Abstract

We discuss photolytic-interference-free, high-repetition-rate imaging of reaction intermediates in flames and plasmas using femtosecond (fs) multiphoton excitation. The high peak power of fs pulses enables efficient nonlinear excitation, while the low energy nearly eliminates interfering single-photon photodissociation processes. We demonstrate proof-of-principle, interference-free, two-photon laser-induced fluorescence line imaging of atomic hydrogen in hydrocarbon flames and discuss the method’s implications for certain other atomic and molecular species.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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2012 (1)

R. Sivaramakrishnan, J. V. Michael, L. B. Harding, and S. J. Klippenstein, J. Phys. Chem. A 116, 5981 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (1)

A. G. Hsu, V. Narayanaswamy, N. T. Clemens, and J. H. Frank, Proc. Combust. Inst. 33, 759 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2009 (4)

W. D. Kulatilaka, J. H. Frank, B. D. Patterson, and T. B. Settersten, Appl. Phys. B 97, 227 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. D. Kulatilaka, J. H. Frank, and T. B. Settersten, Proc. Combust. Inst. 32, 955 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Kong, G. Kroesen, G. Morfill, T. Nosenko, T. Shimizu, J. van Dijk, and J. L. Zimmermann, New J. Phys. 11, 115012 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Roy, W. D. Kulatilaka, D. Richardson, R. P. Lucht, and J. R. Gord, Opt. Lett. 34, 3857 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2005 (1)

K. Niemi, V. Schulz-von der Gathen, and H. F. Döbele, Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 14, 375 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

1997 (1)

L. Gasnot, P. Desgroux, J. F. Pauwels, and L. R. Sochet, Appl. Phys. B 65, 639 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

V. R. Katta, L. P. Goss, and W. M. Roquemore, AIAA J. 32, 84 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

J. Bittner, K. Kohse-Höinghaus, U. Meier, and T. Just, Chem. Phys. Lett. 143, 571 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

1983 (1)

Bittner, J.

J. Bittner, K. Kohse-Höinghaus, U. Meier, and T. Just, Chem. Phys. Lett. 143, 571 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X. L.

Clemens, N. T.

A. G. Hsu, V. Narayanaswamy, N. T. Clemens, and J. H. Frank, Proc. Combust. Inst. 33, 759 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Desgroux, P.

L. Gasnot, P. Desgroux, J. F. Pauwels, and L. R. Sochet, Appl. Phys. B 65, 639 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Döbele, H. F.

K. Niemi, V. Schulz-von der Gathen, and H. F. Döbele, Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 14, 375 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Frank, J. H.

A. G. Hsu, V. Narayanaswamy, N. T. Clemens, and J. H. Frank, Proc. Combust. Inst. 33, 759 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. D. Kulatilaka, J. H. Frank, B. D. Patterson, and T. B. Settersten, Appl. Phys. B 97, 227 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. D. Kulatilaka, J. H. Frank, and T. B. Settersten, Proc. Combust. Inst. 32, 955 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. D. Kulatilaka, B. D. Patterson, J. H. Frank, and T. B. Settersten, Appl. Opt. 47, 4672 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Frank, X. L. Chen, B. D. Patterson, and T. B. Settersten, Appl. Opt. 43, 2588 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gasnot, L.

L. Gasnot, P. Desgroux, J. F. Pauwels, and L. R. Sochet, Appl. Phys. B 65, 639 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Goldsmith, J. E. M.

Gord, J. R.

Goss, L. P.

V. R. Katta, L. P. Goss, and W. M. Roquemore, AIAA J. 32, 84 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Harding, L. B.

R. Sivaramakrishnan, J. V. Michael, L. B. Harding, and S. J. Klippenstein, J. Phys. Chem. A 116, 5981 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, A. G.

A. G. Hsu, V. Narayanaswamy, N. T. Clemens, and J. H. Frank, Proc. Combust. Inst. 33, 759 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Just, T.

J. Bittner, K. Kohse-Höinghaus, U. Meier, and T. Just, Chem. Phys. Lett. 143, 571 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Katta, V. R.

V. R. Katta, L. P. Goss, and W. M. Roquemore, AIAA J. 32, 84 (1994).
[CrossRef]

King, G. B.

Klippenstein, S. J.

R. Sivaramakrishnan, J. V. Michael, L. B. Harding, and S. J. Klippenstein, J. Phys. Chem. A 116, 5981 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kohse-Höinghaus, K.

J. Bittner, K. Kohse-Höinghaus, U. Meier, and T. Just, Chem. Phys. Lett. 143, 571 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Kong, M. G.

M. G. Kong, G. Kroesen, G. Morfill, T. Nosenko, T. Shimizu, J. van Dijk, and J. L. Zimmermann, New J. Phys. 11, 115012 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kroesen, G.

M. G. Kong, G. Kroesen, G. Morfill, T. Nosenko, T. Shimizu, J. van Dijk, and J. L. Zimmermann, New J. Phys. 11, 115012 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kulatilaka, W. D.

