Abstract

We describe a method that enables free-standing whispering-gallery-mode microresonators, and report spectral tuning of photonic molecules formed by coupled free and on-chip resonators with different geometries and materials. We study direct coupling via evanescent fields of free silica microtoroids and microspheres with on-chip polymer coated silica microtoroids. We demonstrate thermal tuning of resonance modes to achieve maximal spectral overlap, mode splitting induced by direct coupling, and the effects of distance between the resonators on the splitting spectra.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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  1. K. J. Vahala, Optical Microcavities (World Scientific, 2004).
  2. J. Zhu, S. K. Ozdemir, Y. F. Xiao, L. Li, L. He, D. Chen, and L. Yang, Nat. Photon. 4, 46 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  4. T. J. Kippenberg and K. J. Vahala, Opt. Express 15, 17172 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. Naweed, G. Farca, S. I. Shopova, and A. T. Rosenberger, Phys. Rev. A 71, 043804 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. L. Maleki, A. B. Matsko, A. A. Savchenkov, and V. S. Ilchenko, Opt. Lett. 29, 626 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, P. P. Absil, J. V. Hryniewicz, F. G. Johnson, F. Seiferth, D. Gill, V. Van, O. King, and M. Trakalo, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2263 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. A. Savchenkov, V. S. Ilchenko, A. B. Matsko, and L. Maleki, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 136 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Q. Li, T. Wang, Y. Su, M. Yan, and M. Qiu, Opt. Express 18, 8367 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  11. A. V. Kanaev, V. N. Astratov, and W. Cai, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 111111 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  15. I. S. Grudinin, H. Lee, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 083901 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  16. A. Forchel, M. Bayer, J. P. Reithmaier, T. L. Reineche, and V. D. Kulakovskii, Phys. E 7, 616 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  17. Y. P. Rakovich and J. F. Donegan, Laser Photon. Rev. 4, 179 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  18. S. V. Boriskina and L. D. Negro, Opt. Lett. 35, 2496 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  19. M. Cai and K. J. Vahala, Opt. Lett. 26, 884 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  20. D. K. Armani, T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, Nature 421, 925 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  21. L. He, Y. F. Xiao, J. Zhu, S. K. Ozdemir, and L. Yang, Opt. Express 17, 9571 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  23. S. Yang and V. N. Astratov, Opt. Lett. 34, 2057 (2009).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (2)

L. He, S. K. Ozdemir, J. Zhu, W. Kim, and L. Yang, Nat. Nanotechnol. 6, 428 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Benyoucef, J. B. Shim, J. Wiersig, and O. G. Schmidt, Opt. Lett. 36, 1317 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (5)

I. S. Grudinin, H. Lee, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 083901 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhu, S. K. Ozdemir, Y. F. Xiao, L. Li, L. He, D. Chen, and L. Yang, Nat. Photon. 4, 46 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. P. Rakovich and J. F. Donegan, Laser Photon. Rev. 4, 179 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. V. Boriskina and L. D. Negro, Opt. Lett. 35, 2496 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Q. Li, T. Wang, Y. Su, M. Yan, and M. Qiu, Opt. Express 18, 8367 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

2008 (2)

Y. Xiao, B. Min, X. Jiang, C. Dong, and L. Yang, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 1065 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Atlasov, K. F. Karlsson, A. Rudra, B. Dwir, and E. Kapon, Opt. Express 16, 16255 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

2006 (2)

A. V. Kanaev, V. N. Astratov, and W. Cai, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 111111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Ashili, V. N. Astratov, and E. C. Sykes, Opt. Express 14, 9460 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

A. Naweed, G. Farca, S. I. Shopova, and A. T. Rosenberger, Phys. Rev. A 71, 043804 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Savchenkov, V. S. Ilchenko, A. B. Matsko, and L. Maleki, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 136 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

L. Maleki, A. B. Matsko, A. A. Savchenkov, and V. S. Ilchenko, Opt. Lett. 29, 626 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, P. P. Absil, J. V. Hryniewicz, F. G. Johnson, F. Seiferth, D. Gill, V. Van, O. King, and M. Trakalo, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2263 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

D. K. Armani, T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, Nature 421, 925 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

2000 (1)

A. Forchel, M. Bayer, J. P. Reithmaier, T. L. Reineche, and V. D. Kulakovskii, Phys. E 7, 616 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Absil, P. P.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, P. P. Absil, J. V. Hryniewicz, F. G. Johnson, F. Seiferth, D. Gill, V. Van, O. King, and M. Trakalo, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2263 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Armani, D. K.

