Abstract

The development of robust infrared fibers is crucial for harnessing the capabilities of new mid-infrared lasers. We present a novel approach to the fabrication of chalcogenide glass fiber preforms: one-step multimaterial extrusion. The preform consists of a glass core and cladding surrounded by a built-in, thermally compatible, polymer jacket for mechanical support. Using this approach we extrude several preform structures and draw them into robust composite fibers. Furthermore, the polymer cladding allows us to produce robust tapers with submicrometer core diameter.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, and I. D. Aggarwal, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 114 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  2. G. Delaizir, J.-S. Sangleboeuf, E. A. King, Y. Gueguen, X. H. Zhang, C. Boussard-Pledel, B. Bureau, and P. Lucas, J. Phys. D 42, 095405 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. Mossadegh, J. S. Sanghera, D. Schaafsma, B. J. Cole, V. Q. Nguyen, R. E. Miklos, and I. D. Aggarwal, J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 214 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Z. Yang, T. Luo, S. Jiang, J. Geng, and P. Lucas, Opt. Lett. 35, 3360 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  5. B. Bureau, S. Maurugeon, F. Charpentier, J.-L. Adam, C. Boussard-Pládel, and X.-H. Zhang, Fiber Integr. Opt. 28, 65 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. Furniss and A. B. Seddon, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256, 232 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  7. X. Feng, T. M. Monro, P. Petropoulos, V. Finazzi, and D. J. Richardson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 081110 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Saito, M. Takizawa, and M. Miyagi, J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 233 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. A. Ray Hilton, Chalcogenide Glasses for Infrared Optics (McGraw-Hill, 2009).
  10. A. F. Abouraddy, M. Bayindir, G. Benoit, S. D. Hart, K. Kuriki, N. Orf, O. Shapira, F. Sorin, B. Temelkuran, and Y. Fink, Nat. Mater. 6, 336 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  11. D. J. Gibson and J. A. Harrington, J. Appl. Phys. 95, 3895 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. D. Savage, C. A. Miller, D. Furniss, and A. B. Seddon, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354, 3418 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. B. Seddon, D. Furniss, and A. Motesharei, Proc. SPIE 3416, 32 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  14. S. Shabahang, J. J. Kaufman, D. S. Deng, and A. F. Abouraddy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 161909 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. J. Kaufman, G. Tao, S. Shabahang, D. S. Deng, Y. Fink, and A. F. Abouraddy, Nano Lett. 11, 4768 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  16. Z. Ruff, D. Shemuly, X. Peng, O. Shapira, Z. Wang, and Y. Fink, Opt. Express 18, 15697 (2010).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (2)

S. Shabahang, J. J. Kaufman, D. S. Deng, and A. F. Abouraddy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 161909 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Kaufman, G. Tao, S. Shabahang, D. S. Deng, Y. Fink, and A. F. Abouraddy, Nano Lett. 11, 4768 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

2009 (3)

B. Bureau, S. Maurugeon, F. Charpentier, J.-L. Adam, C. Boussard-Pládel, and X.-H. Zhang, Fiber Integr. Opt. 28, 65 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, and I. D. Aggarwal, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Delaizir, J.-S. Sangleboeuf, E. A. King, Y. Gueguen, X. H. Zhang, C. Boussard-Pledel, B. Bureau, and P. Lucas, J. Phys. D 42, 095405 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

S. D. Savage, C. A. Miller, D. Furniss, and A. B. Seddon, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354, 3418 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

A. F. Abouraddy, M. Bayindir, G. Benoit, S. D. Hart, K. Kuriki, N. Orf, O. Shapira, F. Sorin, B. Temelkuran, and Y. Fink, Nat. Mater. 6, 336 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

X. Feng, T. M. Monro, P. Petropoulos, V. Finazzi, and D. J. Richardson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 081110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

D. J. Gibson and J. A. Harrington, J. Appl. Phys. 95, 3895 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

D. Furniss and A. B. Seddon, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256, 232 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

1988 (1)

M. Saito, M. Takizawa, and M. Miyagi, J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 233 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Abouraddy, A. F.

S. Shabahang, J. J. Kaufman, D. S. Deng, and A. F. Abouraddy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 161909 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Kaufman, G. Tao, S. Shabahang, D. S. Deng, Y. Fink, and A. F. Abouraddy, Nano Lett. 11, 4768 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Abouraddy, M. Bayindir, G. Benoit, S. D. Hart, K. Kuriki, N. Orf, O. Shapira, F. Sorin, B. Temelkuran, and Y. Fink, Nat. Mater. 6, 336 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Adam, J.-L.

