Abstract

One of the most frequently applied techniques to detect nanoparticles in air is analyzing laser light scattering. This technique is very flexible while offering high accuracy and reliability. Yet its functionality highly depends on the sensitivity of the measurement system components. Especially for miniaturized sensor devices with limited space, additional techniques are needed to preserve high intensity of scattered light. In our work we demonstrate a technique using two spherical ring mirrors to identify nanoparticles with diameters below 100 nm in a forward-scattering setup. We succeeded measuring polystyrene particles with diameters of 92 nm with a signal-to-noise-ratio of more than 10.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. L. Black, M. Q. McQuay, and M. P. Bonin, Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 22, 267 (1996).
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  5. H. Li, Y. Guo, Y. Sun, K. Reddy, and X. Fan, Opt. Express 18, 25081 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Zhu, S. K. Ozdemir, Y.-F. Xiao, L. Li, L. He, D.-R. Chen, and L. Yang, Nat. Photon. 4, 46 (2010).
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  8. N. Noeth, S. S. Keller, and A. Boisen, J. Micromech. Microeng. 21, 054022 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. Burnett, J. Brook, T. Dann, C. Delocla, O. Philips, S. Cakmak, R. Vincent, M. Goldberg, and D. Krewski, Inhal. Toxicol. 12, 15 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
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  11. R. Harrison and J. Yin, Sci. Total Environ. 249, 85 (2000).
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  12. C. Hentschel, Fiber Optics Handbook: An Introduction and Reference Guide to Fiber Optic Technology and Measurement Techniques (Hewlett-Packard GmbH, 1989).
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    [CrossRef]

2012 (1)

A. Yurt, G. G. Daaboul, J. H. Connor, B. B. Goldberg, and M. S. ÜnlüNanoscale 4, 715 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (3)

N. Noeth, S. S. Keller, and A. Boisen, J. Micromech. Microeng. 21, 054022 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Tropea, Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 43, 399 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. He, S. K. Özdemir, J. Zhu, W. Kim, and L. Yang, Nature Nanotech. 6, 428 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

J. Zhu, S. K. Ozdemir, Y.-F. Xiao, L. Li, L. He, D.-R. Chen, and L. Yang, Nat. Photon. 4, 46 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Li, Y. Guo, Y. Sun, K. Reddy, and X. Fan, Opt. Express 18, 25081 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

M. Heim, B. J. Mullins, H. Umhauer, and G. Kasper, J. Aerosol Sci. 39, 1019 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

M. Lin, Y. Chen, R. Burnett, P. Villeneuve, and D. Krewski, Environ. Health Persp. 110, 575 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Sem, Atmos. Res. 62, 267 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

R. Harrison and J. Yin, Sci. Total Environ. 249, 85 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Burnett, J. Brook, T. Dann, C. Delocla, O. Philips, S. Cakmak, R. Vincent, M. Goldberg, and D. Krewski, Inhal. Toxicol. 12, 15 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

D. L. Black, M. Q. McQuay, and M. P. Bonin, Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 22, 267 (1996).

Black, D. L.

D. L. Black, M. Q. McQuay, and M. P. Bonin, Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 22, 267 (1996).

Boisen, A.

N. Noeth, S. S. Keller, and A. Boisen, J. Micromech. Microeng. 21, 054022 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bonin, M. P.

D. L. Black, M. Q. McQuay, and M. P. Bonin, Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 22, 267 (1996).

Brook, J.

R. Burnett, J. Brook, T. Dann, C. Delocla, O. Philips, S. Cakmak, R. Vincent, M. Goldberg, and D. Krewski, Inhal. Toxicol. 12, 15 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Burnett, R.

M. Lin, Y. Chen, R. Burnett, P. Villeneuve, and D. Krewski, Environ. Health Persp. 110, 575 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Burnett, J. Brook, T. Dann, C. Delocla, O. Philips, S. Cakmak, R. Vincent, M. Goldberg, and D. Krewski, Inhal. Toxicol. 12, 15 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cakmak, S.

R. Burnett, J. Brook, T. Dann, C. Delocla, O. Philips, S. Cakmak, R. Vincent, M. Goldberg, and D. Krewski, Inhal. Toxicol. 12, 15 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chen, D.-R.

J. Zhu, S. K. Ozdemir, Y.-F. Xiao, L. Li, L. He, D.-R. Chen, and L. Yang, Nat. Photon. 4, 46 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

M. Lin, Y. Chen, R. Burnett, P. Villeneuve, and D. Krewski, Environ. Health Persp. 110, 575 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Connor, J. H.

