Abstract

We compare the energy performance of four-wave mixing in nanowires and slow-light photonic crystals and outline the regimes where each platform exhibits salient advantages and limitations, including analysis of the impact of future fabrication improvement. These results suggest a route towards energy efficient silicon integrated photonics.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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2011 (4)

2010 (6)

2009 (1)

M. Patterson, S. Hughes, S. Combrié, N. V. Q. Tran, A. De Rossi, R. Gabet, and Y. Jaouën, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 253903 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (4)

E. Kuramochi, H. Taniyama, T. Tanabe, A. Shinya, and M. Notomi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 111112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Baba, Nature Photonics 2, 465 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Melloni, F. Morichetti, and M. Martinelli, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, C87 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Gnan, S. Thorns, D. Macintyre, R. De La Rue, and M. Sorel, Electron. Lett. 44, 115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2006 (3)

R. Soref, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1678 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Thourhout, D. Taillaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, V. Wiaux, and R. Baets, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1394 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Kuo, H. Rong, V. Sih, S. Xu, M. Paniccia, and O. Cohen, Opt. Express 14, 11721 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

Asakawa, K.

Baba, T.

T. Baba, Nature Photonics 2, 465 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Baets, R.

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Thourhout, D. Taillaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, V. Wiaux, and R. Baets, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1394 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Beckx, S.

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Thourhout, D. Taillaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, V. Wiaux, and R. Baets, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1394 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Beggs, D. M.

Bergman, K.

Biberman, A.

Bogaerts, W.

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Thourhout, D. Taillaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, V. Wiaux, and R. Baets, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1394 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, R. W.

R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics (Academic Press, 2003).

Cohen, O.

Colman, P.

Combrié, S.

C. Husko, P. Colman, S. Combrié, A. De Rossi, and C. W. Wong, Opt. Lett. 36, 2239 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Patterson, S. Hughes, S. Combrié, N. V. Q. Tran, A. De Rossi, R. Gabet, and Y. Jaouën, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 253903 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Corcoran, B.

De La Rue, R.

M. Gnan, S. Thorns, D. Macintyre, R. De La Rue, and M. Sorel, Electron. Lett. 44, 115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

De Rossi, A.

C. Husko, P. Colman, S. Combrié, A. De Rossi, and C. W. Wong, Opt. Lett. 36, 2239 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Patterson, S. Hughes, S. Combrié, N. V. Q. Tran, A. De Rossi, R. Gabet, and Y. Jaouën, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 253903 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Densmore, A.

Dumon, P.

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Thourhout, D. Taillaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, V. Wiaux, and R. Baets, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1394 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Eggleton, B. J.

Foster, M. A.

Freude, W.

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, and W. Freude, Nat. Photon. 4, 535 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gabet, R.

M. Patterson, S. Hughes, S. Combrié, N. V. Q. Tran, A. De Rossi, R. Gabet, and Y. Jaouën, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 253903 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gaeta, A. L.

Galili, M.

Gnan, M.

M. Gnan, S. Thorns, D. Macintyre, R. De La Rue, and M. Sorel, Electron. Lett. 44, 115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hu, H.

Hughes, S.

M. Patterson, S. Hughes, S. Combrié, N. V. Q. Tran, A. De Rossi, R. Gabet, and Y. Jaouën, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 253903 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hugonin, J. P.

Husko, C.

Hvam, J. M.

Ikeda, N.

Inoue, K.

Jaenen, P.

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Thourhout, D. Taillaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, V. Wiaux, and R. Baets, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1394 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Janz, S.

Jaouën, Y.

M. Patterson, S. Hughes, S. Combrié, N. V. Q. Tran, A. De Rossi, R. Gabet, and Y. Jaouën, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 253903 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jeppesen, P.

Ji, H.

Koos, C.

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, and W. Freude, Nat. Photon. 4, 535 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Krauss, T. F.

Kuipers, L.

Kuo, Y. H.

Kuramochi, E.

E. Kuramochi, H. Taniyama, T. Tanabe, A. Shinya, and M. Notomi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 111112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kwong, D.-L.

Lalanne, P.

Lee, B. G.

Leuthold, J.

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, and W. Freude, Nat. Photon. 4, 535 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

Lipson, M.

Ma, R.

Macintyre, D.