B. Bureau, S. Maurugeon, F. Charpentier, J.-L. Adam, C. Boussard-Pládel, and X.-H. Zhang, Fiber Integr. Opt. 28, 65 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Aggarwal, I. D.

Bayindir, M.

A. F. Abouraddy, M. Bayindir, G. Benoit, S. D. Hart, K. Kuriki, N. Orf, O. Shapira, F. Sorin, B. Temelkuran, and Y. Fink, Nat. Mater. 6, 336 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Benoit, G.

A. F. Abouraddy, M. Bayindir, G. Benoit, S. D. Hart, K. Kuriki, N. Orf, O. Shapira, F. Sorin, B. Temelkuran, and Y. Fink, Nat. Mater. 6, 336 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Boussard-Pládel, C.

B. Bureau, S. Maurugeon, F. Charpentier, J.-L. Adam, C. Boussard-Pládel, and X.-H. Zhang, Fiber Integr. Opt. 28, 65 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Boussard-Pledel, C.

G. Delaizir, J.-S. Sangleboeuf, E. A. King, Y. Gueguen, X. H. Zhang, C. Boussard-Pledel, B. Bureau, and P. Lucas, J. Phys. D 42, 095405 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bureau, B.

G. Delaizir, J.-S. Sangleboeuf, E. A. King, Y. Gueguen, X. H. Zhang, C. Boussard-Pledel, B. Bureau, and P. Lucas, J. Phys. D 42, 095405 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Bureau, S. Maurugeon, F. Charpentier, J.-L. Adam, C. Boussard-Pládel, and X.-H. Zhang, Fiber Integr. Opt. 28, 65 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Charpentier, F.

B. Bureau, S. Maurugeon, F. Charpentier, J.-L. Adam, C. Boussard-Pládel, and X.-H. Zhang, Fiber Integr. Opt. 28, 65 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cole, B. J.

Delaizir, G.

G. Delaizir, J.-S. Sangleboeuf, E. A. King, Y. Gueguen, X. H. Zhang, C. Boussard-Pledel, B. Bureau, and P. Lucas, J. Phys. D 42, 095405 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Deng, D. S.

J. J. Kaufman, G. Tao, S. Shabahang, D. S. Deng, Y. Fink, and A. F. Abouraddy, Nano Lett. 11, 4768 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Shabahang, J. J. Kaufman, D. S. Deng, and A. F. Abouraddy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 161909 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Feng, X.

X. Feng, T. M. Monro, P. Petropoulos, V. Finazzi, and D. J. Richardson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 081110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Finazzi, V.

X. Feng, T. M. Monro, P. Petropoulos, V. Finazzi, and D. J. Richardson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 081110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fink, Y.

J. J. Kaufman, G. Tao, S. Shabahang, D. S. Deng, Y. Fink, and A. F. Abouraddy, Nano Lett. 11, 4768 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. Ruff, D. Shemuly, X. Peng, O. Shapira, Z. Wang, and Y. Fink, Opt. Express 18, 15697 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Abouraddy, M. Bayindir, G. Benoit, S. D. Hart, K. Kuriki, N. Orf, O. Shapira, F. Sorin, B. Temelkuran, and Y. Fink, Nat. Mater. 6, 336 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Furniss, D.

S. D. Savage, C. A. Miller, D. Furniss, and A. B. Seddon, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354, 3418 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Furniss and A. B. Seddon, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256, 232 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Seddon, D. Furniss, and A. Motesharei, Proc. SPIE 3416, 32 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Geng, J.

Gibson, D. J.

D. J. Gibson and J. A. Harrington, J. Appl. Phys. 95, 3895 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gueguen, Y.

G. Delaizir, J.-S. Sangleboeuf, E. A. King, Y. Gueguen, X. H. Zhang, C. Boussard-Pledel, B. Bureau, and P. Lucas, J. Phys. D 42, 095405 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Harrington, J. A.

D. J. Gibson and J. A. Harrington, J. Appl. Phys. 95, 3895 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hart, S. D.

A. F. Abouraddy, M. Bayindir, G. Benoit, S. D. Hart, K. Kuriki, N. Orf, O. Shapira, F. Sorin, B. Temelkuran, and Y. Fink, Nat. Mater. 6, 336 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, S.

