Abstract

We demonstrate a novel position-resolved resonance trimming strategy for silicon ring resonators. Ring resonators are covered with a chromophore-doped guest host polymer cladding. Illumination of the polymer cladding with high-energy electrons causes a bleaching of the chromophore molecules. Bleaching of the chromophores induces a reduction of the polymer refractive index, which can be used to trim the resonance frequency of the ring resonators. A maximum refractive index change of 0.06 and a TM polarization resonance shift of 16.4 nm have been measured. A Q factor of 20,000 before bleaching remains unaltered after the electron beam exposure process.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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2010 (5)

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[CrossRef]

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2007 (2)

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[CrossRef]

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M. S. Nawrocka, T. Liu, X. Wang, and R. R. Panepucci, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 71110 (2006).
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2005 (1)

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Benight, S.

Bojko, R.

Böttger, G.

M. Schmidt, G. Böttger, C. Liguda, M. Eich, W. Morcenroth, U. Hübner, and H. G. Meyer, J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. 13, 535 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Canciamilla, A.

Chakravarty, S.

C.-Y. Lin, X. Wang, S. Chakravarty, B. S. Lee, W. Lai, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. T. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 93304 (2010).
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Chen, A.

Chen, B.

H. Chen, B. Chen, D. Huang, D. Jin, J. D. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. Dinu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 43507 (2008).
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Chen, H.

H. Chen, B. Chen, D. Huang, D. Jin, J. D. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. Dinu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 43507 (2008).
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Chen, L.

Chen, R. T.

C.-Y. Lin, X. Wang, S. Chakravarty, B. S. Lee, W. Lai, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. T. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 93304 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, O.

H. Rong, S. Xu, Y.-H. Kuo, V. Sih, O. Cohen, O. Raday, and M. Paniccia, Nat. Photon. 1, 232 (2007).
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Dalton, L.

Dalton, L. R.

Davies, J. A.

Ding, R.

Dinu, R.

H. Chen, B. Chen, D. Huang, D. Jin, J. D. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. Dinu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 43507 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Eich, M.

J. Hampe, J. H. Wülbern, S. Prorok, A. Y. Petrov, M. Eich, J. Luo, and A. K.-Y. Jen, Proc. SPIE 7719, 771911 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Schmidt, G. Böttger, C. Liguda, M. Eich, W. Morcenroth, U. Hübner, and H. G. Meyer, J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. 13, 535 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Vydra, H. Beisinghoff, T. Tschudi, and M. Eich, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1035 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fedeli, J.-M.

Ferrari, C.

Fournier, M.

Gleason, K. K.

Gould, M.

Grillanda, S.

Hampe, J.

J. Hampe, J. H. Wülbern, S. Prorok, A. Y. Petrov, M. Eich, J. Luo, and A. K.-Y. Jen, Proc. SPIE 7719, 771911 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hochberg, M.

Hong, C.-Y.

Hu, J.

Huang, D.

H. Chen, B. Chen, D. Huang, D. Jin, J. D. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. Dinu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 43507 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Huang, S.

Hübner, U.

M. Schmidt, G. Böttger, C. Liguda, M. Eich, W. Morcenroth, U. Hübner, and H. G. Meyer, J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. 13, 535 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jen, A.

Jen, A. K.

Jen, A. K.-Y.

C.-Y. Lin, X. Wang, S. Chakravarty, B. S. Lee, W. Lai, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. T. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 93304 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Hampe, J. H. Wülbern, S. Prorok, A. Y. Petrov, M. Eich, J. Luo, and A. K.-Y. Jen, Proc. SPIE 7719, 771911 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Chen, B. Chen, D. Huang, D. Jin, J. D. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. Dinu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 43507 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jin, D.

H. Chen, B. Chen, D. Huang, D. Jin, J. D. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. Dinu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 43507 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kimerling, L. C.

Krause, M.

Kuo, Y.-H.

H. Rong, S. Xu, Y.-H. Kuo, V. Sih, O. Cohen, O. Raday, and M. Paniccia, Nat. Photon. 1, 232 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lai, W.

C.-Y. Lin, X. Wang, S. Chakravarty, B. S. Lee, W. Lai, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. T. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 93304 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, B. S.

C.-Y. Lin, X. Wang, S. Chakravarty, B. S. Lee, W. Lai, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. T. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 93304 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liao, Y.

Liguda, C.

M. Schmidt, G. Böttger, C. Liguda, M. Eich, W. Morcenroth, U. Hübner, and H. G. Meyer, J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. 13, 535 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C.-Y.

C.-Y. Lin, X. Wang, S. Chakravarty, B. S. Lee, W. Lai, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. T. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 93304 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lipson, M.

Liu, T.

M. S. Nawrocka, T. Liu, X. Wang, and R. R. Panepucci, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 71110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

Lock, J. P.

Luo, J.

M. Gould, T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, S. Huang, J. Luo, A. K. Jen, J.-M. Fedeli, M. Fournier, and M. Hochberg, Opt. Express 19, 3952 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C.-Y. Lin, X. Wang, S. Chakravarty, B. S. Lee, W. Lai, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. T. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 93304 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, Y. Liu, R. Bojko, J. Witzens, S. Huang, J. Luo, S. Benight, P. Sullivan, J.-M. Fedeli, M. Fournier, L. Dalton, A. Jen, and M. Hochberg, Opt. Express 18, 15618 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Hampe, J. H. Wülbern, S. Prorok, A. Y. Petrov, M. Eich, J. Luo, and A. K.-Y. Jen, Proc. SPIE 7719, 771911 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Luo, J. D.

