Abstract

Low-noise, tunable wavelength-conversion through nondegenerate four-wave mixing Bragg scattering in SiNx waveguides is experimentally demonstrated. Finite element method simulations of waveguide dispersion are used with the split-step Fourier method to predict device performance. Two 1550 nm wavelength band pulsed pumps are used to achieve tunable conversion of a 980 nm signal over a range of 5 nm with a peak conversion efficiency of 5%. The demonstrated Bragg scattering process is suitable for frequency conversion of quantum states of light.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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F. Ferdous, H. Miao, D. E. Leaird, K. Srinivasan, J. Wang, L. Chen, L. T. Varghese, and A. M. Weiner, Nat. Photon. 5, 770 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Davanço, M. T. Rakher, W. Wegscheider, D. Schuh, A. Badolato, and K. Srinivasan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 121101 (2011).

2010 (3)

J. S. Levy, A. Gondarenko, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, Nat. Photon. 4, 37 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Rakher, L. Ma, O. Slattery, X. Tang, and K. Srinivasan, Nat. Photon. 4, 786 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. J. McGuinness, M. G. Raymer, C. J. McKinstrie, and S. Radic, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 093604 (2010).

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

2006 (3)

2005 (1)

2002 (1)

K. Uesaka, K. Kin-Yip, M. Marhic, and L. Kazovsky, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 560 (2002).

1990 (1)

Agrawal, G. P.

Q. Lin, O. J. Painter, and G. P. Agrawal, Opt. Express 15, 16604 (2007).

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic Press, 2007).

Alic, N.

Badolato, A.

M. Davanço, M. T. Rakher, W. Wegscheider, D. Schuh, A. Badolato, and K. Srinivasan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 121101 (2011).

Centanni, J. C.

Chen, L.

F. Ferdous, H. Miao, D. E. Leaird, K. Srinivasan, J. Wang, L. Chen, L. T. Varghese, and A. M. Weiner, Nat. Photon. 5, 770 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Davanço, M.

M. Davanço, M. T. Rakher, W. Wegscheider, D. Schuh, A. Badolato, and K. Srinivasan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 121101 (2011).

Fainman, Y.

Ferdous, F.

F. Ferdous, H. Miao, D. E. Leaird, K. Srinivasan, J. Wang, L. Chen, L. T. Varghese, and A. M. Weiner, Nat. Photon. 5, 770 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Foster, M. A.

J. S. Levy, A. Gondarenko, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, Nat. Photon. 4, 37 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, Nature 441, 960 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Turner, C. Manolatou, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, M. A. Foster, J. E. Sharping, and A. L. Gaeta, Opt. Express 14, 4357 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gaeta, A. L.

J. S. Levy, A. Gondarenko, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, Nat. Photon. 4, 37 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, Nature 441, 960 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Turner, C. Manolatou, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, M. A. Foster, J. E. Sharping, and A. L. Gaeta, Opt. Express 14, 4357 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gnauck, A. H.

Gondarenko, A.

J. S. Levy, A. Gondarenko, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, Nat. Photon. 4, 37 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Harvey, J.

Ikeda, K.

Jopson, R. M.

Kazovsky, L.

K. Uesaka, K. Kin-Yip, M. Marhic, and L. Kazovsky, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 560 (2002).

Kin-Yip, K.

K. Uesaka, K. Kin-Yip, M. Marhic, and L. Kazovsky, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 560 (2002).

Kumar, P.

Leaird, D. E.

F. Ferdous, H. Miao, D. E. Leaird, K. Srinivasan, J. Wang, L. Chen, L. T. Varghese, and A. M. Weiner, Nat. Photon. 5, 770 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Levy, J. S.

J. S. Levy, A. Gondarenko, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, Nat. Photon. 4, 37 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Q.

Lipson, M.

J. S. Levy, A. Gondarenko, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, Nat. Photon. 4, 37 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, Nature 441, 960 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Turner, C. Manolatou, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, M. A. Foster, J. E. Sharping, and A. L. Gaeta, Opt. Express 14, 4357 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ma, L.

M. T. Rakher, L. Ma, O. Slattery, X. Tang, and K. Srinivasan, Nat. Photon. 4, 786 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Manolatou, C.

Marhic, M.

K. Uesaka, K. Kin-Yip, M. Marhic, and L. Kazovsky, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 560 (2002).

McGuinness, H. J.

H. J. McGuinness, M. G. Raymer, C. J. McKinstrie, and S. Radic, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 093604 (2010).

McKinstrie, C.

McKinstrie, C. J.

H. J. McGuinness, M. G. Raymer, C. J. McKinstrie, and S. Radic, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 093604 (2010).

A. H. Gnauck, R. M. Jopson, C. J. McKinstrie, J. C. Centanni, and S. Radic, Opt. Express 14, 8989 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Miao, H.

F. Ferdous, H. Miao, D. E. Leaird, K. Srinivasan, J. Wang, L. Chen, L. T. Varghese, and A. M. Weiner, Nat. Photon. 5, 770 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Painter, O. J.

Radic, S.

Rakher, M. T.

M. Davanço, M. T. Rakher, W. Wegscheider, D. Schuh, A. Badolato, and K. Srinivasan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 121101 (2011).

