Abstract

We report a significant increase of about 50% of the photoinduced birefringence in nanocomposite films of azopolymers doped with ZnO nanoparticles compared with samples made from nondoped azopolymers. This increase is most pronounced at small concentrations of the nanoparticles of 0.5% and for the amorphous polymers used in our study. We observe also an improvement of the response time of more than 25% in some of the polymers, which allows for faster and more effective polarization optical recording.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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  1. T. Todorov, L. Nikolova, and N. Tomova, Appl. Opt. 23, 4309 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. Natansohn and P. Rochon, Chem. Rev. 102, 4139 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  3. L. Nikolova and P. S. Ramanujam, Polarization Holography (Cambridge University, 2009).
  4. G. Martinez-Ponce, Ts. Petrova, N. Tomova, V. Dragostinova, T. Todorov, and L. Nikolova, J. Opt. A 6, 324 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. L. Nikolova, T. Todorov, M. Ivanov, F. Andruzzi, S. Hvilsted, and P. S. Ramanujam, Appl. Opt. 35, 3835 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. Martinez-Ponce, T. Petrova, N. Tomova, V. Dragostinova, T. Todorov, and L. Nikolova, Opt. Lett. 29, 1001 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. Y. Kim, L. Li, X. L. Jiang, V. Shivshankar, J. Kumar, and S. K. Tripathy, Macromolecules 28, 8835 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  8. L. Nedelchev, L. Nikolova, T. Todorov, T. Petrova, N. Tomova, V. Dragostinova, P. S. Ramanujam, and S. Hvilsted, J. Opt. A 3, 304 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. M. Tejedor, M. Millaruelo, L. Oriol, J. L. Serrano, R. Alcalá, F. J. Rodríguez, and B. Villacampa, J. Mater. Chem. 16, 1674 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. Hvilsted, F. Andruzzi, and P. S. Ramanujam, Opt. Lett. 17, 1234 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  11. L. Nedelchev, A. S. Matharu, S. Hvilsted, and P. S. Ramanujam, Appl. Opt. 42, 5918 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. B. Djurisic, A. M. C. Ng, and X. Y. Chen, Prog. Quantum Electron. 34, 191 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. M. Shah, C. Martini, J. Ackermann, and F. Fages, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 367, 109 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  14. N. Suzuki and Y. Tomita, Appl. Opt. 43, 2125 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  15. E. Leite, I. Naydenova, S. Mintova, L. Leclercq, and V. Toal, Appl. Opt. 49, 3652 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  16. R. M. A. Azzam and N. M. Bashara, Ellipsometry and Polarized Light (North-Holland, 1977).

2012

S. M. Shah, C. Martini, J. Ackermann, and F. Fages, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 367, 109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2010

A. B. Djurisic, A. M. C. Ng, and X. Y. Chen, Prog. Quantum Electron. 34, 191 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Leite, I. Naydenova, S. Mintova, L. Leclercq, and V. Toal, Appl. Opt. 49, 3652 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2006

R. M. Tejedor, M. Millaruelo, L. Oriol, J. L. Serrano, R. Alcalá, F. J. Rodríguez, and B. Villacampa, J. Mater. Chem. 16, 1674 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004

2003

2002

A. Natansohn and P. Rochon, Chem. Rev. 102, 4139 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

L. Nedelchev, L. Nikolova, T. Todorov, T. Petrova, N. Tomova, V. Dragostinova, P. S. Ramanujam, and S. Hvilsted, J. Opt. A 3, 304 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1996

1995

D. Y. Kim, L. Li, X. L. Jiang, V. Shivshankar, J. Kumar, and S. K. Tripathy, Macromolecules 28, 8835 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992

1984

Ackermann, J.

S. M. Shah, C. Martini, J. Ackermann, and F. Fages, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 367, 109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Alcalá, R.

