Abstract

Low-power cw lasers are employed to study grating formation in blue-phase liquid crystals. We observed that undoped samples exhibit vanishingly small optical nonlinearities whereas methyl-red-dye doped samples produce strong nonlinear self-diffraction effects. The nonlinearities are attributed to director axis reorientation, disorder, and lattice distortion by the laser-excited dye molecules. The magnitude of the observed intensity-dependent index coefficient is in the range of 104103cm2/Watt.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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2012

2011

I. C. Khoo, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28, A45 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C.-T. Wang, H.-C. Jau, and T.-H. Lin, Opt. Mater. (Amsterdam) 34, 248 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

H. Y. Lin, C. T. Wang, C. Y. Hsu, T. H. Lin, and J. H. Lin, Appl. Phys. Letts. 96, 121103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

T. J. White, R. L. Bricker, L. V. Natarajan, N. V. Tabiryan, L. Green, Q. Li, and T. J. Bunning, Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3484 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Zhibing, R. Linghui, G. Sebastian Gauza, and S. T. Wu, J. Disp. Technol. 5, 250 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Zhibing, S. Gauza, J. Meizi Jiao, H. Xianyu, and S. T. Wu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 101104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. C. Khoo, Phys. Rep. 471, 221 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, J. Appl. Phys. 104, 063102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, G. Chilaya, A. Chanishvili, and G. Petriashvili, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 488, 42 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, Adv. Mater. 19, 3244 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

L. Lucchetti, M. Gentili, and F. Simoni, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 12, 422 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

Y. Hisakado, H. Kikuchi, T. Nagamura, and T. Kajiyama, Adv. Mater. 17, 96 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Coles and M. N. Pivnenko, Nature 436, 997 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hiskado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, Nat. Mater. 1, 64 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

H.-K. Lee, K. Doi, H. Harada, O. Tsutsumi, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, and T. Ikeda, J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 7023 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

I. C. Khoo, M.-Y. Shih, M. V. Wood, B. D. Guenther, P. H. Chen, F. Simoni, S. Slussarenko, O. Francescangeli, and L. Lucchetti, IEEE Proc. 87, 1897 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

1994

H. Li, Yu Liang, and I. C. Khoo, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 251, 85 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

R. M. Hornreich, S. Shtrikmans, and C. Sommers, Phys. Rev. E 47, 2067 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

1986

P. E. Cladis, T. Garel, and P. Pieranski, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2841 (1986).
[CrossRef]

N. V. Tabiryan, A. V. Sukhov, and B. Y. Zeldovich, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 136, 1 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1983

I. C. Khoo, Phys. Rev. A 27, 2747 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1981

S. Meiboom, J. P. Sethna, W. P. Anderson, and W. F. Brinkman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 1216 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, W. P.

S. Meiboom, J. P. Sethna, W. P. Anderson, and W. F. Brinkman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 1216 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Bortolozzo, U.

Boyd, R.

R. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics (Academic Press, 1992).

Bricker, R. L.

T. J. White, R. L. Bricker, L. V. Natarajan, N. V. Tabiryan, L. Green, Q. Li, and T. J. Bunning, Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3484 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Brinkman, W. F.

S. Meiboom, J. P. Sethna, W. P. Anderson, and W. F. Brinkman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 1216 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Bunning, T. J.

T. J. White, R. L. Bricker, L. V. Natarajan, N. V. Tabiryan, L. Green, Q. Li, and T. J. Bunning, Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3484 (2009).
[CrossRef]

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, J. Appl. Phys. 104, 063102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, Adv. Mater. 19, 3244 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cai, Z.

Chanishvili, A.

S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, G. Chilaya, A. Chanishvili, and G. Petriashvili, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 488, 42 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, P. H.

I. C. Khoo, M.-Y. Shih, M. V. Wood, B. D. Guenther, P. H. Chen, F. Simoni, S. Slussarenko, O. Francescangeli, and L. Lucchetti, IEEE Proc. 87, 1897 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chilaya, G.

S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, G. Chilaya, A. Chanishvili, and G. Petriashvili, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 488, 42 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cladis, P. E.

P. E. Cladis, T. Garel, and P. Pieranski, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2841 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Coles, H.

