Abstract

A single-frame overdriving scheme was employed to improve the temporal response of the active matrix addressing liquid-crystal spatial light modulator used in an open-loop adaptive optics system (OLAOS). Optimal time distribution giving minimum wavefront residual error for the OLAOS was demonstrated. As a result, the measured 3 decibels rejection frequency was increased from 26 to 35 Hz, and the image quality was significantly improved.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. N. Konforti, E. Marom, and S. T. Wu, Opt. Lett. 13, 251 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  2. G. D. Love, J. S. Fender, and S. R. Restaino, Opt. Photon. News 6(10), 16 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. Gourlay, G. D. Love, P. M. Birch, R. M. Sharples, and A. Purvis, Opt. Commun. 137, 17 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  4. G. D. Love, in Adaptive Optics Engineering Handbook, R. K. Tyson, ed. (Marcel Dekker, 2000), p. 273.
  5. S. Restaino, in Optical Applications of Liquid Crystals, L. Vicari, ed. (Institute of Physics, 2003), p. 118.
  6. L. N. Thibos and A. Bradley, Optom. Vis. Sci. 74, 581 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  7. P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, Proc. IEEE 84, 268 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. Restaino, D. Dayton, S. Browne, J. Gonglewski, J. Baker, S. Rogers, S. Mcdermott, J. Gallegos, and M. Shilko, Opt. Express 6, 2 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. Dayton, S. Browne, J. Gonglewski, and S. Restaino, Appl. Opt. 40, 2345 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S.-T. Wu and C.-S. Wu, J. Appl. Phys. 65, 527 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Y. H. Fan, Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, S. Gauza, and S. T. Wu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1233 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. Sun, H. Xianyu, Y. Chen, and S.-T. Wu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 021106 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  13. G. D. Love, A. K. Kirby, and R. A. Ramsey, Opt. Express 18, 7384 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Q. Q. Mu, Z. L. Cao, D. Y. Li, L. Hu, and L. Xuan, Appl. Opt. 47, 4297 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  15. C. Liu, L. F. Hu, Q. Q. Mu, Z. L. Cao, and L. Xuan, Appl. Opt. 50, 82 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  16. H. Okumura and H. Fujiwara, J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 1, 335 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  17. Y. Cho, C. Park, A. Bhowmik, and S.-W. Lee, Opt. Eng. 49, 034001 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  18. Z. Peng, Y. Liu, L. Yao, Z. Cao, Q. Mu, L. Hu, and L. Xuan, Opt. Lett. 36, 3608 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  19. Q. Q. Mu, Z. L. Cao, Z. H. Peng, Y. G. Liu, L. F. Hu, X. H. Lu, and L. Xuan, Opt. Commun. 283, 2017 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  20. S.-T. Wu, J. Appl. Phys. 60, 1836 (1986).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (3)

2010 (3)

Q. Q. Mu, Z. L. Cao, Z. H. Peng, Y. G. Liu, L. F. Hu, X. H. Lu, and L. Xuan, Opt. Commun. 283, 2017 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Cho, C. Park, A. Bhowmik, and S.-W. Lee, Opt. Eng. 49, 034001 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. D. Love, A. K. Kirby, and R. A. Ramsey, Opt. Express 18, 7384 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2004 (1)

Y. H. Fan, Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, S. Gauza, and S. T. Wu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1233 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

2000 (1)

1997 (2)

J. Gourlay, G. D. Love, P. M. Birch, R. M. Sharples, and A. Purvis, Opt. Commun. 137, 17 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. N. Thibos and A. Bradley, Optom. Vis. Sci. 74, 581 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, Proc. IEEE 84, 268 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

G. D. Love, J. S. Fender, and S. R. Restaino, Opt. Photon. News 6(10), 16 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

H. Okumura and H. Fujiwara, J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 1, 335 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

S.-T. Wu and C.-S. Wu, J. Appl. Phys. 65, 527 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

1986 (1)

S.-T. Wu, J. Appl. Phys. 60, 1836 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Baker, J.

Bhowmik, A.

Y. Cho, C. Park, A. Bhowmik, and S.-W. Lee, Opt. Eng. 49, 034001 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Birch, P. M.

