Abstract

We use hydrofluoric acid microdroplets to directly etch highly birefringent biconical fiber tapers from standard single-mode fibers. The fiber tapers have micrometer-sized cross sections, which are controlled by the etching condition. The characteristic teardrop cross section leads to a high group birefringence of BG0.017 and insertion losses <0.7dB over waist lengths of about 2.1 mm.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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K. Q. Kieu and M. Mansuripur, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2239 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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W. Liang, Y. Huang, Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, and A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151122 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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H. S. Haddock, P. M. Shankar, and R. Mutharasan, Mater. Sci. Eng. B 97, 87 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, Nature 426, 816 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

J. P. Laine, B. E. Little, and H. A. Haus, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1429 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1983 (1)

Ashcom, J. B.

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, Nature 426, 816 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Birks, T. A.

Bose, R.

M. T. Rakher, R. Bose, C. W. Wong, and K. Srinivasan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 161108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Brambilla, G.

Buhl, L.

C. R. Doerr, L. Zhang, L. Buhl, V. I. Kopp, D. Neugroschl, and G. Weiner, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper OThN5.

Chang, Y.

Chen, T.

H. Lee, T. Chen, J. Li, K. Y. Yang, S. Jeon, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, http://arxiv.org/abs/1112.2196 (2011).

Chen, Y.

Cheung, G.

Doerr, C. R.

C. R. Doerr, L. Zhang, L. Buhl, V. I. Kopp, D. Neugroschl, and G. Weiner, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper OThN5.

Gao, S.

Gattass, R. R.

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, Nature 426, 816 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Guan, B.

Haddock, H. S.

H. S. Haddock, P. M. Shankar, and R. Mutharasan, Mater. Sci. Eng. B 97, 87 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Haus, H. A.

J. P. Laine, B. E. Little, and H. A. Haus, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1429 (1999).
[CrossRef]

He, S.

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, Nature 426, 816 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y.

W. Liang, Y. Huang, Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, and A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151122 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jaques, F.

Jeon, S.

H. Lee, T. Chen, J. Li, K. Y. Yang, S. Jeon, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, http://arxiv.org/abs/1112.2196 (2011).

Jin, L.

Jin, W.

Ju, J.

Jung, Y.

Kieu, K. Q.

K. Q. Kieu and M. Mansuripur, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2239 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kikuchi, K.

Knight, J. C.

Kopp, V. I.

C. R. Doerr, L. Zhang, L. Buhl, V. I. Kopp, D. Neugroschl, and G. Weiner, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper OThN5.

Kou, J.

Laine, J. P.

J. P. Laine, B. E. Little, and H. A. Haus, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1429 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H.

H. Lee, T. Chen, J. Li, K. Y. Yang, S. Jeon, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, http://arxiv.org/abs/1112.2196 (2011).

Lee, R. K.

W. Liang, Y. Huang, Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, and A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151122 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

J. Li, L. Sun, S. Gao, Z. Quan, Y. Chang, Y. Ran, L. Jin, and B. Guan, Opt. Lett. 36, 3593 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Lee, T. Chen, J. Li, K. Y. Yang, S. Jeon, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, http://arxiv.org/abs/1112.2196 (2011).

Liang, W.

W. Liang, Y. Huang, Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, and A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151122 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Little, B. E.

J. P. Laine, B. E. Little, and H. A. Haus, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1429 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lou, J.

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, Nature 426, 816 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Y.

Mansuripur, M.

K. Q. Kieu and M. Mansuripur, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2239 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Maxwell, I.

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, Nature 426, 816 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mazur, E.

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, Nature 426, 816 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mutharasan, R.

H. S. Haddock, P. M. Shankar, and R. Mutharasan, Mater. Sci. Eng. B 97, 87 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Neugroschl, D.

C. R. Doerr, L. Zhang, L. Buhl, V. I. Kopp, D. Neugroschl, and G. Weiner, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper OThN5.

Oh, K.

Okoshi, T.

Painter, O.

H. Lee, T. Chen, J. Li, K. Y. Yang, S. Jeon, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, http://arxiv.org/abs/1112.2196 (2011).

Poon, J. K. S.

Qiu, S.

Quan, Z.

Rakher, M. T.

M. T. Rakher, R. Bose, C. W. Wong, and K. Srinivasan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 161108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ran, Y.

Richardson, D. J.

Sacher, W. D.

Shankar, P. M.

H. S. Haddock, P. M. Shankar, and R. Mutharasan, Mater. Sci. Eng. B 97, 87 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shen, M.

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, Nature 426, 816 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Srinivasan, K.

M. T. Rakher, R. Bose, C. W. Wong, and K. Srinivasan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 161108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sun, L.

Tong, L.

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, Nature 426, 816 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Vahala, K. J.

H. Lee, T. Chen, J. Li, K. Y. Yang, S. Jeon, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, http://arxiv.org/abs/1112.2196 (2011).

Weiner, G.

C. R. Doerr, L. Zhang, L. Buhl, V. I. Kopp, D. Neugroschl, and G. Weiner, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper OThN5.

Wong, C. W.

M. T. Rakher, R. Bose, C. W. Wong, and K. Srinivasan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 161108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xu, F.

Xu, Y.

W. Liang, Y. Huang, Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, and A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151122 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Xuan, H.

Yang, K. Y.

H. Lee, T. Chen, J. Li, K. Y. Yang, S. Jeon, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, http://arxiv.org/abs/1112.2196 (2011).

Yariv, A.

W. Liang, Y. Huang, Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, and A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151122 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, E. J.

Zhang, L.

C. R. Doerr, L. Zhang, L. Buhl, V. I. Kopp, D. Neugroschl, and G. Weiner, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper OThN5.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

W. Liang, Y. Huang, Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, and A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151122 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Rakher, R. Bose, C. W. Wong, and K. Srinivasan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 161108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

J. P. Laine, B. E. Little, and H. A. Haus, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1429 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Q. Kieu and M. Mansuripur, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2239 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Sci. Eng. B (1)

H. S. Haddock, P. M. Shankar, and R. Mutharasan, Mater. Sci. Eng. B 97, 87 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, Nature 426, 816 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Other (2)

C. R. Doerr, L. Zhang, L. Buhl, V. I. Kopp, D. Neugroschl, and G. Weiner, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper OThN5.

H. Lee, T. Chen, J. Li, K. Y. Yang, S. Jeon, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, http://arxiv.org/abs/1112.2196 (2011).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Schematic of the apparatus. (b) Schematic showing the etch rates for a shallow and deep immersion in the microdroplet. Longer arrows represent higher local etch rates. (c) SEM images of the cross section during the etch progression where L was increased from 3 to 5 mm after 40 min. The teardrop shape forms early in the etch and becomes more exaggerated.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

SEM cross-sectional images. (a), (b) Two fiber tapers with similar areas and differing ellipticities. e1.4 in (a) and e1.7 in (b). (c) Highly elliptical taper with e1.8. (d) Micrometer-wide cross section.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Optical power for the fundamental (y-polarized) mode in a teardrop-shaped fiber taper (λ=1550nm). (b) Example transmission spectrum. (c) Calculated birefringence (colored lines) and the measured group birefringences (black points). The ellipticities are indicated with their uncertainties in parentheses.

Equations (3)

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x(t)=Csin(t)sin(0.5t),y(t)=Dcos(t),
BG=Δn(λ)λdΔndλ,
I(λ)=12+12cos(2πλdΔn(λ)),

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