Abstract

A parabolic, multilayer x-ray mirror, which can be used with a general lab-based x-ray source, was designed and fabricated. A glass substrate for the mirror was fabricated. Its surface was determined by following the rotation of a parabolic curve and was polished precisely. On the substrate surface, six W/Al bilayers were deposited to form the multilayer mirror. The effects of the mirror on x-ray images were investigated based on the calculated modulation transfer function (MTF) and image intensity values. Higher MTF and intensity values of an x-ray image were obtained using the mirror.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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2010 (1)

M. G. Honnicke, X. Huang, J. W. Keister, C. N. Kodituwakku, and Y. Q. Cai, J. Synchrotron Radiat. 17, 3 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

I. Bukreeva, A. Surpi, A. Gerardino, S. Lagomarsino, F. Perennes, M. Altissimo, S. Cabrini, A. Carpentiero, A. Vicenzo, and P. Cavallotti, Opt. Commun. 259, 366 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

M. Hoheisel, R. Lawaczeck, H. Pietsch, and V. Arkadiev, Proc. SPIE 5745, 1087 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

Z. Zhong, F. A. Dilmanian, T. Bacarian, N. Zhong, D. Chapman, B. Ren, X. Y. Wu, and H. J. Weinmann, Med. Phys. 28, 1931 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

V. Protopopov, V. A. Shishkov, and V. A. Kalnov, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 4380 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

N. Yagi, Y. Suzuki, K. Umetani, Y. Kohmura, and K. Yamasaki, Med. Phys. 26, 2190 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

R. Follath and F. Senf, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 390, 388 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1995 (3)

1984 (1)

M. L. Giger and K. Doi, Med. Phys. 11, 287 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

J. A. Golovchenko, R. A. Levesque, and P. L. Cowan, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 52, 509 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Altissimo, M.

I. Bukreeva, A. Surpi, A. Gerardino, S. Lagomarsino, F. Perennes, M. Altissimo, S. Cabrini, A. Carpentiero, A. Vicenzo, and P. Cavallotti, Opt. Commun. 259, 366 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Arkadiev, V.

M. Hoheisel, R. Lawaczeck, H. Pietsch, and V. Arkadiev, Proc. SPIE 5745, 1087 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bacarian, T.

Z. Zhong, F. A. Dilmanian, T. Bacarian, N. Zhong, D. Chapman, B. Ren, X. Y. Wu, and H. J. Weinmann, Med. Phys. 28, 1931 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bukreeva, I.

I. Bukreeva, A. Surpi, A. Gerardino, S. Lagomarsino, F. Perennes, M. Altissimo, S. Cabrini, A. Carpentiero, A. Vicenzo, and P. Cavallotti, Opt. Commun. 259, 366 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cabrini, S.

I. Bukreeva, A. Surpi, A. Gerardino, S. Lagomarsino, F. Perennes, M. Altissimo, S. Cabrini, A. Carpentiero, A. Vicenzo, and P. Cavallotti, Opt. Commun. 259, 366 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cai, Y. Q.

M. G. Honnicke, X. Huang, J. W. Keister, C. N. Kodituwakku, and Y. Q. Cai, J. Synchrotron Radiat. 17, 3 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Carpentiero, A.

I. Bukreeva, A. Surpi, A. Gerardino, S. Lagomarsino, F. Perennes, M. Altissimo, S. Cabrini, A. Carpentiero, A. Vicenzo, and P. Cavallotti, Opt. Commun. 259, 366 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cavallotti, P.

I. Bukreeva, A. Surpi, A. Gerardino, S. Lagomarsino, F. Perennes, M. Altissimo, S. Cabrini, A. Carpentiero, A. Vicenzo, and P. Cavallotti, Opt. Commun. 259, 366 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chapman, D.

Z. Zhong, F. A. Dilmanian, T. Bacarian, N. Zhong, D. Chapman, B. Ren, X. Y. Wu, and H. J. Weinmann, Med. Phys. 28, 1931 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Christensen, F. E.

Cowan, P. L.

J. A. Golovchenko, R. A. Levesque, and P. L. Cowan, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 52, 509 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Dilmanian, F. A.