A. Yurt, G. G. Daaboul, J. H. Connor, B. B. Goldberg, and M. S. ÜnlüNanoscale 4, 715 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Daaboul, G. G.

A. Yurt, G. G. Daaboul, J. H. Connor, B. B. Goldberg, and M. S. ÜnlüNanoscale 4, 715 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Dann, T.

R. Burnett, J. Brook, T. Dann, C. Delocla, O. Philips, S. Cakmak, R. Vincent, M. Goldberg, and D. Krewski, Inhal. Toxicol. 12, 15 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Delocla, C.

R. Burnett, J. Brook, T. Dann, C. Delocla, O. Philips, S. Cakmak, R. Vincent, M. Goldberg, and D. Krewski, Inhal. Toxicol. 12, 15 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fan, X.

Goldberg, B. B.

A. Yurt, G. G. Daaboul, J. H. Connor, B. B. Goldberg, and M. S. ÜnlüNanoscale 4, 715 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Goldberg, M.

R. Burnett, J. Brook, T. Dann, C. Delocla, O. Philips, S. Cakmak, R. Vincent, M. Goldberg, and D. Krewski, Inhal. Toxicol. 12, 15 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Guo, Y.

Harrison, R.

R. Harrison and J. Yin, Sci. Total Environ. 249, 85 (2000).
[CrossRef]

He, L.

L. He, S. K. Özdemir, J. Zhu, W. Kim, and L. Yang, Nature Nanotech. 6, 428 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhu, S. K. Ozdemir, Y.-F. Xiao, L. Li, L. He, D.-R. Chen, and L. Yang, Nat. Photon. 4, 46 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Heim, M.

M. Heim, B. J. Mullins, H. Umhauer, and G. Kasper, J. Aerosol Sci. 39, 1019 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hentschel, C.

C. Hentschel, Fiber Optics Handbook: An Introduction and Reference Guide to Fiber Optic Technology and Measurement Techniques (Hewlett-Packard GmbH, 1989).

Kasper, G.

M. Heim, B. J. Mullins, H. Umhauer, and G. Kasper, J. Aerosol Sci. 39, 1019 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Keller, S. S.

N. Noeth, S. S. Keller, and A. Boisen, J. Micromech. Microeng. 21, 054022 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kim, W.

L. He, S. K. Özdemir, J. Zhu, W. Kim, and L. Yang, Nature Nanotech. 6, 428 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Krewski, D.

M. Lin, Y. Chen, R. Burnett, P. Villeneuve, and D. Krewski, Environ. Health Persp. 110, 575 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Burnett, J. Brook, T. Dann, C. Delocla, O. Philips, S. Cakmak, R. Vincent, M. Goldberg, and D. Krewski, Inhal. Toxicol. 12, 15 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Li, H.

Li, L.

J. Zhu, S. K. Ozdemir, Y.-F. Xiao, L. Li, L. He, D.-R. Chen, and L. Yang, Nat. Photon. 4, 46 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lin, M.

M. Lin, Y. Chen, R. Burnett, P. Villeneuve, and D. Krewski, Environ. Health Persp. 110, 575 (2002).
[CrossRef]

McQuay, M. Q.

D. L. Black, M. Q. McQuay, and M. P. Bonin, Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 22, 267 (1996).

Mullins, B. J.

M. Heim, B. J. Mullins, H. Umhauer, and G. Kasper, J. Aerosol Sci. 39, 1019 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Noeth, N.

N. Noeth, S. S. Keller, and A. Boisen, J. Micromech. Microeng. 21, 054022 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ozdemir, S. K.

J. Zhu, S. K. Ozdemir, Y.-F. Xiao, L. Li, L. He, D.-R. Chen, and L. Yang, Nat. Photon. 4, 46 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Özdemir, S. K.

L. He, S. K. Özdemir, J. Zhu, W. Kim, and L. Yang, Nature Nanotech. 6, 428 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Philips, O.

R. Burnett, J. Brook, T. Dann, C. Delocla, O. Philips, S. Cakmak, R. Vincent, M. Goldberg, and D. Krewski, Inhal. Toxicol. 12, 15 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Reddy, K.

Sem, G.

G. Sem, Atmos. Res. 62, 267 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Y.

Tropea, C.

C. Tropea, Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 43, 399 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Umhauer, H.

