Abstract

What is believed to be the first fully integrated two-dimensional complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) imaging array for laser Doppler blood flow imaging is demonstrated. The sensor has 64×64 pixels and includes both analog and digital on-chip processing electronics. This offers several potential advantages over commercial sensors as the processing is tailored to the signals of interest and the data bottleneck that exists between the sensor and processing electronics is overcome. To obtain a space efficient design over 64×64 pixels means that standard processing electronics used off-chip cannot be implemented. Images of both simulated blood flow responses and a blood flow occlusion test demonstrate the capability.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. P. Shepherd and P. A. Oberg, Laser-Doppler Blood Flowmetry (Kluwer Academic, 1990).
  2. G. E. Nilsson, A. Jacobsson, and K. Wardell, in Proceedings of the Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, 1989 (IEEE, 1989), pp. 391–392.
  3. C. M. Choi and R. G. Bennett, Dermatol. Surg. 29, 272 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. Bray, K. Forrester, C. Leonard, R. McArthur, J. Tulip, and R. Lindsay, Burns 29, 199 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. C Nguyen, B. R. Hayes-Gill, S. P Morgan, Y. Zhu, D. Boggett, X. Huang, and M. Potter, J. Med. Eng. Technol. 34, 306 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. D. Briers, Physiol. Meas. 22, R35 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Draijer, E. Hondebrink, T. V. Leeuwen, and W. Steenbergen, Lasers Med. Sci. 24, 639 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. Bonner and R. Nossal, Appl. Opt. 20, 2097 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. Uranishi, H. Nakase, T. Sakaki, and O. S. Kempski, J. Vasc. Res. 36, 100 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. Serov and T. Lasser, Opt. Express 13, 6416 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Draijer, E. Hondebrink, T. V. Leeuwen, and W. Steenbergen, Opt. Express 17, 3211 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  13. C. Kongsavatsak, D. He, B. R. Hayes-Gill, J. A. Crowe, and S. P. Morgan, Opt. Eng. 47, 104401 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  15. Q. Gu, B. Hayes-Gill, and S. Morgan, Appl. Opt. 47, 2061 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  16. H. Nguyen, B. Hayes-Gill, Y. Zhu, J. Crowe, D. He, and S. Morgan, Med. Eng. Phys. 33, 720 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  17. D. He, H. C. Nguyen, B. R. Hayes-Gill, Y. Zhu, J. A. Crowe, S. P. Morgan, G. F. Clough, and C. Gill, Proc. SPIE 7891, 78910D (2011).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (3)

D. He, C. Kongsavatsak, B. R. Hayes-Gill, J. A. Crowe, and S. P. Morgan, Opt. Eng. 50, 054403 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Nguyen, B. Hayes-Gill, Y. Zhu, J. Crowe, D. He, and S. Morgan, Med. Eng. Phys. 33, 720 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. He, H. C. Nguyen, B. R. Hayes-Gill, Y. Zhu, J. A. Crowe, S. P. Morgan, G. F. Clough, and C. Gill, Proc. SPIE 7891, 78910D (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

H. C Nguyen, B. R. Hayes-Gill, S. P Morgan, Y. Zhu, D. Boggett, X. Huang, and M. Potter, J. Med. Eng. Technol. 34, 306 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

M. Draijer, E. Hondebrink, T. V. Leeuwen, and W. Steenbergen, Lasers Med. Sci. 24, 639 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Draijer, E. Hondebrink, T. V. Leeuwen, and W. Steenbergen, Opt. Express 17, 3211 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

Q. Gu, B. Hayes-Gill, and S. Morgan, Appl. Opt. 47, 2061 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Kongsavatsak, D. He, B. R. Hayes-Gill, J. A. Crowe, and S. P. Morgan, Opt. Eng. 47, 104401 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

A. Serov and T. Lasser, Proc SPIE 6080, 608004 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2003 (2)

C. M. Choi and R. G. Bennett, Dermatol. Surg. 29, 272 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Bray, K. Forrester, C. Leonard, R. McArthur, J. Tulip, and R. Lindsay, Burns 29, 199 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

J. D. Briers, Physiol. Meas. 22, R35 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

R. Uranishi, H. Nakase, T. Sakaki, and O. S. Kempski, J. Vasc. Res. 36, 100 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

Bennett, R. G.

