Abstract

Using a nondegenerate four-wave mixing process in hot rubidium vapor, we demonstrate a compact diode-laser-pumped system for the generation of intensity-difference squeezing down to 8 kHz with a maximum squeezing of 7dB. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of kilohertz-level intensity-difference squeezing using a semiconductor laser as the pump source. This scheme is of interest for experiments involving atomic ensembles, quantum communications, and precision measurements. The diode-laser-pumped system would extend the range of possible applications for squeezing due to its low cost, ease of operation, and ease of integration.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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2012 (1)

Z. Y. Ou, Phys. Rev. A 85, 023815 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (3)

2010 (2)

M. Mehmet, H. Vahlbruch, N. Lastzka, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, Phys. Rev. A 81, 013814 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Q. Glorieux, R. Dubessy, S. Guibal, L. Guidoni, J. P. Likforman, and T. Coudreau, Phys. Rev. A 82, 033819 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (3)

A. M. Marino, R. C. Pooser, V. Boyer, and P. D. Lett, Nature 457, 859 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Pooser, A. M. Marino, V. Boyer, K. M. Jones, and P. D. Lett, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 010501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. I. Lvovsky, B. C. Sanders, and W. Tittel, Nat. Photon. 3, 706 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

A. Predojevic, Z. Zhai, J. M. Caballero, and M. W. Mitchell, Phys. Rev. A 78, 063820 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2006 (5)

X. Su, A. Tan, X. Jia, Q. Pan, C. Xie, and K. Peng, Opt. Lett. 31, 1133 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Jing, S. Feng, R. Bloomer, and O. Pfister, Phys. Rev. A 74, 041804 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Vahlbruch, S. Chelkowski, B. Hage, A. Franzen, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 011101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Haine, M. K. Olsen, and J. J. Hope, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 133601 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, K. Hayasaka, and K. Kasai, Opt. Express 14, 13083 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

S. L. Braunstein and P. van Loock, Rev. Mod. Phys. 77, 513 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Villar, L. S. Cruz, K. N. Cassemiro, M. Martinelli, and P. Nussenzveig, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 243603 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

K. McKenzie, N. Grosse, W. P. Bowen, S. E. Whitcomb, M. B. Gray, D. E. McClelland, and P. K. Lam, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 161105 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

M. D. Lukin, Rev. Mod. Phys. 75, 457 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

Y. Zhang, H. Wang, X. Li, J. Jing, C. Xie, and K. Peng, Phys. Rev. A 62, 023813 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

L. Davidovich, Rev. Mod. Phys. 68, 127 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

Z. Y. Ou, S. F. Pereira, H. J. Kimble, and K. Peng, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3663 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

W. H. Richardson, S. Machida, and Y. Yamamoto, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2867 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

C. M. Caves, Phys. Rev. D 23, 1693 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Arimondo, E.

Bloomer, R.

J. Jing, S. Feng, R. Bloomer, and O. Pfister, Phys. Rev. A 74, 041804 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bowen, W. P.

K. McKenzie, N. Grosse, W. P. Bowen, S. E. Whitcomb, M. B. Gray, D. E. McClelland, and P. K. Lam, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 161105 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Boyer, V.

A. M. Marino, R. C. Pooser, V. Boyer, and P. D. Lett, Nature 457, 859 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Pooser, A. M. Marino, V. Boyer, K. M. Jones, and P. D. Lett, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 010501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. F. McCormick, V. Boyer, E. Arimondo, and P. D. Lett, Opt. Lett. 32, 178 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Braunstein, S. L.

S. L. Braunstein and P. van Loock, Rev. Mod. Phys. 77, 513 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Caballero, J. M.

A. Predojevic, Z. Zhai, J. M. Caballero, and M. W. Mitchell, Phys. Rev. A 78, 063820 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cassemiro, K. N.

A. S. Villar, L. S. Cruz, K. N. Cassemiro, M. Martinelli, and P. Nussenzveig, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 243603 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Caves, C. M.

C. M. Caves, Phys. Rev. D 23, 1693 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Chelkowski, S.

H. Vahlbruch, S. Chelkowski, B. Hage, A. Franzen, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 011101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Coudreau, T.

Q. Glorieux, R. Dubessy, S. Guibal, L. Guidoni, J. P. Likforman, and T. Coudreau, Phys. Rev. A 82, 033819 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cruz, L. S.