J. Gourlay, G. D. Love, P. M. Birch, R. M. Sharples, and A. Purvis, Opt. Commun. 137, 17 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bradley, A.

L. N. Thibos and A. Bradley, Optom. Vis. Sci. 74, 581 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Browne, S.

Cao, Z.

Cao, Z. L.

Chen, Y.

J. Sun, H. Xianyu, Y. Chen, and S.-T. Wu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 021106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cho, Y.

Y. Cho, C. Park, A. Bhowmik, and S.-W. Lee, Opt. Eng. 49, 034001 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Corkum, D. L.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, Proc. IEEE 84, 268 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dayton, D.

Dorschner, T. A.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, Proc. IEEE 84, 268 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fan, Y. H.

Y. H. Fan, Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, S. Gauza, and S. T. Wu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1233 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fender, J. S.

G. D. Love, J. S. Fender, and S. R. Restaino, Opt. Photon. News 6(10), 16 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Friedman, L. J.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, Proc. IEEE 84, 268 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fujiwara, H.

H. Okumura and H. Fujiwara, J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 1, 335 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Gallegos, J.

Gauza, S.

Y. H. Fan, Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, S. Gauza, and S. T. Wu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1233 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gonglewski, J.

Gourlay, J.

J. Gourlay, G. D. Love, P. M. Birch, R. M. Sharples, and A. Purvis, Opt. Commun. 137, 17 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hobbs, D. S.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, Proc. IEEE 84, 268 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Holz, M.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, Proc. IEEE 84, 268 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hu, L.

Hu, L. F.

C. Liu, L. F. Hu, Q. Q. Mu, Z. L. Cao, and L. Xuan, Appl. Opt. 50, 82 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Q. Q. Mu, Z. L. Cao, Z. H. Peng, Y. G. Liu, L. F. Hu, X. H. Lu, and L. Xuan, Opt. Commun. 283, 2017 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kirby, A. K.

Konforti, N.

Lee, S.-W.

Y. Cho, C. Park, A. Bhowmik, and S.-W. Lee, Opt. Eng. 49, 034001 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, D. Y.

Liberman, S.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, Proc. IEEE 84, 268 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Y. H.

Y. H. Fan, Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, S. Gauza, and S. T. Wu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1233 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liu, C.

Liu, Y.

Liu, Y. G.

Q. Q. Mu, Z. L. Cao, Z. H. Peng, Y. G. Liu, L. F. Hu, X. H. Lu, and L. Xuan, Opt. Commun. 283, 2017 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Love, G. D.

G. D. Love, A. K. Kirby, and R. A. Ramsey, Opt. Express 18, 7384 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Gourlay, G. D. Love, P. M. Birch, R. M. Sharples, and A. Purvis, Opt. Commun. 137, 17 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. D. Love, J. S. Fender, and S. R. Restaino, Opt. Photon. News 6(10), 16 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. D. Love, in Adaptive Optics Engineering Handbook, R. K. Tyson, ed. (Marcel Dekker, 2000), p. 273.

Lu, X. H.

Q. Q. Mu, Z. L. Cao, Z. H. Peng, Y. G. Liu, L. F. Hu, X. H. Lu, and L. Xuan, Opt. Commun. 283, 2017 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Marom, E.

Mcdermott, S.

McManamon, P. F.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, Proc. IEEE 84, 268 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mu, Q.

Mu, Q. Q.

Nguyen, H. Q.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, Proc. IEEE 84, 268 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Okumura, H.

H. Okumura and H. Fujiwara, J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 1, 335 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Park, C.

Y. Cho, C. Park, A. Bhowmik, and S.-W. Lee, Opt. Eng. 49, 034001 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Peng, Z.

Peng, Z. H.

Q. Q. Mu, Z. L. Cao, Z. H. Peng, Y. G. Liu, L. F. Hu, X. H. Lu, and L. Xuan, Opt. Commun. 283, 2017 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Purvis, A.

J. Gourlay, G. D. Love, P. M. Birch, R. M. Sharples, and A. Purvis, Opt. Commun. 137, 17 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ramsey, R. A.

Ren, H.