D. K. Armani, T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, Nature 421, 925 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ashili, S. P.

Astratov, V. N.

Atlasov, K. A.

Bayer, M.

A. Forchel, M. Bayer, J. P. Reithmaier, T. L. Reineche, and V. D. Kulakovskii, Phys. E 7, 616 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Benyoucef, M.

Boriskina, S. V.

Cai, M.

Cai, W.

A. V. Kanaev, V. N. Astratov, and W. Cai, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 111111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, D.

J. Zhu, S. K. Ozdemir, Y. F. Xiao, L. Li, L. He, D. Chen, and L. Yang, Nat. Photon. 4, 46 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chu, S. T.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, P. P. Absil, J. V. Hryniewicz, F. G. Johnson, F. Seiferth, D. Gill, V. Van, O. King, and M. Trakalo, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2263 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Donegan, J. F.

Y. P. Rakovich and J. F. Donegan, Laser Photon. Rev. 4, 179 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dong, C.

Y. Xiao, B. Min, X. Jiang, C. Dong, and L. Yang, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 1065 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dwir, B.

Farca, G.

A. Naweed, G. Farca, S. I. Shopova, and A. T. Rosenberger, Phys. Rev. A 71, 043804 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Forchel, A.

A. Forchel, M. Bayer, J. P. Reithmaier, T. L. Reineche, and V. D. Kulakovskii, Phys. E 7, 616 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gill, D.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, P. P. Absil, J. V. Hryniewicz, F. G. Johnson, F. Seiferth, D. Gill, V. Van, O. King, and M. Trakalo, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2263 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Grudinin, I. S.

I. S. Grudinin, H. Lee, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 083901 (2010).
[CrossRef]

He, L.

L. He, S. K. Ozdemir, J. Zhu, W. Kim, and L. Yang, Nat. Nanotechnol. 6, 428 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhu, S. K. Ozdemir, Y. F. Xiao, L. Li, L. He, D. Chen, and L. Yang, Nat. Photon. 4, 46 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. He, Y. F. Xiao, J. Zhu, S. K. Ozdemir, and L. Yang, Opt. Express 17, 9571 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hossein-Zadeh, M.

Hryniewicz, J. V.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, P. P. Absil, J. V. Hryniewicz, F. G. Johnson, F. Seiferth, D. Gill, V. Van, O. King, and M. Trakalo, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2263 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ilchenko, V. S.

A. A. Savchenkov, V. S. Ilchenko, A. B. Matsko, and L. Maleki, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 136 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Maleki, A. B. Matsko, A. A. Savchenkov, and V. S. Ilchenko, Opt. Lett. 29, 626 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, X.

Y. Xiao, B. Min, X. Jiang, C. Dong, and L. Yang, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 1065 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, F. G.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, P. P. Absil, J. V. Hryniewicz, F. G. Johnson, F. Seiferth, D. Gill, V. Van, O. King, and M. Trakalo, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2263 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kanaev, A. V.

A. V. Kanaev, V. N. Astratov, and W. Cai, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 111111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kapon, E.

Karlsson, K. F.

Kim, W.

L. He, S. K. Ozdemir, J. Zhu, W. Kim, and L. Yang, Nat. Nanotechnol. 6, 428 (2011).
[CrossRef]

King, O.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, P. P. Absil, J. V. Hryniewicz, F. G. Johnson, F. Seiferth, D. Gill, V. Van, O. King, and M. Trakalo, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2263 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kippenberg, T. J.

T. J. Kippenberg and K. J. Vahala, Opt. Express 15, 17172 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Armani, T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, Nature 421, 925 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kulakovskii, V. D.

A. Forchel, M. Bayer, J. P. Reithmaier, T. L. Reineche, and V. D. Kulakovskii, Phys. E 7, 616 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H.