A. S. Villar, L. S. Cruz, K. N. Cassemiro, M. Martinelli, and P. Nussenzveig, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 243603 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Danzmann, K.

M. Mehmet, H. Vahlbruch, N. Lastzka, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, Phys. Rev. A 81, 013814 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Vahlbruch, S. Chelkowski, B. Hage, A. Franzen, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 011101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Davidovich, L.

L. Davidovich, Rev. Mod. Phys. 68, 127 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dubessy, R.

Q. Glorieux, R. Dubessy, S. Guibal, L. Guidoni, J. P. Likforman, and T. Coudreau, Phys. Rev. A 82, 033819 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Feng, S.

J. Jing, S. Feng, R. Bloomer, and O. Pfister, Phys. Rev. A 74, 041804 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Franzen, A.

H. Vahlbruch, S. Chelkowski, B. Hage, A. Franzen, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 011101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Glorieux, Q.

Q. Glorieux, R. Dubessy, S. Guibal, L. Guidoni, J. P. Likforman, and T. Coudreau, Phys. Rev. A 82, 033819 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gray, M. B.

K. McKenzie, N. Grosse, W. P. Bowen, S. E. Whitcomb, M. B. Gray, D. E. McClelland, and P. K. Lam, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 161105 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Grosse, N.

K. McKenzie, N. Grosse, W. P. Bowen, S. E. Whitcomb, M. B. Gray, D. E. McClelland, and P. K. Lam, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 161105 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Guibal, S.

Q. Glorieux, R. Dubessy, S. Guibal, L. Guidoni, J. P. Likforman, and T. Coudreau, Phys. Rev. A 82, 033819 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Guidoni, L.

Q. Glorieux, R. Dubessy, S. Guibal, L. Guidoni, J. P. Likforman, and T. Coudreau, Phys. Rev. A 82, 033819 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hage, B.

H. Vahlbruch, S. Chelkowski, B. Hage, A. Franzen, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 011101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Haine, S. A.

S. A. Haine, M. K. Olsen, and J. J. Hope, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 133601 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hayasaka, K.

Hope, J. J.

S. A. Haine, M. K. Olsen, and J. J. Hope, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 133601 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hudelist, F.

Jasperse, M.

Jia, X.

Jing, J.

C. Liu, J. Jing, Z. Zhou, R. C. Pooser, F. Hudelist, L. Zhou, and W. Zhang, Opt. Lett. 36, 2979 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Jing, C. Liu, Z. Zhou, Z. Y. Ou, and W. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 011110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Jing, S. Feng, R. Bloomer, and O. Pfister, Phys. Rev. A 74, 041804 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, H. Wang, X. Li, J. Jing, C. Xie, and K. Peng, Phys. Rev. A 62, 023813 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jones, K. M.

R. C. Pooser, A. M. Marino, V. Boyer, K. M. Jones, and P. D. Lett, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 010501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kasai, K.

Kimble, H. J.

Z. Y. Ou, S. F. Pereira, H. J. Kimble, and K. Peng, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3663 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Lam, P. K.

K. McKenzie, N. Grosse, W. P. Bowen, S. E. Whitcomb, M. B. Gray, D. E. McClelland, and P. K. Lam, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 161105 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lastzka, N.

M. Mehmet, H. Vahlbruch, N. Lastzka, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, Phys. Rev. A 81, 013814 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lett, P. D.

R. C. Pooser, A. M. Marino, V. Boyer, K. M. Jones, and P. D. Lett, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 010501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Marino, R. C. Pooser, V. Boyer, and P. D. Lett, Nature 457, 859 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. F. McCormick, V. Boyer, E. Arimondo, and P. D. Lett, Opt. Lett. 32, 178 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Li, X.

Y. Zhang, H. Wang, X. Li, J. Jing, C. Xie, and K. Peng, Phys. Rev. A 62, 023813 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Likforman, J. P.

Q. Glorieux, R. Dubessy, S. Guibal, L. Guidoni, J. P. Likforman, and T. Coudreau, Phys. Rev. A 82, 033819 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, C.

C. Liu, J. Jing, Z. Zhou, R. C. Pooser, F. Hudelist, L. Zhou, and W. Zhang, Opt. Lett. 36, 2979 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Jing, C. Liu, Z. Zhou, Z. Y. Ou, and W. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 011110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lukin, M. D.

M. D. Lukin, Rev. Mod. Phys. 75, 457 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lvovsky, A. I.

A. I. Lvovsky, B. C. Sanders, and W. Tittel, Nat. Photon. 3, 706 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Machida, S.