S. Roy, W. D. Kulatilaka, D. Richardson, R. P. Lucht, and J. R. Gord, Opt. Lett. 34, 3857 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. D. Kulatilaka, J. H. Frank, B. D. Patterson, and T. B. Settersten, Appl. Phys. B 97, 227 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. D. Kulatilaka, J. H. Frank, and T. B. Settersten, Proc. Combust. Inst. 32, 955 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. D. Kulatilaka, B. D. Patterson, J. H. Frank, and T. B. Settersten, Appl. Opt. 47, 4672 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Laurendeau, N. M.

Lucht, R. P.

Meier, U.

J. Bittner, K. Kohse-Höinghaus, U. Meier, and T. Just, Chem. Phys. Lett. 143, 571 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Michael, J. V.

R. Sivaramakrishnan, J. V. Michael, L. B. Harding, and S. J. Klippenstein, J. Phys. Chem. A 116, 5981 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Morfill, G.

M. G. Kong, G. Kroesen, G. Morfill, T. Nosenko, T. Shimizu, J. van Dijk, and J. L. Zimmermann, New J. Phys. 11, 115012 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Narayanaswamy, V.

A. G. Hsu, V. Narayanaswamy, N. T. Clemens, and J. H. Frank, Proc. Combust. Inst. 33, 759 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Niemi, K.

K. Niemi, V. Schulz-von der Gathen, and H. F. Döbele, Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 14, 375 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nosenko, T.

M. G. Kong, G. Kroesen, G. Morfill, T. Nosenko, T. Shimizu, J. van Dijk, and J. L. Zimmermann, New J. Phys. 11, 115012 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Patterson, B. D.

Pauwels, J. F.

L. Gasnot, P. Desgroux, J. F. Pauwels, and L. R. Sochet, Appl. Phys. B 65, 639 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, D.

Roquemore, W. M.

V. R. Katta, L. P. Goss, and W. M. Roquemore, AIAA J. 32, 84 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Roy, S.

Salmon, J. T.

Schulz-von der Gathen, V.

K. Niemi, V. Schulz-von der Gathen, and H. F. Döbele, Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 14, 375 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Settersten, T. B.

W. D. Kulatilaka, J. H. Frank, and T. B. Settersten, Proc. Combust. Inst. 32, 955 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. D. Kulatilaka, J. H. Frank, B. D. Patterson, and T. B. Settersten, Appl. Phys. B 97, 227 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. D. Kulatilaka, B. D. Patterson, J. H. Frank, and T. B. Settersten, Appl. Opt. 47, 4672 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Frank, X. L. Chen, B. D. Patterson, and T. B. Settersten, Appl. Opt. 43, 2588 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shimizu, T.

M. G. Kong, G. Kroesen, G. Morfill, T. Nosenko, T. Shimizu, J. van Dijk, and J. L. Zimmermann, New J. Phys. 11, 115012 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sivaramakrishnan, R.

R. Sivaramakrishnan, J. V. Michael, L. B. Harding, and S. J. Klippenstein, J. Phys. Chem. A 116, 5981 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sochet, L. R.

L. Gasnot, P. Desgroux, J. F. Pauwels, and L. R. Sochet, Appl. Phys. B 65, 639 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sweeney, D. W.

van Dijk, J.

M. G. Kong, G. Kroesen, G. Morfill, T. Nosenko, T. Shimizu, J. van Dijk, and J. L. Zimmermann, New J. Phys. 11, 115012 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zimmermann, J. L.

M. G. Kong, G. Kroesen, G. Morfill, T. Nosenko, T. Shimizu, J. van Dijk, and J. L. Zimmermann, New J. Phys. 11, 115012 (2009).
[CrossRef]

AIAA J. (1)

V. R. Katta, L. P. Goss, and W. M. Roquemore, AIAA J. 32, 84 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. B (2)

L. Gasnot, P. Desgroux, J. F. Pauwels, and L. R. Sochet, Appl. Phys. B 65, 639 (1997).
[CrossRef]

W. D. Kulatilaka, J. H. Frank, B. D. Patterson, and T. B. Settersten, Appl. Phys. B 97, 227 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. Bittner, K. Kohse-Höinghaus, U. Meier, and T. Just, Chem. Phys. Lett. 143, 571 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. A (1)

R. Sivaramakrishnan, J. V. Michael, L. B. Harding, and S. J. Klippenstein, J. Phys. Chem. A 116, 5981 (2012).
[CrossRef]

New J. Phys. (1)

M. G. Kong, G. Kroesen, G. Morfill, T. Nosenko, T. Shimizu, J. van Dijk, and J. L. Zimmermann, New J. Phys. 11, 115012 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. (1)

K. Niemi, V. Schulz-von der Gathen, and H. F. Döbele, Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 14, 375 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Combust. Inst. (2)

W. D. Kulatilaka, J. H. Frank, and T. B. Settersten, Proc. Combust. Inst. 32, 955 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Hsu, V. Narayanaswamy, N. T. Clemens, and J. H. Frank, Proc. Combust. Inst. 33, 759 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Two-photon-excited LIF detection scheme for atomic hydrogen and (b) efficient two-photon excitation of H using multiple pairs of femtosecond photons.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Peak-normalized TPLIF line profiles of H from the right half of the flame for various values of laser pulse energy. A flame-luminosity image is shown in the inset.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Experimentally measured and calculated H-atom profiles at four different heights above the nozzle.

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