X. P. Zheng, H. Wen, H. Y. Zhang, Y. L. Guo, and B. K. Zhou, Opt. Commun. 284, 3706 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, X.

X. Zhou, X. P. Zheng, H. Wen, H. Y. Zhang, Y. L. Guo, and B. K. Zhou, Opt. Commun. 284, 3706 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

P. J. Delfyett, I. Ozdur, N. Hoghooghi, M. Akbulut, J. Davila-Rodriguez, and S. Bhooplapur, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18, 258 (2012).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

S. Ozharar, F. Quinlan, I. Ozdur, S. Gee, and P. J. Delfyett, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 36 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. (1)

E. Hamidi, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 58, 3269 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nature Photon. (2)

Z. Jiang, C. B. Huang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, Nature Photon. 1, 463 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Nenadovic, and N. R. Newbury, Nature Photon. 3, 351 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

X. Zhou, X. P. Zheng, H. Wen, H. Y. Zhang, Y. L. Guo, and B. K. Zhou, Opt. Commun. 284, 3706 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Proc. SPIE (1)

J. D. Bull, N. A. F. Jaeger, H. Kato, M. Fairburn, A. Reid, and P. Ghanipour, Proc. SPIE 5577, 133 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

G. Gagliardi, M. Salza, S. Avino, P. Ferraro, and P. De Natale, Science 330, 1081 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic diagram of the proposed optical frequency comb generator based on cascaded polarization modulators. LD: laser diode; PC: polarization controller; PolM: polarization modulator; RF: radio frequency; Pol: polarizer; OSA: optical spectrum analyzer; and Syn: synchronization.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Optical spectra of (a) the five-line frequency comb with a spacing of 20 GHz generated by a single PolM and (b) the 25-line frequency comb with a spacing of 4 GHz generated by two cascaded PolMs.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Optical spectra of the five-line frequency comb with a spacing of (a) 17.5 GHz and (c) 25 GHz generated by a single PolM, and the 25-line frequency comb with a spacing of (b) 3.5 GHz and (d) 5 GHz generated by two cascaded PolMs.

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

[Ex1(t)Ey1(t)][exp(jβ1sinωm1t)exp(jβ1sinωm1t)],
Eo[exp(jβ1sinωm1t)cosα1+exp(jϕ1jβ1sinωm1t)sinα1],
Eok=+Jk(β1)[cosα1+(1)ksinα1exp(jϕ1)]exp[jkωm1t],
Eo0=J0(β1)[cosα1+sinα1exp(jϕ1)],Eo1=Eo1=exp(±jωm1t)J1(β1)[cosα1sinα1exp(jϕ1)],Eo2=Eo2=exp(±2jωm1t)J2(β1)[cosα1+sinα1exp(jϕ1)].
J0(β1)=J2(β1)
sin(2α1)cosϕ1=B21B2+1,
|Eo0|=|Eo1|=|Eo1|=|Eo2|=|Eo2|.

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