Kaufman, J. J.

S. Shabahang, J. J. Kaufman, D. S. Deng, and A. F. Abouraddy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 161909 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Kaufman, G. Tao, S. Shabahang, D. S. Deng, Y. Fink, and A. F. Abouraddy, Nano Lett. 11, 4768 (2011).
[CrossRef]

King, E. A.

G. Delaizir, J.-S. Sangleboeuf, E. A. King, Y. Gueguen, X. H. Zhang, C. Boussard-Pledel, B. Bureau, and P. Lucas, J. Phys. D 42, 095405 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kuriki, K.

A. F. Abouraddy, M. Bayindir, G. Benoit, S. D. Hart, K. Kuriki, N. Orf, O. Shapira, F. Sorin, B. Temelkuran, and Y. Fink, Nat. Mater. 6, 336 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lucas, P.

Z. Yang, T. Luo, S. Jiang, J. Geng, and P. Lucas, Opt. Lett. 35, 3360 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Delaizir, J.-S. Sangleboeuf, E. A. King, Y. Gueguen, X. H. Zhang, C. Boussard-Pledel, B. Bureau, and P. Lucas, J. Phys. D 42, 095405 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Luo, T.

Maurugeon, S.

B. Bureau, S. Maurugeon, F. Charpentier, J.-L. Adam, C. Boussard-Pládel, and X.-H. Zhang, Fiber Integr. Opt. 28, 65 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Miklos, R. E.

Miller, C. A.

S. D. Savage, C. A. Miller, D. Furniss, and A. B. Seddon, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354, 3418 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Miyagi, M.

M. Saito, M. Takizawa, and M. Miyagi, J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 233 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Monro, T. M.

X. Feng, T. M. Monro, P. Petropoulos, V. Finazzi, and D. J. Richardson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 081110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mossadegh, R.

Motesharei, A.

A. B. Seddon, D. Furniss, and A. Motesharei, Proc. SPIE 3416, 32 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, V. Q.

Orf, N.

A. F. Abouraddy, M. Bayindir, G. Benoit, S. D. Hart, K. Kuriki, N. Orf, O. Shapira, F. Sorin, B. Temelkuran, and Y. Fink, Nat. Mater. 6, 336 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Peng, X.

Petropoulos, P.

X. Feng, T. M. Monro, P. Petropoulos, V. Finazzi, and D. J. Richardson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 081110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ray Hilton, S. A.

S. A. Ray Hilton, Chalcogenide Glasses for Infrared Optics (McGraw-Hill, 2009).

Richardson, D. J.

X. Feng, T. M. Monro, P. Petropoulos, V. Finazzi, and D. J. Richardson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 081110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ruff, Z.

Saito, M.

M. Saito, M. Takizawa, and M. Miyagi, J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 233 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Sanghera, J. S.

Sangleboeuf, J.-S.

G. Delaizir, J.-S. Sangleboeuf, E. A. King, Y. Gueguen, X. H. Zhang, C. Boussard-Pledel, B. Bureau, and P. Lucas, J. Phys. D 42, 095405 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Savage, S. D.

S. D. Savage, C. A. Miller, D. Furniss, and A. B. Seddon, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354, 3418 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schaafsma, D.

Seddon, A. B.

S. D. Savage, C. A. Miller, D. Furniss, and A. B. Seddon, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354, 3418 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Furniss and A. B. Seddon, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256, 232 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Seddon, D. Furniss, and A. Motesharei, Proc. SPIE 3416, 32 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shabahang, S.

S. Shabahang, J. J. Kaufman, D. S. Deng, and A. F. Abouraddy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 161909 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Kaufman, G. Tao, S. Shabahang, D. S. Deng, Y. Fink, and A. F. Abouraddy, Nano Lett. 11, 4768 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shapira, O.

Z. Ruff, D. Shemuly, X. Peng, O. Shapira, Z. Wang, and Y. Fink, Opt. Express 18, 15697 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Abouraddy, M. Bayindir, G. Benoit, S. D. Hart, K. Kuriki, N. Orf, O. Shapira, F. Sorin, B. Temelkuran, and Y. Fink, Nat. Mater. 6, 336 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shaw, L. B.

J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, and I. D. Aggarwal, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shemuly, D.

Sorin, F.

A. F. Abouraddy, M. Bayindir, G. Benoit, S. D. Hart, K. Kuriki, N. Orf, O. Shapira, F. Sorin, B. Temelkuran, and Y. Fink, Nat. Mater. 6, 336 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Takizawa, M.