C. M. Choi and R. G. Bennett, Dermatol. Surg. 29, 272 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Boggett, D.

H. C Nguyen, B. R. Hayes-Gill, S. P Morgan, Y. Zhu, D. Boggett, X. Huang, and M. Potter, J. Med. Eng. Technol. 34, 306 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bonner, R.

Bray, R.

R. Bray, K. Forrester, C. Leonard, R. McArthur, J. Tulip, and R. Lindsay, Burns 29, 199 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Briers, J. D.

J. D. Briers, Physiol. Meas. 22, R35 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Choi, C. M.

C. M. Choi and R. G. Bennett, Dermatol. Surg. 29, 272 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Clough, G. F.

D. He, H. C. Nguyen, B. R. Hayes-Gill, Y. Zhu, J. A. Crowe, S. P. Morgan, G. F. Clough, and C. Gill, Proc. SPIE 7891, 78910D (2011).
[CrossRef]

Crowe, J.

H. Nguyen, B. Hayes-Gill, Y. Zhu, J. Crowe, D. He, and S. Morgan, Med. Eng. Phys. 33, 720 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Crowe, J. A.

D. He, C. Kongsavatsak, B. R. Hayes-Gill, J. A. Crowe, and S. P. Morgan, Opt. Eng. 50, 054403 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. He, H. C. Nguyen, B. R. Hayes-Gill, Y. Zhu, J. A. Crowe, S. P. Morgan, G. F. Clough, and C. Gill, Proc. SPIE 7891, 78910D (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Kongsavatsak, D. He, B. R. Hayes-Gill, J. A. Crowe, and S. P. Morgan, Opt. Eng. 47, 104401 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Draijer, M.

M. Draijer, E. Hondebrink, T. V. Leeuwen, and W. Steenbergen, Opt. Express 17, 3211 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Draijer, E. Hondebrink, T. V. Leeuwen, and W. Steenbergen, Lasers Med. Sci. 24, 639 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Forrester, K.

R. Bray, K. Forrester, C. Leonard, R. McArthur, J. Tulip, and R. Lindsay, Burns 29, 199 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gill, C.

D. He, H. C. Nguyen, B. R. Hayes-Gill, Y. Zhu, J. A. Crowe, S. P. Morgan, G. F. Clough, and C. Gill, Proc. SPIE 7891, 78910D (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gu, Q.

Hayes-Gill, B.

H. Nguyen, B. Hayes-Gill, Y. Zhu, J. Crowe, D. He, and S. Morgan, Med. Eng. Phys. 33, 720 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Q. Gu, B. Hayes-Gill, and S. Morgan, Appl. Opt. 47, 2061 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hayes-Gill, B. R.

D. He, C. Kongsavatsak, B. R. Hayes-Gill, J. A. Crowe, and S. P. Morgan, Opt. Eng. 50, 054403 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. He, H. C. Nguyen, B. R. Hayes-Gill, Y. Zhu, J. A. Crowe, S. P. Morgan, G. F. Clough, and C. Gill, Proc. SPIE 7891, 78910D (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. C Nguyen, B. R. Hayes-Gill, S. P Morgan, Y. Zhu, D. Boggett, X. Huang, and M. Potter, J. Med. Eng. Technol. 34, 306 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Kongsavatsak, D. He, B. R. Hayes-Gill, J. A. Crowe, and S. P. Morgan, Opt. Eng. 47, 104401 (2008).
[CrossRef]

He, D.

D. He, H. C. Nguyen, B. R. Hayes-Gill, Y. Zhu, J. A. Crowe, S. P. Morgan, G. F. Clough, and C. Gill, Proc. SPIE 7891, 78910D (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. He, C. Kongsavatsak, B. R. Hayes-Gill, J. A. Crowe, and S. P. Morgan, Opt. Eng. 50, 054403 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Nguyen, B. Hayes-Gill, Y. Zhu, J. Crowe, D. He, and S. Morgan, Med. Eng. Phys. 33, 720 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Kongsavatsak, D. He, B. R. Hayes-Gill, J. A. Crowe, and S. P. Morgan, Opt. Eng. 47, 104401 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hondebrink, E.

M. Draijer, E. Hondebrink, T. V. Leeuwen, and W. Steenbergen, Opt. Express 17, 3211 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Draijer, E. Hondebrink, T. V. Leeuwen, and W. Steenbergen, Lasers Med. Sci. 24, 639 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Huang, X.

