Abstract

A laser line-scanning instrument was developed to optimize the near-field enhancement capability of a one-dimensional photonic crystal (PC) for excitation of surface-bound fluorophores. The excitation laser beam is shaped into an 8  μm×1  mm line that is focused along the direction of the PC grating, while remaining collimated perpendicular to the grating. Such a beam configuration offers high excitation power density while simultaneously providing high resonant coupling efficiency from the laser to the PC surface. Using a panel of 21 immunofluorescence assays on the PC surface in a microarray format, the approach achieves an enhancement factor as high as 90-fold between on-resonance and off-resonance illumination. The instrument provides a capability for sensitive and inexpensive analysis of cancer biomarkers in clinical applications.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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  1. N. Ganesh, W. Zhang, P. C. Mathias, E. Chow, J. Soares, V. Malyarchuk, A. D. Smith, and B. T. Cunningham, Nat. Nanotechnol. 2, 515 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  2. T. Kaji, T. Yamada, R. Ueda, and A. Otomo, J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2, 1651 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Li, P. Zhang, J. Li, J. Zhou, A. Sinitskii, V. Abramova, S. O. Klimonsky, and Y. D. Tretyakov, Appl. Phys. B 89, 251 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Pokhriyal, M. Lu, V. Chaudhery, C.-S. Huang, S. Schulz, and B. T. Cunningham, Opt. Express 18, 24793 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  5. I. V. Soboleva, E. Descrovi, C. Summonte, A. A. Fedyanin, and F. Giorgis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 231122 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  6. N. Ganesh, P. C. Mathias, W. Zhang, and B. T. Cunningham, J. Appl. Phys. 103, 083104 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Brzezinski, J.-T. Lee, J. D. Slinker, G. G. Malliaras, P. V. Braun, and P. Wiltzius, Phys. Rev. B 77, 233106 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  8. C.-S. Huang, S. George, M. Lu, V. Chaudhery, R. Tan, R. C. Zangar, B. T. Cunningham, Anal. Chem. 83, 1425 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  9. P. C. Mathias, S. I. Jones, H. Y. Wu, F. Yang, N. Ganesh, D. O. Gonzalez, G. Bollero, L. O. Vodkin, and B. T. Cunningham, Anal. Chem. 82, 6854 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  10. V. Chaudhery, C.-S. Huang, A. Pokhriyal, J. Polans, and B. T. Cunningham, Opt. Express 19, 23327 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  11. I. D. Block, P. C. Mathias, N. Ganesh, S. I. Jones, B. R. Dorvel, V. Chaudhery, L. O. Vodkin, R. Bashir, and B. T. Cunningham, Opt. Express 17, 13222 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  12. V. Chaudhery, M. Lu, A. Pokhriyal, S. Schulz, and B. Cunningham, IEEE Sens. J. 12, 1272 (2011).
  13. P. C. Mathias, H.-Y. Wu, and B. T. Cunningham, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 021111 (2009).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (4)

T. Kaji, T. Yamada, R. Ueda, and A. Otomo, J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2, 1651 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C.-S. Huang, S. George, M. Lu, V. Chaudhery, R. Tan, R. C. Zangar, B. T. Cunningham, Anal. Chem. 83, 1425 (2011).
[CrossRef]

V. Chaudhery, M. Lu, A. Pokhriyal, S. Schulz, and B. Cunningham, IEEE Sens. J. 12, 1272 (2011).

V. Chaudhery, C.-S. Huang, A. Pokhriyal, J. Polans, and B. T. Cunningham, Opt. Express 19, 23327 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

A. Pokhriyal, M. Lu, V. Chaudhery, C.-S. Huang, S. Schulz, and B. T. Cunningham, Opt. Express 18, 24793 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. C. Mathias, S. I. Jones, H. Y. Wu, F. Yang, N. Ganesh, D. O. Gonzalez, G. Bollero, L. O. Vodkin, and B. T. Cunningham, Anal. Chem. 82, 6854 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (3)

