Abstract

A dual-frequency liquid crystal based optical switch with orthogonally photo-patterned alignments is designed and fabricated. The cell gap is theoretically optimized for high switching performance. The measured extinction ratio of first diffraction order is over 20 dB with a low electric field of 3V/μm. The switch On-Off time are measured to be 350 μs and 600 μs, respectively, both of which have reached submillisecond scale. Moreover, the switch is polarization independent, which has been predicted theoretically and further proved experimentally. This design is suitable in wide applications requiring fast response and polarizer free properties.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. Yan, Y. Li, and S. T. Wu, Opt. Lett. 36, 1404 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  2. G. Zhu, J. N. Li, X. W. Lin, H. F. Wang, W. Hu, Z. G. Zheng, H. Q. Cui, D. Shen, and Y. Q. Lu, J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 20, 341 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  3. B. I. Senyuk, I. I. Smalyukh, and O. D. Lavrentovich, Opt. Lett. 30, 349 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. K. Srivastava, E. P. Pozhidaev, V. G. Chigrinov, and R. Manohar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 201106 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Y. H. Fan, H. W. Ren, X. Liang, Y. H. Lin, and S. T. Wu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2451 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Y. H. Wu, Y. H. Lin, Y. Q. Lu, H. W. Ren, Y. H. Fan, J. R. Wu, and S. T. Wu, Opt. Express 12, 6382 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. Q. Xianyu, S. T. Wu, and C. L. Lin, Liq. Cryst. 36, 717 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  8. P. D. Brimicombe, L. A. Parry-Jones, S. J. Elston, and E. P. Raynes, J. Appl. Phys. 98, 104104 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Y. Huang, C. H. Wen, and S. T. Wu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 021103 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. B. Golovin, S. V. Shiyanovskii, and O. D. Lavrentovich, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3864 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  15. Y. Q. Lu, X. Liang, Y. H. Wu, F. Du, and S. T. Wu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3354 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  16. W. Hu, A. K. Srivastava, X. W. Lin, X. Liang, Z. J. Wu, J. T. Sun, G. Zhu, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Q. Lu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 111116 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  17. X. J. Wang, Z. D. Huang, J. Feng, X. F. Chen, X. Liang, and Y. Q. Lu, Opt. Express 16, 13168 (2008).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (3)

G. Zhu, J. N. Li, X. W. Lin, H. F. Wang, W. Hu, Z. G. Zheng, H. Q. Cui, D. Shen, and Y. Q. Lu, J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 20, 341 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Wu, W. Hu, H. C. Hu, X. W. Lin, G. Zhu, J. W. Choi, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Q. Lu, Opt. Express 20, 16684 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. Hu, A. K. Srivastava, X. W. Lin, X. Liang, Z. J. Wu, J. T. Sun, G. Zhu, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Q. Lu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 111116 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (2)

J. Yan, Y. Li, and S. T. Wu, Opt. Lett. 36, 1404 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Srivastava, E. P. Pozhidaev, V. G. Chigrinov, and R. Manohar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 201106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

H. Q. Xianyu, S. T. Wu, and C. L. Lin, Liq. Cryst. 36, 717 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2006 (1)

Y. Huang, C. H. Wen, and S. T. Wu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 021103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

P. D. Brimicombe, L. A. Parry-Jones, S. J. Elston, and E. P. Raynes, J. Appl. Phys. 98, 104104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. I. Senyuk, I. I. Smalyukh, and O. D. Lavrentovich, Opt. Lett. 30, 349 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. Liang, Y. Q. Lu, Y. H. Wu, F. Du, H. Y. Wang, and S. T. Wu, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 1292 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

Y. Q. Lu, X. Liang, Y. H. Wu, F. Du, and S. T. Wu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3354 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Fan, H. W. Ren, X. Liang, Y. H. Lin, and S. T. Wu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2451 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Wu, Y. H. Lin, Y. Q. Lu, H. W. Ren, Y. H. Fan, J. R. Wu, and S. T. Wu, Opt. Express 12, 6382 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

A. B. Golovin, S. V. Shiyanovskii, and O. D. Lavrentovich, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3864 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

J. Chen, P. J. Bos, H. Vithana, and D. L. Johnson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2588 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bos, P. J.

J. Chen, P. J. Bos, H. Vithana, and D. L. Johnson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2588 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Brimicombe, P. D.

P. D. Brimicombe, L. A. Parry-Jones, S. J. Elston, and E. P. Raynes, J. Appl. Phys. 98, 104104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

J. Chen, P. J. Bos, H. Vithana, and D. L. Johnson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2588 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X. F.