Z. Zhong, F. A. Dilmanian, T. Bacarian, N. Zhong, D. Chapman, B. Ren, X. Y. Wu, and H. J. Weinmann, Med. Phys. 28, 1931 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Doi, K.

M. L. Giger and K. Doi, Med. Phys. 11, 287 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Follath, R.

R. Follath and F. Senf, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 390, 388 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gerardino, A.

I. Bukreeva, A. Surpi, A. Gerardino, S. Lagomarsino, F. Perennes, M. Altissimo, S. Cabrini, A. Carpentiero, A. Vicenzo, and P. Cavallotti, Opt. Commun. 259, 366 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Giger, M. L.

M. L. Giger and K. Doi, Med. Phys. 11, 287 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Gobel, H.

M. Schuster and H. Gobel, J. Phys. D 28, 270 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Golovchenko, J. A.

J. A. Golovchenko, R. A. Levesque, and P. L. Cowan, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 52, 509 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Gorenstein, P.

Høghøj, P.

Hoheisel, M.

M. Hoheisel, R. Lawaczeck, H. Pietsch, and V. Arkadiev, Proc. SPIE 5745, 1087 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Honnicke, M. G.

M. G. Honnicke, X. Huang, J. W. Keister, C. N. Kodituwakku, and Y. Q. Cai, J. Synchrotron Radiat. 17, 3 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Huang, X.

M. G. Honnicke, X. Huang, J. W. Keister, C. N. Kodituwakku, and Y. Q. Cai, J. Synchrotron Radiat. 17, 3 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Joensen, K. D.

Kalnov, V. A.

V. Protopopov, V. A. Shishkov, and V. A. Kalnov, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 4380 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Keister, J. W.

M. G. Honnicke, X. Huang, J. W. Keister, C. N. Kodituwakku, and Y. Q. Cai, J. Synchrotron Radiat. 17, 3 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kodituwakku, C. N.

M. G. Honnicke, X. Huang, J. W. Keister, C. N. Kodituwakku, and Y. Q. Cai, J. Synchrotron Radiat. 17, 3 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kohmura, Y.

N. Yagi, Y. Suzuki, K. Umetani, Y. Kohmura, and K. Yamasaki, Med. Phys. 26, 2190 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kohn, V. G.

V. G. Kohn, Phys. Status Solidi B 187, 61 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lagomarsino, S.

I. Bukreeva, A. Surpi, A. Gerardino, S. Lagomarsino, F. Perennes, M. Altissimo, S. Cabrini, A. Carpentiero, A. Vicenzo, and P. Cavallotti, Opt. Commun. 259, 366 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lawaczeck, R.

M. Hoheisel, R. Lawaczeck, H. Pietsch, and V. Arkadiev, Proc. SPIE 5745, 1087 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Levesque, R. A.

J. A. Golovchenko, R. A. Levesque, and P. L. Cowan, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 52, 509 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Perennes, F.

I. Bukreeva, A. Surpi, A. Gerardino, S. Lagomarsino, F. Perennes, M. Altissimo, S. Cabrini, A. Carpentiero, A. Vicenzo, and P. Cavallotti, Opt. Commun. 259, 366 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pietsch, H.

M. Hoheisel, R. Lawaczeck, H. Pietsch, and V. Arkadiev, Proc. SPIE 5745, 1087 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Protopopov, V.

V. Protopopov, V. A. Shishkov, and V. A. Kalnov, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 4380 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ren, B.

Z. Zhong, F. A. Dilmanian, T. Bacarian, N. Zhong, D. Chapman, B. Ren, X. Y. Wu, and H. J. Weinmann, Med. Phys. 28, 1931 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Roll, J.

Schuster, M.

M. Schuster and H. Gobel, J. Phys. D 28, 270 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Senf, F.

R. Follath and F. Senf, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 390, 388 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shishkov, V. A.

V. Protopopov, V. A. Shishkov, and V. A. Kalnov, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 4380 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Surpi, A.

I. Bukreeva, A. Surpi, A. Gerardino, S. Lagomarsino, F. Perennes, M. Altissimo, S. Cabrini, A. Carpentiero, A. Vicenzo, and P. Cavallotti, Opt. Commun. 259, 366 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, Y.