I. S. Grudinin, H. Lee, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 083901 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, L.

J. Zhu, S. K. Ozdemir, Y. F. Xiao, L. Li, L. He, D. Chen, and L. Yang, Nat. Photon. 4, 46 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, Q.

Little, B. E.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, P. P. Absil, J. V. Hryniewicz, F. G. Johnson, F. Seiferth, D. Gill, V. Van, O. King, and M. Trakalo, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2263 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Maleki, L.

A. A. Savchenkov, V. S. Ilchenko, A. B. Matsko, and L. Maleki, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 136 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Maleki, A. B. Matsko, A. A. Savchenkov, and V. S. Ilchenko, Opt. Lett. 29, 626 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Matsko, A. B.

A. A. Savchenkov, V. S. Ilchenko, A. B. Matsko, and L. Maleki, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 136 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Maleki, A. B. Matsko, A. A. Savchenkov, and V. S. Ilchenko, Opt. Lett. 29, 626 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Min, B.

Y. Xiao, B. Min, X. Jiang, C. Dong, and L. Yang, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 1065 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Naweed, A.

A. Naweed, G. Farca, S. I. Shopova, and A. T. Rosenberger, Phys. Rev. A 71, 043804 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Negro, L. D.

Ozdemir, S. K.

L. He, S. K. Ozdemir, J. Zhu, W. Kim, and L. Yang, Nat. Nanotechnol. 6, 428 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhu, S. K. Ozdemir, Y. F. Xiao, L. Li, L. He, D. Chen, and L. Yang, Nat. Photon. 4, 46 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. He, Y. F. Xiao, J. Zhu, S. K. Ozdemir, and L. Yang, Opt. Express 17, 9571 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Painter, O.

I. S. Grudinin, H. Lee, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 083901 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, M.

Rakovich, Y. P.

Y. P. Rakovich and J. F. Donegan, Laser Photon. Rev. 4, 179 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Reineche, T. L.

A. Forchel, M. Bayer, J. P. Reithmaier, T. L. Reineche, and V. D. Kulakovskii, Phys. E 7, 616 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Reithmaier, J. P.

A. Forchel, M. Bayer, J. P. Reithmaier, T. L. Reineche, and V. D. Kulakovskii, Phys. E 7, 616 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rosenberger, A. T.

A. Naweed, G. Farca, S. I. Shopova, and A. T. Rosenberger, Phys. Rev. A 71, 043804 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rudra, A.

Savchenkov, A. A.

A. A. Savchenkov, V. S. Ilchenko, A. B. Matsko, and L. Maleki, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 136 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Maleki, A. B. Matsko, A. A. Savchenkov, and V. S. Ilchenko, Opt. Lett. 29, 626 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, O. G.

Seiferth, F.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, P. P. Absil, J. V. Hryniewicz, F. G. Johnson, F. Seiferth, D. Gill, V. Van, O. King, and M. Trakalo, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2263 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shim, J. B.

Shopova, S. I.

A. Naweed, G. Farca, S. I. Shopova, and A. T. Rosenberger, Phys. Rev. A 71, 043804 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Spillane, S. M.

D. K. Armani, T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, Nature 421, 925 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Su, Y.

Sykes, E. C.

Trakalo, M.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, P. P. Absil, J. V. Hryniewicz, F. G. Johnson, F. Seiferth, D. Gill, V. Van, O. King, and M. Trakalo, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2263 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Vahala, K. J.

I. S. Grudinin, H. Lee, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 083901 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Kippenberg and K. J. Vahala, Opt. Express 15, 17172 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Hossein-Zadeh and K. J. Vahala, Opt. Express 15, 166 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Armani, T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, Nature 421, 925 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Cai and K. J. Vahala, Opt. Lett. 26, 884 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Vahala, Optical Microcavities (World Scientific, 2004).

Van, V.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, P. P. Absil, J. V. Hryniewicz, F. G. Johnson, F. Seiferth, D. Gill, V. Van, O. King, and M. Trakalo, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2263 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, T.

Wiersig, J.

Xiao, Y.

Y. Xiao, B. Min, X. Jiang, C. Dong, and L. Yang, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 1065 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, Y. F.