P. C. Mathias, H.-Y. Wu, and B. T. Cunningham, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 021111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. D. Block, P. C. Mathias, N. Ganesh, S. I. Jones, B. R. Dorvel, V. Chaudhery, L. O. Vodkin, R. Bashir, and B. T. Cunningham, Opt. Express 17, 13222 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. V. Soboleva, E. Descrovi, C. Summonte, A. A. Fedyanin, and F. Giorgis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 231122 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

N. Ganesh, P. C. Mathias, W. Zhang, and B. T. Cunningham, J. Appl. Phys. 103, 083104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Brzezinski, J.-T. Lee, J. D. Slinker, G. G. Malliaras, P. V. Braun, and P. Wiltzius, Phys. Rev. B 77, 233106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

M. Li, P. Zhang, J. Li, J. Zhou, A. Sinitskii, V. Abramova, S. O. Klimonsky, and Y. D. Tretyakov, Appl. Phys. B 89, 251 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Ganesh, W. Zhang, P. C. Mathias, E. Chow, J. Soares, V. Malyarchuk, A. D. Smith, and B. T. Cunningham, Nat. Nanotechnol. 2, 515 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Abramova, V.

M. Li, P. Zhang, J. Li, J. Zhou, A. Sinitskii, V. Abramova, S. O. Klimonsky, and Y. D. Tretyakov, Appl. Phys. B 89, 251 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bashir, R.

Block, I. D.

Bollero, G.

P. C. Mathias, S. I. Jones, H. Y. Wu, F. Yang, N. Ganesh, D. O. Gonzalez, G. Bollero, L. O. Vodkin, and B. T. Cunningham, Anal. Chem. 82, 6854 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Braun, P. V.

A. Brzezinski, J.-T. Lee, J. D. Slinker, G. G. Malliaras, P. V. Braun, and P. Wiltzius, Phys. Rev. B 77, 233106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Brzezinski, A.

A. Brzezinski, J.-T. Lee, J. D. Slinker, G. G. Malliaras, P. V. Braun, and P. Wiltzius, Phys. Rev. B 77, 233106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chaudhery, V.

Chow, E.

N. Ganesh, W. Zhang, P. C. Mathias, E. Chow, J. Soares, V. Malyarchuk, A. D. Smith, and B. T. Cunningham, Nat. Nanotechnol. 2, 515 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cunningham, B.

V. Chaudhery, M. Lu, A. Pokhriyal, S. Schulz, and B. Cunningham, IEEE Sens. J. 12, 1272 (2011).

Cunningham, B. T.

C.-S. Huang, S. George, M. Lu, V. Chaudhery, R. Tan, R. C. Zangar, B. T. Cunningham, Anal. Chem. 83, 1425 (2011).
[CrossRef]

V. Chaudhery, C.-S. Huang, A. Pokhriyal, J. Polans, and B. T. Cunningham, Opt. Express 19, 23327 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. C. Mathias, S. I. Jones, H. Y. Wu, F. Yang, N. Ganesh, D. O. Gonzalez, G. Bollero, L. O. Vodkin, and B. T. Cunningham, Anal. Chem. 82, 6854 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Pokhriyal, M. Lu, V. Chaudhery, C.-S. Huang, S. Schulz, and B. T. Cunningham, Opt. Express 18, 24793 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. C. Mathias, H.-Y. Wu, and B. T. Cunningham, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 021111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. D. Block, P. C. Mathias, N. Ganesh, S. I. Jones, B. R. Dorvel, V. Chaudhery, L. O. Vodkin, R. Bashir, and B. T. Cunningham, Opt. Express 17, 13222 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Ganesh, P. C. Mathias, W. Zhang, and B. T. Cunningham, J. Appl. Phys. 103, 083104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Ganesh, W. Zhang, P. C. Mathias, E. Chow, J. Soares, V. Malyarchuk, A. D. Smith, and B. T. Cunningham, Nat. Nanotechnol. 2, 515 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Descrovi, E.

I. V. Soboleva, E. Descrovi, C. Summonte, A. A. Fedyanin, and F. Giorgis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 231122 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dorvel, B. R.

Fedyanin, A. A.

I. V. Soboleva, E. Descrovi, C. Summonte, A. A. Fedyanin, and F. Giorgis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 231122 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ganesh, N.