H. C Nguyen, B. R. Hayes-Gill, S. P Morgan, Y. Zhu, D. Boggett, X. Huang, and M. Potter, J. Med. Eng. Technol. 34, 306 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jacobsson, A.

G. E. Nilsson, A. Jacobsson, and K. Wardell, in Proceedings of the Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, 1989 (IEEE, 1989), pp. 391–392.

Kempski, O. S.

R. Uranishi, H. Nakase, T. Sakaki, and O. S. Kempski, J. Vasc. Res. 36, 100 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kongsavatsak, C.

D. He, C. Kongsavatsak, B. R. Hayes-Gill, J. A. Crowe, and S. P. Morgan, Opt. Eng. 50, 054403 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Kongsavatsak, D. He, B. R. Hayes-Gill, J. A. Crowe, and S. P. Morgan, Opt. Eng. 47, 104401 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lasser, T.

A. Serov and T. Lasser, Proc SPIE 6080, 608004 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Serov and T. Lasser, Opt. Express 13, 6416 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Leeuwen, T. V.

M. Draijer, E. Hondebrink, T. V. Leeuwen, and W. Steenbergen, Opt. Express 17, 3211 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Draijer, E. Hondebrink, T. V. Leeuwen, and W. Steenbergen, Lasers Med. Sci. 24, 639 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Leonard, C.

R. Bray, K. Forrester, C. Leonard, R. McArthur, J. Tulip, and R. Lindsay, Burns 29, 199 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lindsay, R.

R. Bray, K. Forrester, C. Leonard, R. McArthur, J. Tulip, and R. Lindsay, Burns 29, 199 (2003).
[CrossRef]

McArthur, R.

R. Bray, K. Forrester, C. Leonard, R. McArthur, J. Tulip, and R. Lindsay, Burns 29, 199 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Morgan, S.

H. Nguyen, B. Hayes-Gill, Y. Zhu, J. Crowe, D. He, and S. Morgan, Med. Eng. Phys. 33, 720 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Q. Gu, B. Hayes-Gill, and S. Morgan, Appl. Opt. 47, 2061 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Morgan, S. P

H. C Nguyen, B. R. Hayes-Gill, S. P Morgan, Y. Zhu, D. Boggett, X. Huang, and M. Potter, J. Med. Eng. Technol. 34, 306 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Morgan, S. P.

D. He, C. Kongsavatsak, B. R. Hayes-Gill, J. A. Crowe, and S. P. Morgan, Opt. Eng. 50, 054403 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. He, H. C. Nguyen, B. R. Hayes-Gill, Y. Zhu, J. A. Crowe, S. P. Morgan, G. F. Clough, and C. Gill, Proc. SPIE 7891, 78910D (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Kongsavatsak, D. He, B. R. Hayes-Gill, J. A. Crowe, and S. P. Morgan, Opt. Eng. 47, 104401 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nakase, H.

R. Uranishi, H. Nakase, T. Sakaki, and O. S. Kempski, J. Vasc. Res. 36, 100 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, H.

H. Nguyen, B. Hayes-Gill, Y. Zhu, J. Crowe, D. He, and S. Morgan, Med. Eng. Phys. 33, 720 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, H. C

H. C Nguyen, B. R. Hayes-Gill, S. P Morgan, Y. Zhu, D. Boggett, X. Huang, and M. Potter, J. Med. Eng. Technol. 34, 306 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, H. C.

D. He, H. C. Nguyen, B. R. Hayes-Gill, Y. Zhu, J. A. Crowe, S. P. Morgan, G. F. Clough, and C. Gill, Proc. SPIE 7891, 78910D (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nilsson, G. E.

G. E. Nilsson, A. Jacobsson, and K. Wardell, in Proceedings of the Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, 1989 (IEEE, 1989), pp. 391–392.

Nossal, R.

Oberg, P. A.

A. P. Shepherd and P. A. Oberg, Laser-Doppler Blood Flowmetry (Kluwer Academic, 1990).

Potter, M.

H. C Nguyen, B. R. Hayes-Gill, S. P Morgan, Y. Zhu, D. Boggett, X. Huang, and M. Potter, J. Med. Eng. Technol. 34, 306 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sakaki, T.