H. Chen, B. Chen, D. Huang, D. Jin, J. D. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. Dinu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 43507 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Manipatruni, S.

Melloni, A.

Meyer, H. G.

M. Schmidt, G. Böttger, C. Liguda, M. Eich, W. Morcenroth, U. Hübner, and H. G. Meyer, J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. 13, 535 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Michel, J.

Morcenroth, W.

M. Schmidt, G. Böttger, C. Liguda, M. Eich, W. Morcenroth, U. Hübner, and H. G. Meyer, J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. 13, 535 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Morichetti, F.

Musgraves, J. D.

Nawrocka, M. S.

M. S. Nawrocka, T. Liu, X. Wang, and R. R. Panepucci, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 71110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Olbricht, B. C.

Panepucci, R. R.

M. S. Nawrocka, T. Liu, X. Wang, and R. R. Panepucci, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 71110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Paniccia, M.

H. Rong, S. Xu, Y.-H. Kuo, V. Sih, O. Cohen, O. Raday, and M. Paniccia, Nat. Photon. 1, 232 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Petrov, A. Y.

J. Hampe, J. H. Wülbern, S. Prorok, A. Y. Petrov, M. Eich, J. Luo, and A. K.-Y. Jen, Proc. SPIE 7719, 771911 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Prorok, S.

J. Hampe, J. H. Wülbern, S. Prorok, A. Y. Petrov, M. Eich, J. Luo, and A. K.-Y. Jen, Proc. SPIE 7719, 771911 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Raday, O.

H. Rong, S. Xu, Y.-H. Kuo, V. Sih, O. Cohen, O. Raday, and M. Paniccia, Nat. Photon. 1, 232 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, K.

Rong, H.

H. Rong, S. Xu, Y.-H. Kuo, V. Sih, O. Cohen, O. Raday, and M. Paniccia, Nat. Photon. 1, 232 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rooks, M.

Schmidt, M.

M. Schmidt, G. Böttger, C. Liguda, M. Eich, W. Morcenroth, U. Hübner, and H. G. Meyer, J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. 13, 535 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sekaric, L.

Sih, V.

H. Rong, S. Xu, Y.-H. Kuo, V. Sih, O. Cohen, O. Raday, and M. Paniccia, Nat. Photon. 1, 232 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sparacin, D. K.

Sullivan, P.

Sullivan, P. A.

Sun, H.

Trotter, D. C.

Tschudi, T.

J. Vydra, H. Beisinghoff, T. Tschudi, and M. Eich, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1035 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Vlasov, Y. A.

Vydra, J.

J. Vydra, H. Beisinghoff, T. Tschudi, and M. Eich, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1035 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

C.-Y. Lin, X. Wang, S. Chakravarty, B. S. Lee, W. Lai, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. T. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 93304 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Nawrocka, T. Liu, X. Wang, and R. R. Panepucci, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 71110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Watts, M. R.

Witzens, J.

Wülbern, J. H.

J. Hampe, J. H. Wülbern, S. Prorok, A. Y. Petrov, M. Eich, J. Luo, and A. K.-Y. Jen, Proc. SPIE 7719, 771911 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xia, F. N.

Xu, S.

H. Rong, S. Xu, Y.-H. Kuo, V. Sih, O. Cohen, O. Raday, and M. Paniccia, Nat. Photon. 1, 232 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zortman, W. A.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

M. S. Nawrocka, T. Liu, X. Wang, and R. R. Panepucci, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 71110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Vydra, H. Beisinghoff, T. Tschudi, and M. Eich, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1035 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C.-Y. Lin, X. Wang, S. Chakravarty, B. S. Lee, W. Lai, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. T. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 93304 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Chen, B. Chen, D. Huang, D. Jin, J. D. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. Dinu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 43507 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. (1)

M. Schmidt, G. Böttger, C. Liguda, M. Eich, W. Morcenroth, U. Hübner, and H. G. Meyer, J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. 13, 535 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photon. (1)

H. Rong, S. Xu, Y.-H. Kuo, V. Sih, O. Cohen, O. Raday, and M. Paniccia, Nat. Photon. 1, 232 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (6)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Proc. SPIE (1)

J. Hampe, J. H. Wülbern, S. Prorok, A. Y. Petrov, M. Eich, J. Luo, and A. K.-Y. Jen, Proc. SPIE 7719, 771911 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic cross section of the ring resonator waveguide with dimensions (left) and SEM picture of a fabricated ring resonator with radius 20 μm (right).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Measured values for dose and refractive index change. The values have been fitted with the exponential model function.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Light microscope image of bleached ring resonators. Bleached areas look brighter. Resonance wavelengths increase from left to right. This is why the rightmost ring has to be bleached the strongest for matching the resonance wavelength of the leftmost ring.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Measured transmission spectra before and after bleaching; (b) Transmission of a single ring resonator before and after bleaching with 400μAs/cm2 dose.

Equations (1)

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βbleach=β0+βλΔλ+βncladdΔncladd,

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