H. Coles and M. N. Pivnenko, Nature 436, 997 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Doi, K.

H.-K. Lee, K. Doi, H. Harada, O. Tsutsumi, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, and T. Ikeda, J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 7023 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Francescangeli, O.

I. C. Khoo, M.-Y. Shih, M. V. Wood, B. D. Guenther, P. H. Chen, F. Simoni, S. Slussarenko, O. Francescangeli, and L. Lucchetti, IEEE Proc. 87, 1897 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Garel, T.

P. E. Cladis, T. Garel, and P. Pieranski, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2841 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Gauza, S.

G. Zhibing, S. Gauza, J. Meizi Jiao, H. Xianyu, and S. T. Wu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 101104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gentili, M.

L. Lucchetti, M. Gentili, and F. Simoni, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 12, 422 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Green, L.

T. J. White, R. L. Bricker, L. V. Natarajan, N. V. Tabiryan, L. Green, Q. Li, and T. J. Bunning, Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3484 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Guenther, B. D.

I. C. Khoo, M.-Y. Shih, M. V. Wood, B. D. Guenther, P. H. Chen, F. Simoni, S. Slussarenko, O. Francescangeli, and L. Lucchetti, IEEE Proc. 87, 1897 (1999).
[CrossRef]

I. C. Khoo, S. Slussarenko, B. D. Guenther, and W. V. Wood, Opt. Lett. 23, 253 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Harada, H.

H.-K. Lee, K. Doi, H. Harada, O. Tsutsumi, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, and T. Ikeda, J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 7023 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hisakado, Y.

Y. Hisakado, H. Kikuchi, T. Nagamura, and T. Kajiyama, Adv. Mater. 17, 96 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hiskado, Y.

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hiskado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, Nat. Mater. 1, 64 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hornreich, R. M.

R. M. Hornreich, S. Shtrikmans, and C. Sommers, Phys. Rev. E 47, 2067 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hrozhyk, U. A.

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, J. Appl. Phys. 104, 063102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, Adv. Mater. 19, 3244 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, C. Y.

H. Y. Lin, C. T. Wang, C. Y. Hsu, T. H. Lin, and J. H. Lin, Appl. Phys. Letts. 96, 121103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ikeda, T.

H.-K. Lee, K. Doi, H. Harada, O. Tsutsumi, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, and T. Ikeda, J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 7023 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Iljin, A.

Janossy, I.

Jau, H.-C.

C.-T. Wang, H.-C. Jau, and T.-H. Lin, Opt. Mater. (Amsterdam) 34, 248 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kajiyama, T.

Y. Hisakado, H. Kikuchi, T. Nagamura, and T. Kajiyama, Adv. Mater. 17, 96 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hiskado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, Nat. Mater. 1, 64 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kanazawa, A.

H.-K. Lee, K. Doi, H. Harada, O. Tsutsumi, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, and T. Ikeda, J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 7023 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Khoo, I. C.

I. C. Khoo, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28, A45 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. C. Khoo, Phys. Rep. 471, 221 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. C. Khoo, M.-Y. Shih, M. V. Wood, B. D. Guenther, P. H. Chen, F. Simoni, S. Slussarenko, O. Francescangeli, and L. Lucchetti, IEEE Proc. 87, 1897 (1999).
[CrossRef]

I. C. Khoo, S. Slussarenko, B. D. Guenther, and W. V. Wood, Opt. Lett. 23, 253 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Li, Yu Liang, and I. C. Khoo, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 251, 85 (1994).
[CrossRef]

I. C. Khoo, Phys. Rev. A 27, 2747 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Kikuchi, H.

Y. Hisakado, H. Kikuchi, T. Nagamura, and T. Kajiyama, Adv. Mater. 17, 96 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hiskado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, Nat. Mater. 1, 64 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kosa, T.

Lee, H.-K.

H.-K. Lee, K. Doi, H. Harada, O. Tsutsumi, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, and T. Ikeda, J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 7023 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Li, H.

H. Li, Yu Liang, and I. C. Khoo, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 251, 85 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Li, Q.