R. Uranishi, H. Nakase, T. Sakaki, and O. S. Kempski, J. Vasc. Res. 36, 100 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Serov, A.

A. Serov and T. Lasser, Proc SPIE 6080, 608004 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Serov and T. Lasser, Opt. Express 13, 6416 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shepherd, A. P.

A. P. Shepherd and P. A. Oberg, Laser-Doppler Blood Flowmetry (Kluwer Academic, 1990).

Steenbergen, W.

M. Draijer, E. Hondebrink, T. V. Leeuwen, and W. Steenbergen, Lasers Med. Sci. 24, 639 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Draijer, E. Hondebrink, T. V. Leeuwen, and W. Steenbergen, Opt. Express 17, 3211 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tulip, J.

R. Bray, K. Forrester, C. Leonard, R. McArthur, J. Tulip, and R. Lindsay, Burns 29, 199 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Uranishi, R.

R. Uranishi, H. Nakase, T. Sakaki, and O. S. Kempski, J. Vasc. Res. 36, 100 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wardell, K.

G. E. Nilsson, A. Jacobsson, and K. Wardell, in Proceedings of the Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, 1989 (IEEE, 1989), pp. 391–392.

Zhu, Y.

D. He, H. C. Nguyen, B. R. Hayes-Gill, Y. Zhu, J. A. Crowe, S. P. Morgan, G. F. Clough, and C. Gill, Proc. SPIE 7891, 78910D (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Nguyen, B. Hayes-Gill, Y. Zhu, J. Crowe, D. He, and S. Morgan, Med. Eng. Phys. 33, 720 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. C Nguyen, B. R. Hayes-Gill, S. P Morgan, Y. Zhu, D. Boggett, X. Huang, and M. Potter, J. Med. Eng. Technol. 34, 306 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Burns (1)

R. Bray, K. Forrester, C. Leonard, R. McArthur, J. Tulip, and R. Lindsay, Burns 29, 199 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dermatol. Surg. (1)

C. M. Choi and R. G. Bennett, Dermatol. Surg. 29, 272 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Med. Eng. Technol. (1)

H. C Nguyen, B. R. Hayes-Gill, S. P Morgan, Y. Zhu, D. Boggett, X. Huang, and M. Potter, J. Med. Eng. Technol. 34, 306 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Vasc. Res. (1)

R. Uranishi, H. Nakase, T. Sakaki, and O. S. Kempski, J. Vasc. Res. 36, 100 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lasers Med. Sci. (1)

M. Draijer, E. Hondebrink, T. V. Leeuwen, and W. Steenbergen, Lasers Med. Sci. 24, 639 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Med. Eng. Phys. (1)

H. Nguyen, B. Hayes-Gill, Y. Zhu, J. Crowe, D. He, and S. Morgan, Med. Eng. Phys. 33, 720 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (2)

C. Kongsavatsak, D. He, B. R. Hayes-Gill, J. A. Crowe, and S. P. Morgan, Opt. Eng. 47, 104401 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. He, C. Kongsavatsak, B. R. Hayes-Gill, J. A. Crowe, and S. P. Morgan, Opt. Eng. 50, 054403 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Physiol. Meas. (1)

J. D. Briers, Physiol. Meas. 22, R35 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Proc SPIE (1)

A. Serov and T. Lasser, Proc SPIE 6080, 608004 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

D. He, H. C. Nguyen, B. R. Hayes-Gill, Y. Zhu, J. A. Crowe, S. P. Morgan, G. F. Clough, and C. Gill, Proc. SPIE 7891, 78910D (2011).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

A. P. Shepherd and P. A. Oberg, Laser-Doppler Blood Flowmetry (Kluwer Academic, 1990).

G. E. Nilsson, A. Jacobsson, and K. Wardell, in Proceedings of the Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, 1989 (IEEE, 1989), pp. 391–392.

Supplementary Material (1)

» Media 1: MPG (1013 KB)     

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Block diagram of the sensor (MUX, multiplexer; ADC, analog to digital converter). (b) Sensor layout.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Simulated flow images (64×64 pixels) with (a) 5% modulation depth at 5 kHz and (b) 8% at 8 kHz.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Blood flow images of a finger (Media 1) (a) unoccluded at t=5s and (b) occluded at t=18s.

Equations (1)

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Flow=ω1ω2ωP(ω)dωPDC,

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