Chigrinov, V.

W. Hu, A. K. Srivastava, X. W. Lin, X. Liang, Z. J. Wu, J. T. Sun, G. Zhu, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Q. Lu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 111116 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Wu, W. Hu, H. C. Hu, X. W. Lin, G. Zhu, J. W. Choi, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Q. Lu, Opt. Express 20, 16684 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chigrinov, V. G.

A. K. Srivastava, E. P. Pozhidaev, V. G. Chigrinov, and R. Manohar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 201106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Chigrinov, V. M. Kozenkov, and H. S. Kwok, Photoalignment of Liquid Crystalline Materials: Physics and Applications (Wiley, 2008).

Choi, J. W.

Cui, H. Q.

G. Zhu, J. N. Li, X. W. Lin, H. F. Wang, W. Hu, Z. G. Zheng, H. Q. Cui, D. Shen, and Y. Q. Lu, J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 20, 341 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Du, F.

X. Liang, Y. Q. Lu, Y. H. Wu, F. Du, H. Y. Wang, and S. T. Wu, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 1292 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Q. Lu, X. Liang, Y. H. Wu, F. Du, and S. T. Wu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3354 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Elston, S. J.

P. D. Brimicombe, L. A. Parry-Jones, S. J. Elston, and E. P. Raynes, J. Appl. Phys. 98, 104104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fan, Y. H.

Y. H. Wu, Y. H. Lin, Y. Q. Lu, H. W. Ren, Y. H. Fan, J. R. Wu, and S. T. Wu, Opt. Express 12, 6382 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Fan, H. W. Ren, X. Liang, Y. H. Lin, and S. T. Wu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2451 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Feng, J.

Golovin, A. B.

A. B. Golovin, S. V. Shiyanovskii, and O. D. Lavrentovich, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3864 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hu, H. C.

Hu, W.

H. Wu, W. Hu, H. C. Hu, X. W. Lin, G. Zhu, J. W. Choi, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Q. Lu, Opt. Express 20, 16684 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. Hu, A. K. Srivastava, X. W. Lin, X. Liang, Z. J. Wu, J. T. Sun, G. Zhu, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Q. Lu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 111116 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Zhu, J. N. Li, X. W. Lin, H. F. Wang, W. Hu, Z. G. Zheng, H. Q. Cui, D. Shen, and Y. Q. Lu, J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 20, 341 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y.

Y. Huang, C. H. Wen, and S. T. Wu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 021103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Z. D.

Johnson, D. L.

J. Chen, P. J. Bos, H. Vithana, and D. L. Johnson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2588 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kozenkov, V. M.

V. G. Chigrinov, V. M. Kozenkov, and H. S. Kwok, Photoalignment of Liquid Crystalline Materials: Physics and Applications (Wiley, 2008).

Kwok, H. S.

V. G. Chigrinov, V. M. Kozenkov, and H. S. Kwok, Photoalignment of Liquid Crystalline Materials: Physics and Applications (Wiley, 2008).

Lavrentovich, O. D.

B. I. Senyuk, I. I. Smalyukh, and O. D. Lavrentovich, Opt. Lett. 30, 349 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Golovin, S. V. Shiyanovskii, and O. D. Lavrentovich, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3864 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Li, J. N.

G. Zhu, J. N. Li, X. W. Lin, H. F. Wang, W. Hu, Z. G. Zheng, H. Q. Cui, D. Shen, and Y. Q. Lu, J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 20, 341 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

Liang, X.

W. Hu, A. K. Srivastava, X. W. Lin, X. Liang, Z. J. Wu, J. T. Sun, G. Zhu, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Q. Lu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 111116 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. J. Wang, Z. D. Huang, J. Feng, X. F. Chen, X. Liang, and Y. Q. Lu, Opt. Express 16, 13168 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Liang, Y. Q. Lu, Y. H. Wu, F. Du, H. Y. Wang, and S. T. Wu, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 1292 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Q. Lu, X. Liang, Y. H. Wu, F. Du, and S. T. Wu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3354 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Fan, H. W. Ren, X. Liang, Y. H. Lin, and S. T. Wu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2451 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. L.

H. Q. Xianyu, S. T. Wu, and C. L. Lin, Liq. Cryst. 36, 717 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lin, X. W.

G. Zhu, J. N. Li, X. W. Lin, H. F. Wang, W. Hu, Z. G. Zheng, H. Q. Cui, D. Shen, and Y. Q. Lu, J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 20, 341 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Wu, W. Hu, H. C. Hu, X. W. Lin, G. Zhu, J. W. Choi, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Q. Lu, Opt. Express 20, 16684 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. Hu, A. K. Srivastava, X. W. Lin, X. Liang, Z. J. Wu, J. T. Sun, G. Zhu, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Q. Lu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 111116 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Y. H.