T. J. White, R. L. Bricker, L. V. Natarajan, N. V. Tabiryan, L. Green, Q. Li, and T. J. Bunning, Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3484 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liang, Yu

H. Li, Yu Liang, and I. C. Khoo, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 251, 85 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lin, H. Y.

H. Y. Lin, C. T. Wang, C. Y. Hsu, T. H. Lin, and J. H. Lin, Appl. Phys. Letts. 96, 121103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lin, J. H.

H. Y. Lin, C. T. Wang, C. Y. Hsu, T. H. Lin, and J. H. Lin, Appl. Phys. Letts. 96, 121103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lin, T. H.

H. Y. Lin, C. T. Wang, C. Y. Hsu, T. H. Lin, and J. H. Lin, Appl. Phys. Letts. 96, 121103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lin, T.-H.

C.-T. Wang, H.-C. Jau, and T.-H. Lin, Opt. Mater. (Amsterdam) 34, 248 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Linghui, R.

G. Zhibing, R. Linghui, G. Sebastian Gauza, and S. T. Wu, J. Disp. Technol. 5, 250 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lucchetti, L.

L. Lucchetti, M. Gentili, and F. Simoni, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 12, 422 (2006).
[CrossRef]

I. C. Khoo, M.-Y. Shih, M. V. Wood, B. D. Guenther, P. H. Chen, F. Simoni, S. Slussarenko, O. Francescangeli, and L. Lucchetti, IEEE Proc. 87, 1897 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Meiboom, S.

S. Meiboom, J. P. Sethna, W. P. Anderson, and W. F. Brinkman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 1216 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Meizi Jiao, J.

G. Zhibing, S. Gauza, J. Meizi Jiao, H. Xianyu, and S. T. Wu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 101104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nagamura, T.

Y. Hisakado, H. Kikuchi, T. Nagamura, and T. Kajiyama, Adv. Mater. 17, 96 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Natarajan, L. V.

T. J. White, R. L. Bricker, L. V. Natarajan, N. V. Tabiryan, L. Green, Q. Li, and T. J. Bunning, Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3484 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Petriashvili, G.

S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, G. Chilaya, A. Chanishvili, and G. Petriashvili, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 488, 42 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pieranski, P.

P. E. Cladis, T. Garel, and P. Pieranski, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2841 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Pivnenko, M. N.

H. Coles and M. N. Pivnenko, Nature 436, 997 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Residori, S.

Sebastian Gauza, G.

G. Zhibing, R. Linghui, G. Sebastian Gauza, and S. T. Wu, J. Disp. Technol. 5, 250 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Serak, S. V.

S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, G. Chilaya, A. Chanishvili, and G. Petriashvili, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 488, 42 (2008).
[CrossRef]

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, J. Appl. Phys. 104, 063102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, Adv. Mater. 19, 3244 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sethna, J. P.

S. Meiboom, J. P. Sethna, W. P. Anderson, and W. F. Brinkman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 1216 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Shih, M.-Y.

I. C. Khoo, M.-Y. Shih, M. V. Wood, B. D. Guenther, P. H. Chen, F. Simoni, S. Slussarenko, O. Francescangeli, and L. Lucchetti, IEEE Proc. 87, 1897 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shiono, T.

H.-K. Lee, K. Doi, H. Harada, O. Tsutsumi, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, and T. Ikeda, J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 7023 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Shtrikmans, S.

R. M. Hornreich, S. Shtrikmans, and C. Sommers, Phys. Rev. E 47, 2067 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Simoni, F.

L. Lucchetti, M. Gentili, and F. Simoni, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 12, 422 (2006).
[CrossRef]

I. C. Khoo, M.-Y. Shih, M. V. Wood, B. D. Guenther, P. H. Chen, F. Simoni, S. Slussarenko, O. Francescangeli, and L. Lucchetti, IEEE Proc. 87, 1897 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Slussarenko, S.

I. C. Khoo, M.-Y. Shih, M. V. Wood, B. D. Guenther, P. H. Chen, F. Simoni, S. Slussarenko, O. Francescangeli, and L. Lucchetti, IEEE Proc. 87, 1897 (1999).
[CrossRef]

I. C. Khoo, S. Slussarenko, B. D. Guenther, and W. V. Wood, Opt. Lett. 23, 253 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sommers, C.