W. H. Richardson, S. Machida, and Y. Yamamoto, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2867 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Marino, A. M.

R. C. Pooser, A. M. Marino, V. Boyer, K. M. Jones, and P. D. Lett, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 010501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Marino, R. C. Pooser, V. Boyer, and P. D. Lett, Nature 457, 859 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Martinelli, M.

A. S. Villar, L. S. Cruz, K. N. Cassemiro, M. Martinelli, and P. Nussenzveig, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 243603 (2005).
[CrossRef]

McClelland, D. E.

K. McKenzie, N. Grosse, W. P. Bowen, S. E. Whitcomb, M. B. Gray, D. E. McClelland, and P. K. Lam, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 161105 (2004).
[CrossRef]

McCormick, C. F.

McKenzie, K.

K. McKenzie, N. Grosse, W. P. Bowen, S. E. Whitcomb, M. B. Gray, D. E. McClelland, and P. K. Lam, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 161105 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mehmet, M.

M. Mehmet, H. Vahlbruch, N. Lastzka, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, Phys. Rev. A 81, 013814 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mitchell, M. W.

A. Predojevic, Z. Zhai, J. M. Caballero, and M. W. Mitchell, Phys. Rev. A 78, 063820 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nussenzveig, P.

A. S. Villar, L. S. Cruz, K. N. Cassemiro, M. Martinelli, and P. Nussenzveig, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 243603 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Olsen, M. K.

S. A. Haine, M. K. Olsen, and J. J. Hope, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 133601 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ou, Z. Y.

Z. Y. Ou, Phys. Rev. A 85, 023815 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Jing, C. Liu, Z. Zhou, Z. Y. Ou, and W. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 011110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. Y. Ou, S. F. Pereira, H. J. Kimble, and K. Peng, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3663 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Pan, Q.

Peng, K.

X. Su, A. Tan, X. Jia, Q. Pan, C. Xie, and K. Peng, Opt. Lett. 31, 1133 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, H. Wang, X. Li, J. Jing, C. Xie, and K. Peng, Phys. Rev. A 62, 023813 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Z. Y. Ou, S. F. Pereira, H. J. Kimble, and K. Peng, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3663 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Pereira, S. F.

Z. Y. Ou, S. F. Pereira, H. J. Kimble, and K. Peng, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3663 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Pfister, O.

J. Jing, S. Feng, R. Bloomer, and O. Pfister, Phys. Rev. A 74, 041804 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pooser, R. C.

C. Liu, J. Jing, Z. Zhou, R. C. Pooser, F. Hudelist, L. Zhou, and W. Zhang, Opt. Lett. 36, 2979 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Marino, R. C. Pooser, V. Boyer, and P. D. Lett, Nature 457, 859 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Pooser, A. M. Marino, V. Boyer, K. M. Jones, and P. D. Lett, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 010501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Predojevic, A.

A. Predojevic, Z. Zhai, J. M. Caballero, and M. W. Mitchell, Phys. Rev. A 78, 063820 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, W. H.

W. H. Richardson, S. Machida, and Y. Yamamoto, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2867 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sanders, B. C.

A. I. Lvovsky, B. C. Sanders, and W. Tittel, Nat. Photon. 3, 706 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schnabel, R.

M. Mehmet, H. Vahlbruch, N. Lastzka, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, Phys. Rev. A 81, 013814 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Vahlbruch, S. Chelkowski, B. Hage, A. Franzen, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 011101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Scholten, R. E.

Su, X.

Tan, A.

Tittel, W.

A. I. Lvovsky, B. C. Sanders, and W. Tittel, Nat. Photon. 3, 706 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Turner, L. D.

Vahlbruch, H.

M. Mehmet, H. Vahlbruch, N. Lastzka, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, Phys. Rev. A 81, 013814 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Vahlbruch, S. Chelkowski, B. Hage, A. Franzen, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 011101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

van Loock, P.

S. L. Braunstein and P. van Loock, Rev. Mod. Phys. 77, 513 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Villar, A. S.

A. S. Villar, L. S. Cruz, K. N. Cassemiro, M. Martinelli, and P. Nussenzveig, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 243603 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H.

Y. Zhang, H. Wang, X. Li, J. Jing, C. Xie, and K. Peng, Phys. Rev. A 62, 023813 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Whitcomb, S. E.