M. Saito, M. Takizawa, and M. Miyagi, J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 233 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Tao, G.

J. J. Kaufman, G. Tao, S. Shabahang, D. S. Deng, Y. Fink, and A. F. Abouraddy, Nano Lett. 11, 4768 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Temelkuran, B.

A. F. Abouraddy, M. Bayindir, G. Benoit, S. D. Hart, K. Kuriki, N. Orf, O. Shapira, F. Sorin, B. Temelkuran, and Y. Fink, Nat. Mater. 6, 336 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z.

Yang, Z.

Zhang, X. H.

G. Delaizir, J.-S. Sangleboeuf, E. A. King, Y. Gueguen, X. H. Zhang, C. Boussard-Pledel, B. Bureau, and P. Lucas, J. Phys. D 42, 095405 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.-H.

B. Bureau, S. Maurugeon, F. Charpentier, J.-L. Adam, C. Boussard-Pládel, and X.-H. Zhang, Fiber Integr. Opt. 28, 65 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

X. Feng, T. M. Monro, P. Petropoulos, V. Finazzi, and D. J. Richardson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 081110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Shabahang, J. J. Kaufman, D. S. Deng, and A. F. Abouraddy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 161909 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fiber Integr. Opt. (1)

B. Bureau, S. Maurugeon, F. Charpentier, J.-L. Adam, C. Boussard-Pládel, and X.-H. Zhang, Fiber Integr. Opt. 28, 65 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, and I. D. Aggarwal, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

D. J. Gibson and J. A. Harrington, J. Appl. Phys. 95, 3895 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (2)

D. Furniss and A. B. Seddon, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256, 232 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Savage, C. A. Miller, D. Furniss, and A. B. Seddon, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354, 3418 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D (1)

G. Delaizir, J.-S. Sangleboeuf, E. A. King, Y. Gueguen, X. H. Zhang, C. Boussard-Pledel, B. Bureau, and P. Lucas, J. Phys. D 42, 095405 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (1)

J. J. Kaufman, G. Tao, S. Shabahang, D. S. Deng, Y. Fink, and A. F. Abouraddy, Nano Lett. 11, 4768 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater. (1)

A. F. Abouraddy, M. Bayindir, G. Benoit, S. D. Hart, K. Kuriki, N. Orf, O. Shapira, F. Sorin, B. Temelkuran, and Y. Fink, Nat. Mater. 6, 336 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (1)

A. B. Seddon, D. Furniss, and A. Motesharei, Proc. SPIE 3416, 32 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

S. A. Ray Hilton, Chalcogenide Glasses for Infrared Optics (McGraw-Hill, 2009).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Extrusion system. P, piston; S, sleeve; B, billet; D, die. (b) A hybrid polymer (P: PES) and ChG (G:As2Se3) billet. A section of the polymer was removed to reveal the structure. (c) Section of the extruded preform. (d) A disk (diameter 17.4 mm) cut from the extruded preform in (c). (e) Reflection optical micrograph of the fiber cross section and (f) the core.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Vertically stacked billet to produce a GGP preform. (b) Drawn GGP fiber. (c), (e) Transmission optical micrographs of the fiber cross sections, and (d), (f) reflection micrographs of the core. P, polymer; G1:As2Se3, G2:As2Se1.5S1.5, and G3:As2S3.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) A 1-mm-diameter fiber tied in a 1-in.-diameter knot. (b) Transmission over time for 10 fibers after bending the fiber with D=0.5in. bend diameter. The black curve is the average of all the measurements. (c) A 2 kg weight hanging from a 5-cm-long fiber. The inset shows the hanging mechanism. The fiber is attached to microscope slides using epoxy while keeping the ends free for optical measurements. (d) A robust multimaterial taper. The inset is a micrograph of the taper center.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a)–(c) Characterization of GGP and (d)–(f) GP tapers both having core dmin=1.4μm. (a), (d) SEM micrographs of the cross sections; (b), (e) white-light and (c), (f) 1.55 μm laser light near-field intensity images. Scale bars are 2 μm. Dashed white circles corresponding to the interfaces are guides for the eye. (g) Measured and calculated optical transmission at 1.55 μm for GGP and GP tapers with different dmin normalized with respect to the untapered fiber with do=10μm. Dashed black line corresponds to dmin=1.4μm used in (a)–(f).

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