M. T. Rakher, L. Ma, O. Slattery, X. Tang, and K. Srinivasan, Nat. Photon. 4, 786 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Raymer, M.

Raymer, M. G.

H. J. McGuinness, M. G. Raymer, C. J. McKinstrie, and S. Radic, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 093604 (2010).

Saperstein, R. E.

Schmidt, B. S.

A. C. Turner, C. Manolatou, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, M. A. Foster, J. E. Sharping, and A. L. Gaeta, Opt. Express 14, 4357 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, Nature 441, 960 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schuh, D.

M. Davanço, M. T. Rakher, W. Wegscheider, D. Schuh, A. Badolato, and K. Srinivasan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 121101 (2011).

Sharping, J. E.

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, Nature 441, 960 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Turner, C. Manolatou, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, M. A. Foster, J. E. Sharping, and A. L. Gaeta, Opt. Express 14, 4357 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Slattery, O.

M. T. Rakher, L. Ma, O. Slattery, X. Tang, and K. Srinivasan, Nat. Photon. 4, 786 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Srinivasan, K.

F. Ferdous, H. Miao, D. E. Leaird, K. Srinivasan, J. Wang, L. Chen, L. T. Varghese, and A. M. Weiner, Nat. Photon. 5, 770 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Davanço, M. T. Rakher, W. Wegscheider, D. Schuh, A. Badolato, and K. Srinivasan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 121101 (2011).

M. T. Rakher, L. Ma, O. Slattery, X. Tang, and K. Srinivasan, Nat. Photon. 4, 786 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tang, X.

M. T. Rakher, L. Ma, O. Slattery, X. Tang, and K. Srinivasan, Nat. Photon. 4, 786 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Turner, A. C.

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, Nature 441, 960 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Turner, C. Manolatou, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, M. A. Foster, J. E. Sharping, and A. L. Gaeta, Opt. Express 14, 4357 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Turner-Foster, A. C.

J. S. Levy, A. Gondarenko, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, Nat. Photon. 4, 37 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Uesaka, K.

K. Uesaka, K. Kin-Yip, M. Marhic, and L. Kazovsky, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 560 (2002).

Varghese, L. T.

F. Ferdous, H. Miao, D. E. Leaird, K. Srinivasan, J. Wang, L. Chen, L. T. Varghese, and A. M. Weiner, Nat. Photon. 5, 770 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

F. Ferdous, H. Miao, D. E. Leaird, K. Srinivasan, J. Wang, L. Chen, L. T. Varghese, and A. M. Weiner, Nat. Photon. 5, 770 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wegscheider, W.

M. Davanço, M. T. Rakher, W. Wegscheider, D. Schuh, A. Badolato, and K. Srinivasan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 121101 (2011).

Weiner, A. M.

F. Ferdous, H. Miao, D. E. Leaird, K. Srinivasan, J. Wang, L. Chen, L. T. Varghese, and A. M. Weiner, Nat. Photon. 5, 770 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. Davanço, M. T. Rakher, W. Wegscheider, D. Schuh, A. Badolato, and K. Srinivasan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 121101 (2011).

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

K. Uesaka, K. Kin-Yip, M. Marhic, and L. Kazovsky, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 560 (2002).

Nat. Photon. (3)

J. S. Levy, A. Gondarenko, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, Nat. Photon. 4, 37 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Ferdous, H. Miao, D. E. Leaird, K. Srinivasan, J. Wang, L. Chen, L. T. Varghese, and A. M. Weiner, Nat. Photon. 5, 770 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Rakher, L. Ma, O. Slattery, X. Tang, and K. Srinivasan, Nat. Photon. 4, 786 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, Nature 441, 960 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

H. J. McGuinness, M. G. Raymer, C. J. McKinstrie, and S. Radic, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 093604 (2010).

Other (1)

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic Press, 2007).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Schematic of FWM-BS. Pumps at ω1,2 and a signal at ωs create blue-shifted (ωi+) and red-shifted (ωi) idlers. (b) Fabricated SiNx WG with superimposed fundamental TE mode profile at 1550 nm. (c) Calculated dispersion parameter D for varying w. (d)–(e) Numeric and semianalytic results for pump power dependent conversion efficiency in 1200 and 1000 nm WGs. Power levels are for one pump; the two pumps have equal power.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Experimental setup. FPC=fiberpolarizationcontroller. (b) Simultaneous spectrometer (980 nm band) and OSA (1550 nm band) acquired spectra of residual signal, generated idlers, and pumps 1 and 2, for varying pump 1 wavelengths. (c) Conversion efficiencies for ωi± idlers as functions of idler wavelength for w=1200nm and w=1000nm WGs. (d) w=1000nm WG output spectrum under pulsed (1 ns width) pumping with 6.5 W peak pump power. The residual signal is suppressed relative to (b) due to use of a second FBG rejection filter.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Conversion efficiency versus peak power for a 975 nm idler (979 nm signal) in (a) a w=1200nm WG using ps pump pulses, with the inset showing the efficiency for varying idler wavelength; (b) a w=1000nm WG using ns pump pulses. Error bars are one standard deviation values due to uncertainty in pump pulsewidth. Power levels are for one pump; the two pumps have equal power.

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