M. Heim, B. J. Mullins, H. Umhauer, and G. Kasper, J. Aerosol Sci. 39, 1019 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ünlü, M. S.

A. Yurt, G. G. Daaboul, J. H. Connor, B. B. Goldberg, and M. S. ÜnlüNanoscale 4, 715 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Villeneuve, P.

M. Lin, Y. Chen, R. Burnett, P. Villeneuve, and D. Krewski, Environ. Health Persp. 110, 575 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Vincent, R.

R. Burnett, J. Brook, T. Dann, C. Delocla, O. Philips, S. Cakmak, R. Vincent, M. Goldberg, and D. Krewski, Inhal. Toxicol. 12, 15 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, Y.-F.

J. Zhu, S. K. Ozdemir, Y.-F. Xiao, L. Li, L. He, D.-R. Chen, and L. Yang, Nat. Photon. 4, 46 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yang, L.

L. He, S. K. Özdemir, J. Zhu, W. Kim, and L. Yang, Nature Nanotech. 6, 428 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhu, S. K. Ozdemir, Y.-F. Xiao, L. Li, L. He, D.-R. Chen, and L. Yang, Nat. Photon. 4, 46 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yin, J.

R. Harrison and J. Yin, Sci. Total Environ. 249, 85 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yurt, A.

A. Yurt, G. G. Daaboul, J. H. Connor, B. B. Goldberg, and M. S. ÜnlüNanoscale 4, 715 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, J.

L. He, S. K. Özdemir, J. Zhu, W. Kim, and L. Yang, Nature Nanotech. 6, 428 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhu, S. K. Ozdemir, Y.-F. Xiao, L. Li, L. He, D.-R. Chen, and L. Yang, Nat. Photon. 4, 46 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. (1)

C. Tropea, Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 43, 399 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Atmos. Res. (1)

G. Sem, Atmos. Res. 62, 267 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Environ. Health Persp. (1)

M. Lin, Y. Chen, R. Burnett, P. Villeneuve, and D. Krewski, Environ. Health Persp. 110, 575 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Inhal. Toxicol. (1)

R. Burnett, J. Brook, T. Dann, C. Delocla, O. Philips, S. Cakmak, R. Vincent, M. Goldberg, and D. Krewski, Inhal. Toxicol. 12, 15 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Aerosol Sci. (1)

M. Heim, B. J. Mullins, H. Umhauer, and G. Kasper, J. Aerosol Sci. 39, 1019 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Micromech. Microeng. (1)

N. Noeth, S. S. Keller, and A. Boisen, J. Micromech. Microeng. 21, 054022 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nanoscale (1)

A. Yurt, G. G. Daaboul, J. H. Connor, B. B. Goldberg, and M. S. ÜnlüNanoscale 4, 715 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photon. (1)

J. Zhu, S. K. Ozdemir, Y.-F. Xiao, L. Li, L. He, D.-R. Chen, and L. Yang, Nat. Photon. 4, 46 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nature Nanotech. (1)

L. He, S. K. Özdemir, J. Zhu, W. Kim, and L. Yang, Nature Nanotech. 6, 428 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. (1)

D. L. Black, M. Q. McQuay, and M. P. Bonin, Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 22, 267 (1996).

Sci. Total Environ. (1)

R. Harrison and J. Yin, Sci. Total Environ. 249, 85 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

C. Hentschel, Fiber Optics Handbook: An Introduction and Reference Guide to Fiber Optic Technology and Measurement Techniques (Hewlett-Packard GmbH, 1989).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Ring mirrors effectively increase the detection area; its surface equals the cut of a sphere.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Particle detection setup containing two confocally aligned ring mirrors collecting scattered light of particles passing through the laser beam at angle 2040° and 4075° onto two APDs.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Scheme of the experimental setup, including the aerosol generation and electrical components. The aerosol was fed either (1) to a SMPS+C system for reference measurements or (2) to the optical measurement system.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Average detected signal maxima and errors (standard deviation) for APD1(2040°)/APD2(4075°).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Evaluated Measurement Results for the Averaged Maxima of the Transient Scattering Signals at Angle Intervals 20–40° and 40–75°

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Pscat=8πNdp6λ4r2|n21n2+2|2(1+cos2θ)ILaserADet,
SNR=Pscat·αPD·M[B·(Pscat2·RIN·αPD2·M2+iN,PD2(T)¯+iN,TIA2¯)]1/2,
ARM=2πr2cosx|αβ,
V=ARMADet,

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