P. C. Mathias, S. I. Jones, H. Y. Wu, F. Yang, N. Ganesh, D. O. Gonzalez, G. Bollero, L. O. Vodkin, and B. T. Cunningham, Anal. Chem. 82, 6854 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. D. Block, P. C. Mathias, N. Ganesh, S. I. Jones, B. R. Dorvel, V. Chaudhery, L. O. Vodkin, R. Bashir, and B. T. Cunningham, Opt. Express 17, 13222 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Ganesh, P. C. Mathias, W. Zhang, and B. T. Cunningham, J. Appl. Phys. 103, 083104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Ganesh, W. Zhang, P. C. Mathias, E. Chow, J. Soares, V. Malyarchuk, A. D. Smith, and B. T. Cunningham, Nat. Nanotechnol. 2, 515 (2007).
[CrossRef]

George, S.

C.-S. Huang, S. George, M. Lu, V. Chaudhery, R. Tan, R. C. Zangar, B. T. Cunningham, Anal. Chem. 83, 1425 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Giorgis, F.

I. V. Soboleva, E. Descrovi, C. Summonte, A. A. Fedyanin, and F. Giorgis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 231122 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gonzalez, D. O.

P. C. Mathias, S. I. Jones, H. Y. Wu, F. Yang, N. Ganesh, D. O. Gonzalez, G. Bollero, L. O. Vodkin, and B. T. Cunningham, Anal. Chem. 82, 6854 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Huang, C.-S.

Jones, S. I.

P. C. Mathias, S. I. Jones, H. Y. Wu, F. Yang, N. Ganesh, D. O. Gonzalez, G. Bollero, L. O. Vodkin, and B. T. Cunningham, Anal. Chem. 82, 6854 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. D. Block, P. C. Mathias, N. Ganesh, S. I. Jones, B. R. Dorvel, V. Chaudhery, L. O. Vodkin, R. Bashir, and B. T. Cunningham, Opt. Express 17, 13222 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kaji, T.

T. Kaji, T. Yamada, R. Ueda, and A. Otomo, J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2, 1651 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Klimonsky, S. O.

M. Li, P. Zhang, J. Li, J. Zhou, A. Sinitskii, V. Abramova, S. O. Klimonsky, and Y. D. Tretyakov, Appl. Phys. B 89, 251 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J.-T.

A. Brzezinski, J.-T. Lee, J. D. Slinker, G. G. Malliaras, P. V. Braun, and P. Wiltzius, Phys. Rev. B 77, 233106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

M. Li, P. Zhang, J. Li, J. Zhou, A. Sinitskii, V. Abramova, S. O. Klimonsky, and Y. D. Tretyakov, Appl. Phys. B 89, 251 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Li, M.

M. Li, P. Zhang, J. Li, J. Zhou, A. Sinitskii, V. Abramova, S. O. Klimonsky, and Y. D. Tretyakov, Appl. Phys. B 89, 251 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lu, M.

C.-S. Huang, S. George, M. Lu, V. Chaudhery, R. Tan, R. C. Zangar, B. T. Cunningham, Anal. Chem. 83, 1425 (2011).
[CrossRef]

V. Chaudhery, M. Lu, A. Pokhriyal, S. Schulz, and B. Cunningham, IEEE Sens. J. 12, 1272 (2011).

A. Pokhriyal, M. Lu, V. Chaudhery, C.-S. Huang, S. Schulz, and B. T. Cunningham, Opt. Express 18, 24793 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Malliaras, G. G.

A. Brzezinski, J.-T. Lee, J. D. Slinker, G. G. Malliaras, P. V. Braun, and P. Wiltzius, Phys. Rev. B 77, 233106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Malyarchuk, V.

N. Ganesh, W. Zhang, P. C. Mathias, E. Chow, J. Soares, V. Malyarchuk, A. D. Smith, and B. T. Cunningham, Nat. Nanotechnol. 2, 515 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mathias, P. C.