Y. H. Fan, H. W. Ren, X. Liang, Y. H. Lin, and S. T. Wu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2451 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Wu, Y. H. Lin, Y. Q. Lu, H. W. Ren, Y. H. Fan, J. R. Wu, and S. T. Wu, Opt. Express 12, 6382 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Y. Q.

G. Zhu, J. N. Li, X. W. Lin, H. F. Wang, W. Hu, Z. G. Zheng, H. Q. Cui, D. Shen, and Y. Q. Lu, J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 20, 341 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Wu, W. Hu, H. C. Hu, X. W. Lin, G. Zhu, J. W. Choi, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Q. Lu, Opt. Express 20, 16684 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. Hu, A. K. Srivastava, X. W. Lin, X. Liang, Z. J. Wu, J. T. Sun, G. Zhu, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Q. Lu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 111116 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. J. Wang, Z. D. Huang, J. Feng, X. F. Chen, X. Liang, and Y. Q. Lu, Opt. Express 16, 13168 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Liang, Y. Q. Lu, Y. H. Wu, F. Du, H. Y. Wang, and S. T. Wu, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 1292 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Q. Lu, X. Liang, Y. H. Wu, F. Du, and S. T. Wu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3354 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Wu, Y. H. Lin, Y. Q. Lu, H. W. Ren, Y. H. Fan, J. R. Wu, and S. T. Wu, Opt. Express 12, 6382 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Manohar, R.

A. K. Srivastava, E. P. Pozhidaev, V. G. Chigrinov, and R. Manohar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 201106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Parry-Jones, L. A.

P. D. Brimicombe, L. A. Parry-Jones, S. J. Elston, and E. P. Raynes, J. Appl. Phys. 98, 104104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pozhidaev, E. P.

A. K. Srivastava, E. P. Pozhidaev, V. G. Chigrinov, and R. Manohar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 201106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Raynes, E. P.

P. D. Brimicombe, L. A. Parry-Jones, S. J. Elston, and E. P. Raynes, J. Appl. Phys. 98, 104104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ren, H. W.

Y. H. Wu, Y. H. Lin, Y. Q. Lu, H. W. Ren, Y. H. Fan, J. R. Wu, and S. T. Wu, Opt. Express 12, 6382 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Fan, H. W. Ren, X. Liang, Y. H. Lin, and S. T. Wu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2451 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Senyuk, B. I.

Shen, D.

G. Zhu, J. N. Li, X. W. Lin, H. F. Wang, W. Hu, Z. G. Zheng, H. Q. Cui, D. Shen, and Y. Q. Lu, J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 20, 341 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Shiyanovskii, S. V.

A. B. Golovin, S. V. Shiyanovskii, and O. D. Lavrentovich, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3864 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Smalyukh, I. I.

Srivastava, A. K.

W. Hu, A. K. Srivastava, X. W. Lin, X. Liang, Z. J. Wu, J. T. Sun, G. Zhu, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Q. Lu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 111116 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Srivastava, E. P. Pozhidaev, V. G. Chigrinov, and R. Manohar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 201106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sun, J. T.

W. Hu, A. K. Srivastava, X. W. Lin, X. Liang, Z. J. Wu, J. T. Sun, G. Zhu, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Q. Lu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 111116 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Vithana, H.

J. Chen, P. J. Bos, H. Vithana, and D. L. Johnson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2588 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H. F.

G. Zhu, J. N. Li, X. W. Lin, H. F. Wang, W. Hu, Z. G. Zheng, H. Q. Cui, D. Shen, and Y. Q. Lu, J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 20, 341 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H. Y.

X. Liang, Y. Q. Lu, Y. H. Wu, F. Du, H. Y. Wang, and S. T. Wu, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 1292 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X. J.

Wen, C. H.

Y. Huang, C. H. Wen, and S. T. Wu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 021103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wu, H.

Wu, J. R.

Wu, S. T.

J. Yan, Y. Li, and S. T. Wu, Opt. Lett. 36, 1404 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Q. Xianyu, S. T. Wu, and C. L. Lin, Liq. Cryst. 36, 717 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Huang, C. H. Wen, and S. T. Wu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 021103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Liang, Y. Q. Lu, Y. H. Wu, F. Du, H. Y. Wang, and S. T. Wu, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 1292 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Q. Lu, X. Liang, Y. H. Wu, F. Du, and S. T. Wu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3354 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Wu, Y. H. Lin, Y. Q. Lu, H. W. Ren, Y. H. Fan, J. R. Wu, and S. T. Wu, Opt. Express 12, 6382 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Fan, H. W. Ren, X. Liang, Y. H. Lin, and S. T. Wu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2451 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Y. H.