R. M. Tejedor, M. Millaruelo, L. Oriol, J. L. Serrano, R. Alcalá, F. J. Rodríguez, and B. Villacampa, J. Mater. Chem. 16, 1674 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Andruzzi, F.

Azzam, R. M. A.

R. M. A. Azzam and N. M. Bashara, Ellipsometry and Polarized Light (North-Holland, 1977).

Bashara, N. M.

R. M. A. Azzam and N. M. Bashara, Ellipsometry and Polarized Light (North-Holland, 1977).

Chen, X. Y.

A. B. Djurisic, A. M. C. Ng, and X. Y. Chen, Prog. Quantum Electron. 34, 191 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Djurisic, A. B.

A. B. Djurisic, A. M. C. Ng, and X. Y. Chen, Prog. Quantum Electron. 34, 191 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dragostinova, V.

G. Martinez-Ponce, T. Petrova, N. Tomova, V. Dragostinova, T. Todorov, and L. Nikolova, Opt. Lett. 29, 1001 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Martinez-Ponce, Ts. Petrova, N. Tomova, V. Dragostinova, T. Todorov, and L. Nikolova, J. Opt. A 6, 324 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Nedelchev, L. Nikolova, T. Todorov, T. Petrova, N. Tomova, V. Dragostinova, P. S. Ramanujam, and S. Hvilsted, J. Opt. A 3, 304 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fages, F.

S. M. Shah, C. Martini, J. Ackermann, and F. Fages, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 367, 109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hvilsted, S.

Ivanov, M.

Jiang, X. L.

D. Y. Kim, L. Li, X. L. Jiang, V. Shivshankar, J. Kumar, and S. K. Tripathy, Macromolecules 28, 8835 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D. Y.

D. Y. Kim, L. Li, X. L. Jiang, V. Shivshankar, J. Kumar, and S. K. Tripathy, Macromolecules 28, 8835 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, J.

D. Y. Kim, L. Li, X. L. Jiang, V. Shivshankar, J. Kumar, and S. K. Tripathy, Macromolecules 28, 8835 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Leclercq, L.

Leite, E.

Li, L.

D. Y. Kim, L. Li, X. L. Jiang, V. Shivshankar, J. Kumar, and S. K. Tripathy, Macromolecules 28, 8835 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Martinez-Ponce, G.

G. Martinez-Ponce, T. Petrova, N. Tomova, V. Dragostinova, T. Todorov, and L. Nikolova, Opt. Lett. 29, 1001 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Martinez-Ponce, Ts. Petrova, N. Tomova, V. Dragostinova, T. Todorov, and L. Nikolova, J. Opt. A 6, 324 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Martini, C.

S. M. Shah, C. Martini, J. Ackermann, and F. Fages, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 367, 109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Matharu, A. S.

Millaruelo, M.

R. M. Tejedor, M. Millaruelo, L. Oriol, J. L. Serrano, R. Alcalá, F. J. Rodríguez, and B. Villacampa, J. Mater. Chem. 16, 1674 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mintova, S.

Natansohn, A.

A. Natansohn and P. Rochon, Chem. Rev. 102, 4139 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Naydenova, I.

Nedelchev, L.

L. Nedelchev, A. S. Matharu, S. Hvilsted, and P. S. Ramanujam, Appl. Opt. 42, 5918 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. Nedelchev, L. Nikolova, T. Todorov, T. Petrova, N. Tomova, V. Dragostinova, P. S. Ramanujam, and S. Hvilsted, J. Opt. A 3, 304 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ng, A. M. C.

A. B. Djurisic, A. M. C. Ng, and X. Y. Chen, Prog. Quantum Electron. 34, 191 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nikolova, L.