J. Zhu, S. K. Ozdemir, Y. F. Xiao, L. Li, L. He, D. Chen, and L. Yang, Nat. Photon. 4, 46 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. He, Y. F. Xiao, J. Zhu, S. K. Ozdemir, and L. Yang, Opt. Express 17, 9571 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yan, M.

Yang, L.

L. He, S. K. Ozdemir, J. Zhu, W. Kim, and L. Yang, Nat. Nanotechnol. 6, 428 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhu, S. K. Ozdemir, Y. F. Xiao, L. Li, L. He, D. Chen, and L. Yang, Nat. Photon. 4, 46 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. He, Y. F. Xiao, J. Zhu, S. K. Ozdemir, and L. Yang, Opt. Express 17, 9571 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Xiao, B. Min, X. Jiang, C. Dong, and L. Yang, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 1065 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yang, S.

Zhu, J.

L. He, S. K. Ozdemir, J. Zhu, W. Kim, and L. Yang, Nat. Nanotechnol. 6, 428 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhu, S. K. Ozdemir, Y. F. Xiao, L. Li, L. He, D. Chen, and L. Yang, Nat. Photon. 4, 46 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. He, Y. F. Xiao, J. Zhu, S. K. Ozdemir, and L. Yang, Opt. Express 17, 9571 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. V. Kanaev, V. N. Astratov, and W. Cai, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 111111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

Y. Xiao, B. Min, X. Jiang, C. Dong, and L. Yang, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 1065 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, P. P. Absil, J. V. Hryniewicz, F. G. Johnson, F. Seiferth, D. Gill, V. Van, O. King, and M. Trakalo, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2263 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Savchenkov, V. S. Ilchenko, A. B. Matsko, and L. Maleki, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 136 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Laser Photon. Rev. (1)

Y. P. Rakovich and J. F. Donegan, Laser Photon. Rev. 4, 179 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (1)

L. He, S. K. Ozdemir, J. Zhu, W. Kim, and L. Yang, Nat. Nanotechnol. 6, 428 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photon. (1)

J. Zhu, S. K. Ozdemir, Y. F. Xiao, L. Li, L. He, D. Chen, and L. Yang, Nat. Photon. 4, 46 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

D. K. Armani, T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, Nature 421, 925 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (6)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Phys. E (1)

A. Forchel, M. Bayer, J. P. Reithmaier, T. L. Reineche, and V. D. Kulakovskii, Phys. E 7, 616 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

A. Naweed, G. Farca, S. I. Shopova, and A. T. Rosenberger, Phys. Rev. A 71, 043804 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

I. S. Grudinin, H. Lee, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 083901 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

K. J. Vahala, Optical Microcavities (World Scientific, 2004).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental setup (a) and the optical microscope images of the photonic molecules (PMs) formed by (b) an on-chip silica microtoroid and a free silica microtoroid, and (c) an on-chip PDMS coated silica microtoroid and a free silica microsphere. PC and PD denote the polarization controller and the photodetector, respectively.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Thermal tuning of selected WGM modes of the resonators in PM2. Normalized transmission spectra obtained for (a) silica microsphere and (b) PDMS coated silica microtoroid. (c) Series of normalized transmission spectra taken in 1550 nm band, showing thermal tuning.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Transmission spectra of (a) PM1 and (b) PM2 as the distance between the resonators forming each PM is decreased from 1.5 μm with a step-resolution of 100 nm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Simulation results showing the resonance frequencies of the supermodes and the splitting (inset) as a function of the gap between the resonators. Also shown in the inset are the field distributions of symmetric and asymmetric supermodes. (b) Experimental result showing linewidth crossing. Inset is the experimental confirmation of the exponential dependence of splitting on the gap between the resonators in PM1 (asterisk) and PM2 (open circle).

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

d a 1 d t = α 1 a 1 i g a 2 κ c a in ,
d a 2 d t = α 2 a 2 i g a 1 ,
T = | 1 + κ c α 2 α 1 α 2 + g 2 | 2
ω ± = i ( α 1 + α 2 ) 2 ± g 2 ( α 1 α 2 ) 2 / 4 ,

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