Abstract

We propose and experimentally demonstrate a novel subwavelength grating coupler on silicon-on-insulator, for coupling to optical fibers with a wide optical bandwidth. Theoretical analysis and design optimization of the coupler are described. About 73 nm 1 dB bandwidth was experimentally demonstrated with 5.6dB coupling efficiency. Better than 3.4dB efficiency with 86 nm 1 dB bandwidth is predicted for these structures with optimized buried oxide thickness.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 949 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6071 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  3. X. Chen, C. Li, and H. K. Tsang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1914 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. Scheerlinck, J. Schrauwen, F. Van Laere, D. Taillaert, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, Opt. Express 15, 9625 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  5. B. Wang, J. H. Jiang, and G. P. Nordin, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1884 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, Electron. Lett. 38, 1669 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. Halir, P. Cheben, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, I. Molina-Fernández, and J. G. Wangüemert Pérez, Opt. Lett. 34, 1408 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  8. X. Chen and H. K. Tsang, IEEE Photon. J. 1, 184 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. Vermeulen, S. Selvaraja, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, W. Bogaerts, P. Absil, D. Van Thourhout, and G. Roelkens, Opt. Express 18, 18278 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  10. C. R. Doerr, L. Chen, Y.-K. Chen, and L. L. Buhl, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1461 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Z. Xiao, F. Luan, T.-Y. Liow, J. Zhang, and P. Shum, Opt. Lett. 37, 530 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  12. X. Chen, C. Fung, Y. M. Chen, and H. K. Tsang, in Proceedings of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (2011), paper CMO4.
  13. R. Halir, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, R. Ma, D. Bedard, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, J. Lapointe, and I. Molina-Fernández, Opt. Lett. 35, 3243 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. H. Schmid, P. Cheben, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, E. Post, and D.-X. Xu, Opt. Lett. 32, 1794 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  15. L. Liu, M. Pu, K. Yvind, and J. M. Hvam, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 051126 (2010).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (1)

2010 (4)

2009 (2)

2008 (1)

X. Chen, C. Li, and H. K. Tsang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1914 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

2006 (1)

D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6071 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

B. Wang, J. H. Jiang, and G. P. Nordin, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1884 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, Electron. Lett. 38, 1669 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 949 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Absil, P.

Ayre, M.

D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6071 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Baets, R.

S. Scheerlinck, J. Schrauwen, F. Van Laere, D. Taillaert, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, Opt. Express 15, 9625 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6071 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 949 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bedard, D.

Bienstman, P.

D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6071 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 949 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bogaerts, W.

D. Vermeulen, S. Selvaraja, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, W. Bogaerts, P. Absil, D. Van Thourhout, and G. Roelkens, Opt. Express 18, 18278 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6071 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 949 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Buhl, L. L.

C. R. Doerr, L. Chen, Y.-K. Chen, and L. L. Buhl, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1461 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cheben, P.

Chen, L.

C. R. Doerr, L. Chen, Y.-K. Chen, and L. L. Buhl, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1461 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X.

X. Chen and H. K. Tsang, IEEE Photon. J. 1, 184 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Chen, C. Li, and H. K. Tsang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1914 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Chen, C. Fung, Y. M. Chen, and H. K. Tsang, in Proceedings of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (2011), paper CMO4.

Chen, Y. M.

X. Chen, C. Fung, Y. M. Chen, and H. K. Tsang, in Proceedings of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (2011), paper CMO4.

Chen, Y.-K.

C. R. Doerr, L. Chen, Y.-K. Chen, and L. L. Buhl, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1461 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Daele, P. Van

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 949 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Densmore, A.

Doerr, C. R.

C. R. Doerr, L. Chen, Y.-K. Chen, and L. L. Buhl, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1461 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fung, C.

X. Chen, C. Fung, Y. M. Chen, and H. K. Tsang, in Proceedings of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (2011), paper CMO4.

Halir, R.

Hvam, J. M.

L. Liu, M. Pu, K. Yvind, and J. M. Hvam, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 051126 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Janz, S.

Jiang, J. H.