X. Liang, Y. Q. Lu, Y. H. Wu, F. Du, H. Y. Wang, and S. T. Wu, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 1292 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Q. Lu, X. Liang, Y. H. Wu, F. Du, and S. T. Wu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3354 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Wu, Y. H. Lin, Y. Q. Lu, H. W. Ren, Y. H. Fan, J. R. Wu, and S. T. Wu, Opt. Express 12, 6382 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Z. J.

W. Hu, A. K. Srivastava, X. W. Lin, X. Liang, Z. J. Wu, J. T. Sun, G. Zhu, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Q. Lu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 111116 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Xianyu, H. Q.

H. Q. Xianyu, S. T. Wu, and C. L. Lin, Liq. Cryst. 36, 717 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yan, J.

Zheng, Z. G.

G. Zhu, J. N. Li, X. W. Lin, H. F. Wang, W. Hu, Z. G. Zheng, H. Q. Cui, D. Shen, and Y. Q. Lu, J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 20, 341 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, G.

G. Zhu, J. N. Li, X. W. Lin, H. F. Wang, W. Hu, Z. G. Zheng, H. Q. Cui, D. Shen, and Y. Q. Lu, J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 20, 341 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Wu, W. Hu, H. C. Hu, X. W. Lin, G. Zhu, J. W. Choi, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Q. Lu, Opt. Express 20, 16684 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. Hu, A. K. Srivastava, X. W. Lin, X. Liang, Z. J. Wu, J. T. Sun, G. Zhu, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Q. Lu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 111116 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (7)

A. K. Srivastava, E. P. Pozhidaev, V. G. Chigrinov, and R. Manohar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 201106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Fan, H. W. Ren, X. Liang, Y. H. Lin, and S. T. Wu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2451 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Huang, C. H. Wen, and S. T. Wu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 021103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Golovin, S. V. Shiyanovskii, and O. D. Lavrentovich, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3864 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Chen, P. J. Bos, H. Vithana, and D. L. Johnson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2588 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Y. Q. Lu, X. Liang, Y. H. Wu, F. Du, and S. T. Wu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3354 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. Hu, A. K. Srivastava, X. W. Lin, X. Liang, Z. J. Wu, J. T. Sun, G. Zhu, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Q. Lu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 111116 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

P. D. Brimicombe, L. A. Parry-Jones, S. J. Elston, and E. P. Raynes, J. Appl. Phys. 98, 104104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Soc. Inf. Disp. (1)

G. Zhu, J. N. Li, X. W. Lin, H. F. Wang, W. Hu, Z. G. Zheng, H. Q. Cui, D. Shen, and Y. Q. Lu, J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 20, 341 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

X. Liang, Y. Q. Lu, Y. H. Wu, F. Du, H. Y. Wang, and S. T. Wu, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 1292 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liq. Cryst. (1)

H. Q. Xianyu, S. T. Wu, and C. L. Lin, Liq. Cryst. 36, 717 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (1)

V. G. Chigrinov, V. M. Kozenkov, and H. S. Kwok, Photoalignment of Liquid Crystalline Materials: Physics and Applications (Wiley, 2008).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Schematic illustration of the patterned HAN cell; (b) LC director distribution in y-z plane simulated by Techwiz LCD with two black lines marking the boundary region, and (c)–(e) micrographs of the sample, in each of which the relative directions of two polarizers compared with the stripes are labeled in arrows. All scale bars are 20 μm.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Voltage dependent intensities of first order at 1 kHz and 80 kHz. Insets show diffraction patterns at the On and Off states.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Switch performance of the sample and the applied signals.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Voltage dependent intensities of first order at 1 kHz and 80 kHz when the sample placing at three different directions: 0, 45, and 90 deg relative to the incident polarization.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

θ(z)=θ0(z)ΔεE22k(dπ)2sin(πzd).
neff(z)=nenone2sin2θ(z)+no2cos2θ(z).
|Δφx|=|Δφy|=0d2πλ(neff(z)no)dz=Δφ.
ηx,n=ηy,n=1n2π2(1cosΔφ)(1cos2πnlΛ)=ηn,
In=ηnE2(cos2α+sin2α)=ηnE2,
Δφ=2πλΔnd.

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