R. M. Hornreich, S. Shtrikmans, and C. Sommers, Phys. Rev. E 47, 2067 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sukhov, A. V.

N. V. Tabiryan, A. V. Sukhov, and B. Y. Zeldovich, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 136, 1 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Tabiryan, N. V.

T. J. White, R. L. Bricker, L. V. Natarajan, N. V. Tabiryan, L. Green, Q. Li, and T. J. Bunning, Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3484 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, G. Chilaya, A. Chanishvili, and G. Petriashvili, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 488, 42 (2008).
[CrossRef]

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, J. Appl. Phys. 104, 063102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, Adv. Mater. 19, 3244 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. V. Tabiryan, A. V. Sukhov, and B. Y. Zeldovich, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 136, 1 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Tsutsumi, O.

H.-K. Lee, K. Doi, H. Harada, O. Tsutsumi, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, and T. Ikeda, J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 7023 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C. T.

H. Y. Lin, C. T. Wang, C. Y. Hsu, T. H. Lin, and J. H. Lin, Appl. Phys. Letts. 96, 121103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C.-T.

C.-T. Wang, H.-C. Jau, and T.-H. Lin, Opt. Mater. (Amsterdam) 34, 248 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wei, D.

White, T. J.

T. J. White, R. L. Bricker, L. V. Natarajan, N. V. Tabiryan, L. Green, Q. Li, and T. J. Bunning, Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3484 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wood, M. V.

I. C. Khoo, M.-Y. Shih, M. V. Wood, B. D. Guenther, P. H. Chen, F. Simoni, S. Slussarenko, O. Francescangeli, and L. Lucchetti, IEEE Proc. 87, 1897 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wood, W. V.

Wu, S. T.

G. Zhibing, R. Linghui, G. Sebastian Gauza, and S. T. Wu, J. Disp. Technol. 5, 250 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Zhibing, S. Gauza, J. Meizi Jiao, H. Xianyu, and S. T. Wu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 101104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xianyu, H.

G. Zhibing, S. Gauza, J. Meizi Jiao, H. Xianyu, and S. T. Wu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 101104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yang, H.

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hiskado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, Nat. Mater. 1, 64 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yokota, M.

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hiskado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, Nat. Mater. 1, 64 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zeldovich, B. Y.

N. V. Tabiryan, A. V. Sukhov, and B. Y. Zeldovich, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 136, 1 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Zhibing, G.

G. Zhibing, R. Linghui, G. Sebastian Gauza, and S. T. Wu, J. Disp. Technol. 5, 250 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Zhibing, S. Gauza, J. Meizi Jiao, H. Xianyu, and S. T. Wu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 101104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Funct. Mater.

T. J. White, R. L. Bricker, L. V. Natarajan, N. V. Tabiryan, L. Green, Q. Li, and T. J. Bunning, Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3484 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater.

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, Adv. Mater. 19, 3244 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Hisakado, H. Kikuchi, T. Nagamura, and T. Kajiyama, Adv. Mater. 17, 96 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

G. Zhibing, S. Gauza, J. Meizi Jiao, H. Xianyu, and S. T. Wu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 101104 (2009).
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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Transmission spectra of the MR-doped BPLC. (a) Isotropic liquid phase above the transition temperature Tiso31°C, absorption is due to the MR. Dotted line indicates the undoped BPLC’s transmission level; (b) blue phase at temperature 2 °C below Tiso—blue reflection color; (c) blue phase at temperature 5 °C below Tiso—green reflection color.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Dynamic evolution of the first-order diffraction signal from a 100 μm thick blue-phase liquid-crystal cell at a fixed pump power of 22 mW, wave mixing angle θ=0.012. Temperature of the sample is 3 °C below Tiso. Insert shows a schematic of the experimental set up for nonlinear grating diffraction and a photograph of the observed transmitted pump and diffracted beam.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Dependence of the transient diffraction signal on the pump power from the 100 μm thick BPLC sample at a wave mixing angle θ=0.012. Data in solid squares are for a pump illumination of a few seconds, while data in crosses are for longer illumination when the signals are significantly stronger.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Diffraction signal plotted as a function of θ2.

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