N. Yagi, Y. Suzuki, K. Umetani, Y. Kohmura, and K. Yamasaki, Med. Phys. 26, 2190 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Szentgyorgyi, A.

Thoe, R.

Umetani, K.

N. Yagi, Y. Suzuki, K. Umetani, Y. Kohmura, and K. Yamasaki, Med. Phys. 26, 2190 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Vicenzo, A.

I. Bukreeva, A. Surpi, A. Gerardino, S. Lagomarsino, F. Perennes, M. Altissimo, S. Cabrini, A. Carpentiero, A. Vicenzo, and P. Cavallotti, Opt. Commun. 259, 366 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Voutov, P.

Weinmann, H. J.

Z. Zhong, F. A. Dilmanian, T. Bacarian, N. Zhong, D. Chapman, B. Ren, X. Y. Wu, and H. J. Weinmann, Med. Phys. 28, 1931 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wu, X. Y.

Z. Zhong, F. A. Dilmanian, T. Bacarian, N. Zhong, D. Chapman, B. Ren, X. Y. Wu, and H. J. Weinmann, Med. Phys. 28, 1931 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yagi, N.

N. Yagi, Y. Suzuki, K. Umetani, Y. Kohmura, and K. Yamasaki, Med. Phys. 26, 2190 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yamasaki, K.

N. Yagi, Y. Suzuki, K. Umetani, Y. Kohmura, and K. Yamasaki, Med. Phys. 26, 2190 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zhong, N.

Z. Zhong, F. A. Dilmanian, T. Bacarian, N. Zhong, D. Chapman, B. Ren, X. Y. Wu, and H. J. Weinmann, Med. Phys. 28, 1931 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhong, Z.

Z. Zhong, F. A. Dilmanian, T. Bacarian, N. Zhong, D. Chapman, B. Ren, X. Y. Wu, and H. J. Weinmann, Med. Phys. 28, 1931 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

J. Phys. D (1)

M. Schuster and H. Gobel, J. Phys. D 28, 270 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Synchrotron Radiat. (1)

M. G. Honnicke, X. Huang, J. W. Keister, C. N. Kodituwakku, and Y. Q. Cai, J. Synchrotron Radiat. 17, 3 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Med. Phys. (3)

Z. Zhong, F. A. Dilmanian, T. Bacarian, N. Zhong, D. Chapman, B. Ren, X. Y. Wu, and H. J. Weinmann, Med. Phys. 28, 1931 (2001).
[CrossRef]

N. Yagi, Y. Suzuki, K. Umetani, Y. Kohmura, and K. Yamasaki, Med. Phys. 26, 2190 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Giger and K. Doi, Med. Phys. 11, 287 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A (1)

R. Follath and F. Senf, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 390, 388 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

I. Bukreeva, A. Surpi, A. Gerardino, S. Lagomarsino, F. Perennes, M. Altissimo, S. Cabrini, A. Carpentiero, A. Vicenzo, and P. Cavallotti, Opt. Commun. 259, 366 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi B (1)

V. G. Kohn, Phys. Status Solidi B 187, 61 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

M. Hoheisel, R. Lawaczeck, H. Pietsch, and V. Arkadiev, Proc. SPIE 5745, 1087 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (2)

V. Protopopov, V. A. Shishkov, and V. A. Kalnov, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 4380 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Golovchenko, R. A. Levesque, and P. L. Cowan, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 52, 509 (1981).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Parabolic curve and (b) reflectivities of Kα and Kβ along incident angles.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Designed mirror shape, (b) fabricated glass substrate and (c) multilayer mirror, (d) geometric shape of the mirror surface and designed one, (e) representative mirror surface profile, and (f) SEM image of the cross section of the six W/Al bilayers.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Experimental setup, (b) a wood plate, and x-ray images taken, (c) using the multilayer mirror, and (d) without the mirror.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) MTF change along the spatial frequency and (b) intensity change of x-ray images along pixel number.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

y2=ax+a24,
χj=rj+χj+1.exp(i2ϕj)1+rj.χj+1.exp(i2ϕj),

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