G. Martinez-Ponce, Ts. Petrova, N. Tomova, V. Dragostinova, T. Todorov, and L. Nikolova, J. Opt. A 6, 324 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Martinez-Ponce, T. Petrova, N. Tomova, V. Dragostinova, T. Todorov, and L. Nikolova, Opt. Lett. 29, 1001 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Nedelchev, L. Nikolova, T. Todorov, T. Petrova, N. Tomova, V. Dragostinova, P. S. Ramanujam, and S. Hvilsted, J. Opt. A 3, 304 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. Nikolova, T. Todorov, M. Ivanov, F. Andruzzi, S. Hvilsted, and P. S. Ramanujam, Appl. Opt. 35, 3835 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. Todorov, L. Nikolova, and N. Tomova, Appl. Opt. 23, 4309 (1984).
[CrossRef]

L. Nikolova and P. S. Ramanujam, Polarization Holography (Cambridge University, 2009).

Oriol, L.

R. M. Tejedor, M. Millaruelo, L. Oriol, J. L. Serrano, R. Alcalá, F. J. Rodríguez, and B. Villacampa, J. Mater. Chem. 16, 1674 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Petrova, T.

G. Martinez-Ponce, T. Petrova, N. Tomova, V. Dragostinova, T. Todorov, and L. Nikolova, Opt. Lett. 29, 1001 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Nedelchev, L. Nikolova, T. Todorov, T. Petrova, N. Tomova, V. Dragostinova, P. S. Ramanujam, and S. Hvilsted, J. Opt. A 3, 304 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Petrova, Ts.

G. Martinez-Ponce, Ts. Petrova, N. Tomova, V. Dragostinova, T. Todorov, and L. Nikolova, J. Opt. A 6, 324 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ramanujam, P. S.

L. Nedelchev, A. S. Matharu, S. Hvilsted, and P. S. Ramanujam, Appl. Opt. 42, 5918 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. Nedelchev, L. Nikolova, T. Todorov, T. Petrova, N. Tomova, V. Dragostinova, P. S. Ramanujam, and S. Hvilsted, J. Opt. A 3, 304 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. Nikolova, T. Todorov, M. Ivanov, F. Andruzzi, S. Hvilsted, and P. S. Ramanujam, Appl. Opt. 35, 3835 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Hvilsted, F. Andruzzi, and P. S. Ramanujam, Opt. Lett. 17, 1234 (1992).
[CrossRef]

L. Nikolova and P. S. Ramanujam, Polarization Holography (Cambridge University, 2009).

Rochon, P.

A. Natansohn and P. Rochon, Chem. Rev. 102, 4139 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rodríguez, F. J.

R. M. Tejedor, M. Millaruelo, L. Oriol, J. L. Serrano, R. Alcalá, F. J. Rodríguez, and B. Villacampa, J. Mater. Chem. 16, 1674 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Serrano, J. L.

R. M. Tejedor, M. Millaruelo, L. Oriol, J. L. Serrano, R. Alcalá, F. J. Rodríguez, and B. Villacampa, J. Mater. Chem. 16, 1674 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shah, S. M.

S. M. Shah, C. Martini, J. Ackermann, and F. Fages, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 367, 109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Shivshankar, V.

D. Y. Kim, L. Li, X. L. Jiang, V. Shivshankar, J. Kumar, and S. K. Tripathy, Macromolecules 28, 8835 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, N.

Tejedor, R. M.

R. M. Tejedor, M. Millaruelo, L. Oriol, J. L. Serrano, R. Alcalá, F. J. Rodríguez, and B. Villacampa, J. Mater. Chem. 16, 1674 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Toal, V.

Todorov, T.

G. Martinez-Ponce, Ts. Petrova, N. Tomova, V. Dragostinova, T. Todorov, and L. Nikolova, J. Opt. A 6, 324 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Martinez-Ponce, T. Petrova, N. Tomova, V. Dragostinova, T. Todorov, and L. Nikolova, Opt. Lett. 29, 1001 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Nedelchev, L. Nikolova, T. Todorov, T. Petrova, N. Tomova, V. Dragostinova, P. S. Ramanujam, and S. Hvilsted, J. Opt. A 3, 304 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. Nikolova, T. Todorov, M. Ivanov, F. Andruzzi, S. Hvilsted, and P. S. Ramanujam, Appl. Opt. 35, 3835 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. Todorov, L. Nikolova, and N. Tomova, Appl. Opt. 23, 4309 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Tomita, Y.