M. Gnan, S. Thorns, D. Macintyre, R. De La Rue, and M. Sorel, Electron. Lett. 44, 115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Martinelli, M.

Mazoyer, S.

McMillan, J. F.

Melloni, A.

Monat, C.

Morichetti, F.

Moss, D. J.

Nakamura, Y.

Notomi, M.

E. Kuramochi, H. Taniyama, T. Tanabe, A. Shinya, and M. Notomi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 111112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O’Faolain, L.

Oxenløwe, L.

Paniccia, M.

Patterson, M.

M. Patterson, S. Hughes, S. Combrié, N. V. Q. Tran, A. De Rossi, R. Gabet, and Y. Jaouën, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 253903 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pelusi, M. D.

Pu, M.

Rong, H.

Salem, R.

Schulz, S. A.

Shinya, A.

E. Kuramochi, H. Taniyama, T. Tanabe, A. Shinya, and M. Notomi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 111112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sih, V.

Soref, R.

R. Soref, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1678 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sorel, M.

M. Gnan, S. Thorns, D. Macintyre, R. De La Rue, and M. Sorel, Electron. Lett. 44, 115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Spasenovic, M.

Sugimoto, Y.

Taillaert, D.

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Thourhout, D. Taillaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, V. Wiaux, and R. Baets, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1394 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tanabe, T.

E. Kuramochi, H. Taniyama, T. Tanabe, A. Shinya, and M. Notomi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 111112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, Y.

Taniyama, H.

E. Kuramochi, H. Taniyama, T. Tanabe, A. Shinya, and M. Notomi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 111112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Thorns, S.

M. Gnan, S. Thorns, D. Macintyre, R. De La Rue, and M. Sorel, Electron. Lett. 44, 115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Thourhout, D.

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Thourhout, D. Taillaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, V. Wiaux, and R. Baets, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1394 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tran, N. V. Q.

M. Patterson, S. Hughes, S. Combrié, N. V. Q. Tran, A. De Rossi, R. Gabet, and Y. Jaouën, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 253903 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Turner, A. C.

Turner-Foster, A. C.

Vo, T. D.

White, T. P.

Wiaux, V.

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Thourhout, D. Taillaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, V. Wiaux, and R. Baets, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1394 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wong, C. W.

Wouters, J.

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Thourhout, D. Taillaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, V. Wiaux, and R. Baets, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1394 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xu, D. X.

Xu, S.

Yu, M.

Yvind, K.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

E. Kuramochi, H. Taniyama, T. Tanabe, A. Shinya, and M. Notomi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 111112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

M. Gnan, S. Thorns, D. Macintyre, R. De La Rue, and M. Sorel, Electron. Lett. 44, 115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

R. Soref, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1678 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Thourhout, D. Taillaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, V. Wiaux, and R. Baets, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1394 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Opt. (1)

S. A. Schulz, L. O’Faolain, D. M. Beggs, T. P. White, A. Melloni, and T. F. Krauss, J. Opt. 12, 104004 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nat. Photon. (1)

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, and W. Freude, Nat. Photon. 4, 535 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nature Photonics (1)

T. Baba, Nature Photonics 2, 465 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (8)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

M. Patterson, S. Hughes, S. Combrié, N. V. Q. Tran, A. De Rossi, R. Gabet, and Y. Jaouën, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 253903 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics (Academic Press, 2003).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Two integrated waveguide geometries. (a) NW channel waveguide. These waveguides can be bent into spirals to increase effective length at the cost of increased footprint area [2]. (b) Photonic crystal waveguide. A minimum number of periods are required to contain slow-light modes [3]. (c) Schematic of the nonlinear four-wave mixing process.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) FWM efficiency η in PhCs as a function of power P0 and group index ng; (b) η for NWs of various lengths; (c) plot demonstrating energy advantages in NW and PhCs with current fabrication. Inset: current fabrication technology (slightly rough). (c) Same as (a) assuming a 5× improvement in fabrication quality.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

FWM efficiency η in NW and PhC for a given PhC bandwidth (fixed ng). η=20dB is chosen as a reasonable level for all-optical signal processing applications. (a) NWs are more energy efficient for long structures, whereas slow-light PhCs are more efficient compact structures. Inset: current fabrication (slightly rough). (b) Same as (a) assuming a 5× fabrication improvement.

Equations (1)

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η=Pidler(L)Psignal(0)=ϕ2θ2eαL,

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