Abstract

We developed a structured interference optical coherence tomography (SIOCT) to enhance the lateral resolution beyond the diffraction limit. A sinusoidal pattern is created on the interferometric beam with the reference intensity temporally modulated. In the Fourier domain, the high spatial frequencies are shifted into the detectable range, which enhances the lateral resolution beyond the diffraction limit by a factor of 2. The lateral resolution of SIOCT was characterized in our study as 5.5μm, surpassing the diffraction limit 9.6μm as in conventional Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography. SIOCT was demonstrated on phantoms and ex vivo adipose tissues.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
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2011 (2)

L. Liu, J. A. Gardecki, S. K. Nadkarni, J. D. Toussaint, Y. Yagi, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, Nat. Med. 17, 1010 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Blatter, B. Grajciar, C. M. Eigenwillig, W. Wieser, B. R. Biedermann, R. Huber, and R. A. Leitgeb, Opt. Express 19, 12141 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

J. Lu, W. Min, J.-A. Conchello, X. S. Xie, and J. W. Lichtman, Nano Lett. 9, 3883 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (4)

2006 (1)

2002 (2)

Z. Ding, H. Ren, Y. Zhao, J. S. Nelson, and Z. Chen, Opt. Lett. 27, 243 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

M. G. L. Gustafsson, J. Microsc. 198, 82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Bachmann, A. H.

Bajraszewski, T.

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Biedermann, B. R.

Blatter, C.

Boppart, S. A.

T. S. Ralston, D. L. Marks, P. S. Carney, and S. A. Boppart, Nat. Phys. 3, 129 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bouma, B. E.

L. Liu, J. A. Gardecki, S. K. Nadkarni, J. D. Toussaint, Y. Yagi, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, Nat. Med. 17, 1010 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Carney, P. S.

T. S. Ralston, D. L. Marks, P. S. Carney, and S. A. Boppart, Nat. Phys. 3, 129 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Chen, N.

Chen, Z.

Conchello, J.-A.

J. Lu, W. Min, J.-A. Conchello, X. S. Xie, and J. W. Lichtman, Nano Lett. 9, 3883 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ding, Z.

Eigenwillig, C. M.

Fercher, A. F.

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, J. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Gardecki, J. A.

L. Liu, J. A. Gardecki, S. K. Nadkarni, J. D. Toussaint, Y. Yagi, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, Nat. Med. 17, 1010 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Grajciar, B.

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Guo, S.

Gustafsson, M. G. L.

M. G. L. Gustafsson, J. Microsc. 198, 82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Howe, W. C.

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Huber, R.

Kowalczyk, A.

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lasser, T.

Leitgeb, R.

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Leitgeb, R. A.

Lichtman, J. W.

J. Lu, W. Min, J.-A. Conchello, X. S. Xie, and J. W. Lichtman, Nano Lett. 9, 3883 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Liu, C.

Liu, L.

L. Liu, J. A. Gardecki, S. K. Nadkarni, J. D. Toussaint, Y. Yagi, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, Nat. Med. 17, 1010 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Liu, C. Liu, W. C. Howe, C. J. R. Sheppard, and N. Chen, Opt. Lett. 32, 2375 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lu, J.

J. Lu, W. Min, J.-A. Conchello, X. S. Xie, and J. W. Lichtman, Nano Lett. 9, 3883 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Marks, D. L.

T. S. Ralston, D. L. Marks, P. S. Carney, and S. A. Boppart, Nat. Phys. 3, 129 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Min, W.

J. Lu, W. Min, J.-A. Conchello, X. S. Xie, and J. W. Lichtman, Nano Lett. 9, 3883 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nadkarni, S. K.

L. Liu, J. A. Gardecki, S. K. Nadkarni, J. D. Toussaint, Y. Yagi, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, Nat. Med. 17, 1010 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, J. S.

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ralston, T. S.

T. S. Ralston, D. L. Marks, P. S. Carney, and S. A. Boppart, Nat. Phys. 3, 129 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rao, B.

Ren, H.

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sheppard, C. J. R.

Steinmann, L.

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Su, J.

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Tearney, G. J.

L. Liu, J. A. Gardecki, S. K. Nadkarni, J. D. Toussaint, Y. Yagi, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, Nat. Med. 17, 1010 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Toussaint, J. D.

L. Liu, J. A. Gardecki, S. K. Nadkarni, J. D. Toussaint, Y. Yagi, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, Nat. Med. 17, 1010 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Villiger, M.

Wang, Q.

Wang, R. K.

R. K. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 054103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wieser, W.

Wojtkowski, M.

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Xie, X. S.

J. Lu, W. Min, J.-A. Conchello, X. S. Xie, and J. W. Lichtman, Nano Lett. 9, 3883 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yagi, Y.

L. Liu, J. A. Gardecki, S. K. Nadkarni, J. D. Toussaint, Y. Yagi, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, Nat. Med. 17, 1010 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yu, L.

Zhang, J.

Zhao, Y.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

R. K. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 054103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Microsc. (1)

M. G. L. Gustafsson, J. Microsc. 198, 82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (1)

J. Lu, W. Min, J.-A. Conchello, X. S. Xie, and J. W. Lichtman, Nano Lett. 9, 3883 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Med. (1)

L. Liu, J. A. Gardecki, S. K. Nadkarni, J. D. Toussaint, Y. Yagi, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, Nat. Med. 17, 1010 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Phys. (1)

T. S. Ralston, D. L. Marks, P. S. Carney, and S. A. Boppart, Nat. Phys. 3, 129 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Science (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Under a raster linear scan, the temporal modulation is transformed into a spatial illumination pattern. The frequency of the temporal modulation determines the period of the pattern. (b) A cube beam splitter (BS) forms an open space Michelson interferometer. The reference arm contains a dispersion controller (DC), a mirror, and an optical chopper for temporal intensity modulation.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) and (b) LSF map through a depth of focus of 200μm in OCT and SIOCT. The curvy pattern is caused by slight asymmetry from the LSF calculations. (c) Averaged LSF ±SD over the depth of focus from (a) and (b). (d) B-scan intensity on the surface of the target by OCT and SIOCT. Inset: 20× microscopic image of the AF-1951 target. The yellow line depicts the B-scan location.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) and (b) B-scan image of 0.8 μm microsphere phantom with OCT and SIOCT. Bar=50μm. The label on the depth is relative to the focal spot. (c) Mean intensity over z from the squared areas in (a) and (b). Blue, OCT; red, SIOCT. (d) and (e) B-scan image of chicken adipose tissue with OCT and SIOCT. Bar=200μm. Insets in figures are expanded from the dashed regions for a clearer view.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I(x,z)=I0R(x,z)[1+mcos(kmx+ϕ0)],|m|1,
I~(kx)/I0=R~(kx)+m2ejϕ0R~(kxkm)+m2ejϕ0R~(kx+km),
I~(kx,n)/I0=R~(kx)+m2ej(nΔϕ+ϕ0)R~(kxkm)+m2ej(nΔϕ+ϕ0)R~(kx+km),
I~~(kx,kn)/I0=R~(kx)δ(kn)+m2ejϕ0δ(knΔϕ)R~(kxkm)+m2ejϕ0δ(kn+Δϕ)R~(kx+km),

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