Tomova, N.

G. Martinez-Ponce, T. Petrova, N. Tomova, V. Dragostinova, T. Todorov, and L. Nikolova, Opt. Lett. 29, 1001 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Martinez-Ponce, Ts. Petrova, N. Tomova, V. Dragostinova, T. Todorov, and L. Nikolova, J. Opt. A 6, 324 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Nedelchev, L. Nikolova, T. Todorov, T. Petrova, N. Tomova, V. Dragostinova, P. S. Ramanujam, and S. Hvilsted, J. Opt. A 3, 304 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Todorov, L. Nikolova, and N. Tomova, Appl. Opt. 23, 4309 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Tripathy, S. K.

D. Y. Kim, L. Li, X. L. Jiang, V. Shivshankar, J. Kumar, and S. K. Tripathy, Macromolecules 28, 8835 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Villacampa, B.

R. M. Tejedor, M. Millaruelo, L. Oriol, J. L. Serrano, R. Alcalá, F. J. Rodríguez, and B. Villacampa, J. Mater. Chem. 16, 1674 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Chem. Rev.

A. Natansohn and P. Rochon, Chem. Rev. 102, 4139 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Colloid Interface Sci.

S. M. Shah, C. Martini, J. Ackermann, and F. Fages, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 367, 109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Chem.

R. M. Tejedor, M. Millaruelo, L. Oriol, J. L. Serrano, R. Alcalá, F. J. Rodríguez, and B. Villacampa, J. Mater. Chem. 16, 1674 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A

G. Martinez-Ponce, Ts. Petrova, N. Tomova, V. Dragostinova, T. Todorov, and L. Nikolova, J. Opt. A 6, 324 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Nedelchev, L. Nikolova, T. Todorov, T. Petrova, N. Tomova, V. Dragostinova, P. S. Ramanujam, and S. Hvilsted, J. Opt. A 3, 304 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Macromolecules

D. Y. Kim, L. Li, X. L. Jiang, V. Shivshankar, J. Kumar, and S. K. Tripathy, Macromolecules 28, 8835 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Prog. Quantum Electron.

A. B. Djurisic, A. M. C. Ng, and X. Y. Chen, Prog. Quantum Electron. 34, 191 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Other

R. M. A. Azzam and N. M. Bashara, Ellipsometry and Polarized Light (North-Holland, 1977).

L. Nikolova and P. S. Ramanujam, Polarization Holography (Cambridge University, 2009).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Structures of the azopolymers: (a) amorphous polymer P1, (b) amorphous copolymer P12, and (c) LC polymer P2.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Spectra of the absorption coefficients for polymer P1 and P12 (as inset) doped with 0, 0.5, 5, and 25 wt. % of ZnO NPs.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

TEM photograph of the nanocomposite film made from the copolymer P12 doped with 5% ZnO NPs. In the inset is shown the selected area electron diffraction image.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Experimental setup for real-time measurement of photoinduced birefringence. POL1 and POL2 are polarizers, S is the azopolymer/ZnO sample, and D is the photodetector.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Photoinduced birefringence Δn as a function of time for P1-based azopolymer/ZnO NP systems (Ipump=400mW/cm2, λ=473nm).

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Dependence of the maximal value of the photoinduced birefringence on the concentration of ZnO NPs in P1, P12, and P2based azocomposites.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Birefringence and Response Time Depending on the Polymer Structure and ZnO NP Concentration

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I=I0sin2(δ/2)=I0sin2(πΔnd/λprobe),
Δn=λprobeπd·arcsinII0.

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