K. McKenzie, N. Grosse, W. P. Bowen, S. E. Whitcomb, M. B. Gray, D. E. McClelland, and P. K. Lam, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 161105 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Xie, C.

X. Su, A. Tan, X. Jia, Q. Pan, C. Xie, and K. Peng, Opt. Lett. 31, 1133 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, H. Wang, X. Li, J. Jing, C. Xie, and K. Peng, Phys. Rev. A 62, 023813 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, Y.

W. H. Richardson, S. Machida, and Y. Yamamoto, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2867 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Zhai, Z.

A. Predojevic, Z. Zhai, J. M. Caballero, and M. W. Mitchell, Phys. Rev. A 78, 063820 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, W.

C. Liu, J. Jing, Z. Zhou, R. C. Pooser, F. Hudelist, L. Zhou, and W. Zhang, Opt. Lett. 36, 2979 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Jing, C. Liu, Z. Zhou, Z. Y. Ou, and W. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 011110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

Y. Zhang, K. Hayasaka, and K. Kasai, Opt. Express 14, 13083 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, H. Wang, X. Li, J. Jing, C. Xie, and K. Peng, Phys. Rev. A 62, 023813 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, L.

Zhou, Z.

J. Jing, C. Liu, Z. Zhou, Z. Y. Ou, and W. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 011110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Liu, J. Jing, Z. Zhou, R. C. Pooser, F. Hudelist, L. Zhou, and W. Zhang, Opt. Lett. 36, 2979 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. Jing, C. Liu, Z. Zhou, Z. Y. Ou, and W. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 011110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photon. (1)

A. I. Lvovsky, B. C. Sanders, and W. Tittel, Nat. Photon. 3, 706 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

A. M. Marino, R. C. Pooser, V. Boyer, and P. D. Lett, Nature 457, 859 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. A (6)

J. Jing, S. Feng, R. Bloomer, and O. Pfister, Phys. Rev. A 74, 041804 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Mehmet, H. Vahlbruch, N. Lastzka, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, Phys. Rev. A 81, 013814 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Q. Glorieux, R. Dubessy, S. Guibal, L. Guidoni, J. P. Likforman, and T. Coudreau, Phys. Rev. A 82, 033819 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, H. Wang, X. Li, J. Jing, C. Xie, and K. Peng, Phys. Rev. A 62, 023813 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Predojevic, Z. Zhai, J. M. Caballero, and M. W. Mitchell, Phys. Rev. A 78, 063820 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. Y. Ou, Phys. Rev. A 85, 023815 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. D (1)

C. M. Caves, Phys. Rev. D 23, 1693 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (7)

K. McKenzie, N. Grosse, W. P. Bowen, S. E. Whitcomb, M. B. Gray, D. E. McClelland, and P. K. Lam, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 161105 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Vahlbruch, S. Chelkowski, B. Hage, A. Franzen, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 011101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Z. Y. Ou, S. F. Pereira, H. J. Kimble, and K. Peng, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3663 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Pooser, A. M. Marino, V. Boyer, K. M. Jones, and P. D. Lett, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 010501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Villar, L. S. Cruz, K. N. Cassemiro, M. Martinelli, and P. Nussenzveig, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 243603 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Haine, M. K. Olsen, and J. J. Hope, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 133601 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Richardson, S. Machida, and Y. Yamamoto, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2867 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (3)

M. D. Lukin, Rev. Mod. Phys. 75, 457 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

Other (1)

A. MacRae, T. Brannan, and A. I. Lvovsky, http://arxiv.org/abs/1112.4855 .

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental setup and double-Λ scheme of Rb85 D1 line. M, mirror; L, lens; PBS, polarizing beam splitter; AOM, acoustic-optic modulator; WP, quarter wave plate; GL, Glan–Laser polarizer; GT, Glan–Thompson polarizer; D, detector; BPD, balanced photodetector; SA, spectrum analyzer. Pr, probe, Conj, conjugate.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Noise power. (a) SNL, intensity-difference squeezing between the probe and conjugate (b) with and (c) without balancing the intensities of these two beams. 30 kHz RBW and 300 Hz VBW.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Intensity-difference noise versus total optical power at 635 kHz. Green circles, SNL; red squares, FWM. The ratio of the two slopes is 6.7dB.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Low-frequency noise power spectrum. (a) SNL and (b) intensity-difference squeezing between the probe and conjugate. 200 Hz RBW.

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