B. Wang, J. H. Jiang, and G. P. Nordin, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1884 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Krauss, T. F.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 949 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Laere, F. Van

S. Scheerlinck, J. Schrauwen, F. Van Laere, D. Taillaert, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, Opt. Express 15, 9625 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6071 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lapointe, J.

Lepage, G.

Li, C.

X. Chen, C. Li, and H. K. Tsang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1914 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liow, T.-Y.

Liu, L.

L. Liu, M. Pu, K. Yvind, and J. M. Hvam, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 051126 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Luan, F.

Ma, R.

Mesel, K. De

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 949 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Moerman, I.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 949 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Molina-Fernández, I.

Morita, H.

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, Electron. Lett. 38, 1669 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nordin, G. P.

B. Wang, J. H. Jiang, and G. P. Nordin, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1884 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Post, E.

Pu, M.

L. Liu, M. Pu, K. Yvind, and J. M. Hvam, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 051126 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Roelkens, G.

Scheerlinck, S.

Schmid, J. H.

Schrauwen, J.

Selvaraja, S.

Shoji, T.

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, Electron. Lett. 38, 1669 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shum, P.

Taillaert, D.

S. Scheerlinck, J. Schrauwen, F. Van Laere, D. Taillaert, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, Opt. Express 15, 9625 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6071 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 949 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Thourhout, D. Van

Tsang, H. K.

X. Chen and H. K. Tsang, IEEE Photon. J. 1, 184 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Chen, C. Li, and H. K. Tsang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1914 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Chen, C. Fung, Y. M. Chen, and H. K. Tsang, in Proceedings of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (2011), paper CMO4.

Tsuchizawa, T.

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, Electron. Lett. 38, 1669 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Verheyen, P.

Vermeulen, D.

Verstuyft, S.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 949 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wang, B.

B. Wang, J. H. Jiang, and G. P. Nordin, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1884 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wangüemert Pérez, J. G.

Watanabe, T.

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, Electron. Lett. 38, 1669 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, Z.

Xu, D.-X.

Yamada, K.

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, Electron. Lett. 38, 1669 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yvind, K.

L. Liu, M. Pu, K. Yvind, and J. M. Hvam, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 051126 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

L. Liu, M. Pu, K. Yvind, and J. M. Hvam, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 051126 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, Electron. Lett. 38, 1669 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 949 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. J. (1)

X. Chen and H. K. Tsang, IEEE Photon. J. 1, 184 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

C. R. Doerr, L. Chen, Y.-K. Chen, and L. L. Buhl, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1461 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Chen, C. Li, and H. K. Tsang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1914 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Wang, J. H. Jiang, and G. P. Nordin, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1884 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6071 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Other (1)

X. Chen, C. Fung, Y. M. Chen, and H. K. Tsang, in Proceedings of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (2011), paper CMO4.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Three-dimensional schematic illustration of the wideband subwavelength grating coupler. (b) Schematic top-view of cycled region of grating. An antireflective structure is adopted to reduce the back reflection. (c) Schematic side-view of the grating.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Calculated coupling strength α for various lateral fill factor fy for 1550 nm wavelength, fx=0.5, and coupling angle θ=10°. The periods required according to the phase matching equation are also plotted. (b) The back reflected power was calculated by 2D FDTD simulations for various lengths (LAR) of the AR region.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

SEM images of the fabricated subwavelength wideband grating couplers. The cladding oxide was removed before taking these images.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Simulated coupling efficiency with 2 and 1.64 μm (optimized) thick BOX, and only oxide substrate for the proposed subwavelength grating. (b) Experimentally measured results with 2 μm BOX.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

koneff(λ)=koncsinθ+q2πΛ,
neff(λ)λ=ncsinθλ+1Λ.
dλdθ=d(Λ(neff(λ)ncsinθ))dθ=Λdneff(λ)dλ·dλdθΛnccosθ,
Δλ1dB=η1dB|dλdθ|=η1dB|Λnccosθ1Λdneff(λ)dλ|.
Δλ1dB=η1dB|nccosθneff(λ0)ncsinθλ0dneff(λ)dλ|,

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