Y. H. Fan, Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, S. Gauza, and S. T. Wu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1233 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Resler, D. P.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, Proc. IEEE 84, 268 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Restaino, S.

Restaino, S. R.

G. D. Love, J. S. Fender, and S. R. Restaino, Opt. Photon. News 6(10), 16 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rogers, S.

Sharp, R. C.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, Proc. IEEE 84, 268 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sharples, R. M.

J. Gourlay, G. D. Love, P. M. Birch, R. M. Sharples, and A. Purvis, Opt. Commun. 137, 17 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shilko, M.

Sun, J.

J. Sun, H. Xianyu, Y. Chen, and S.-T. Wu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 021106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Thibos, L. N.

L. N. Thibos and A. Bradley, Optom. Vis. Sci. 74, 581 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Watson, E. A.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, Proc. IEEE 84, 268 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wu, C.-S.

S.-T. Wu and C.-S. Wu, J. Appl. Phys. 65, 527 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S. T.

Y. H. Fan, Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, S. Gauza, and S. T. Wu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1233 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. Konforti, E. Marom, and S. T. Wu, Opt. Lett. 13, 251 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S.-T.

J. Sun, H. Xianyu, Y. Chen, and S.-T. Wu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 021106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S.-T. Wu and C.-S. Wu, J. Appl. Phys. 65, 527 (1989).
[CrossRef]

S.-T. Wu, J. Appl. Phys. 60, 1836 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Xianyu, H.

J. Sun, H. Xianyu, Y. Chen, and S.-T. Wu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 021106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Xuan, L.

Yao, L.

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

Y. H. Fan, Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, S. Gauza, and S. T. Wu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1233 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Sun, H. Xianyu, Y. Chen, and S.-T. Wu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 021106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

S.-T. Wu and C.-S. Wu, J. Appl. Phys. 65, 527 (1989).
[CrossRef]

S.-T. Wu, J. Appl. Phys. 60, 1836 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Soc. Inf. Disp. (1)

H. Okumura and H. Fujiwara, J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 1, 335 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (2)

Q. Q. Mu, Z. L. Cao, Z. H. Peng, Y. G. Liu, L. F. Hu, X. H. Lu, and L. Xuan, Opt. Commun. 283, 2017 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Gourlay, G. D. Love, P. M. Birch, R. M. Sharples, and A. Purvis, Opt. Commun. 137, 17 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

Y. Cho, C. Park, A. Bhowmik, and S.-W. Lee, Opt. Eng. 49, 034001 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Opt. Photon. News (1)

G. D. Love, J. S. Fender, and S. R. Restaino, Opt. Photon. News 6(10), 16 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Optom. Vis. Sci. (1)

L. N. Thibos and A. Bradley, Optom. Vis. Sci. 74, 581 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE (1)

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, Proc. IEEE 84, 268 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

G. D. Love, in Adaptive Optics Engineering Handbook, R. K. Tyson, ed. (Marcel Dekker, 2000), p. 273.

S. Restaino, in Optical Applications of Liquid Crystals, L. Vicari, ed. (Institute of Physics, 2003), p. 118.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Time sequence of the control process for the OLAOS: (a) t1, 2 ms; t2, 1.07 ms; t3, 0.42 ms; t4, 0.38 ms and t5, 2 ms represent the actual time distributions of the exposure of the WFS, readout time of the WFS, data processing, data transmission from the real-time computer to the SLM, and the LC response, respectively; and (b) shows the additional lags caused by the unmatch between t1 and t5.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Methods of generating the OD and IPC. The driving voltages can be mapped one-to-one to the phases in the steady state. So the phases were represented by the driving voltages in the diagram. The phase o corresponds to the voltage-off state.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

t5 dependence on the normalized residual errors in SF overdriving. The t5 takes the discrete values from 9×128.5μs to 15×128.5μs, respectively.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Simulation and actual rejections of the disturbances for the common driving: t1=t5=2ms; [top curve (simulation) and third curve (experimental)]; and the SF overdriving: t1=t5=9μs×128.5μs [second curve (simulation) and fourth curve (experimental)].

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Star images of the Polaris with (a) noncorrection; (b) common correction; and (c) SF correction.

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

δ(t)=α·exp(2t/τ)+β,

Metrics