P. C. Mathias, S. I. Jones, H. Y. Wu, F. Yang, N. Ganesh, D. O. Gonzalez, G. Bollero, L. O. Vodkin, and B. T. Cunningham, Anal. Chem. 82, 6854 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. C. Mathias, H.-Y. Wu, and B. T. Cunningham, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 021111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. D. Block, P. C. Mathias, N. Ganesh, S. I. Jones, B. R. Dorvel, V. Chaudhery, L. O. Vodkin, R. Bashir, and B. T. Cunningham, Opt. Express 17, 13222 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Ganesh, P. C. Mathias, W. Zhang, and B. T. Cunningham, J. Appl. Phys. 103, 083104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Ganesh, W. Zhang, P. C. Mathias, E. Chow, J. Soares, V. Malyarchuk, A. D. Smith, and B. T. Cunningham, Nat. Nanotechnol. 2, 515 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Otomo, A.

T. Kaji, T. Yamada, R. Ueda, and A. Otomo, J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2, 1651 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Pokhriyal, A.

Polans, J.

Schulz, S.

V. Chaudhery, M. Lu, A. Pokhriyal, S. Schulz, and B. Cunningham, IEEE Sens. J. 12, 1272 (2011).

A. Pokhriyal, M. Lu, V. Chaudhery, C.-S. Huang, S. Schulz, and B. T. Cunningham, Opt. Express 18, 24793 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sinitskii, A.

M. Li, P. Zhang, J. Li, J. Zhou, A. Sinitskii, V. Abramova, S. O. Klimonsky, and Y. D. Tretyakov, Appl. Phys. B 89, 251 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Slinker, J. D.

A. Brzezinski, J.-T. Lee, J. D. Slinker, G. G. Malliaras, P. V. Braun, and P. Wiltzius, Phys. Rev. B 77, 233106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Smith, A. D.

N. Ganesh, W. Zhang, P. C. Mathias, E. Chow, J. Soares, V. Malyarchuk, A. D. Smith, and B. T. Cunningham, Nat. Nanotechnol. 2, 515 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Soares, J.

N. Ganesh, W. Zhang, P. C. Mathias, E. Chow, J. Soares, V. Malyarchuk, A. D. Smith, and B. T. Cunningham, Nat. Nanotechnol. 2, 515 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Soboleva, I. V.

I. V. Soboleva, E. Descrovi, C. Summonte, A. A. Fedyanin, and F. Giorgis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 231122 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Summonte, C.

I. V. Soboleva, E. Descrovi, C. Summonte, A. A. Fedyanin, and F. Giorgis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 231122 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tan, R.

C.-S. Huang, S. George, M. Lu, V. Chaudhery, R. Tan, R. C. Zangar, B. T. Cunningham, Anal. Chem. 83, 1425 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tretyakov, Y. D.

M. Li, P. Zhang, J. Li, J. Zhou, A. Sinitskii, V. Abramova, S. O. Klimonsky, and Y. D. Tretyakov, Appl. Phys. B 89, 251 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ueda, R.

T. Kaji, T. Yamada, R. Ueda, and A. Otomo, J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2, 1651 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Vodkin, L. O.

P. C. Mathias, S. I. Jones, H. Y. Wu, F. Yang, N. Ganesh, D. O. Gonzalez, G. Bollero, L. O. Vodkin, and B. T. Cunningham, Anal. Chem. 82, 6854 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. D. Block, P. C. Mathias, N. Ganesh, S. I. Jones, B. R. Dorvel, V. Chaudhery, L. O. Vodkin, R. Bashir, and B. T. Cunningham, Opt. Express 17, 13222 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wiltzius, P.

A. Brzezinski, J.-T. Lee, J. D. Slinker, G. G. Malliaras, P. V. Braun, and P. Wiltzius, Phys. Rev. B 77, 233106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wu, H. Y.

P. C. Mathias, S. I. Jones, H. Y. Wu, F. Yang, N. Ganesh, D. O. Gonzalez, G. Bollero, L. O. Vodkin, and B. T. Cunningham, Anal. Chem. 82, 6854 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wu, H.-Y.

P. C. Mathias, H.-Y. Wu, and B. T. Cunningham, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 021111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, T.

T. Kaji, T. Yamada, R. Ueda, and A. Otomo, J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2, 1651 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yang, F.

P. C. Mathias, S. I. Jones, H. Y. Wu, F. Yang, N. Ganesh, D. O. Gonzalez, G. Bollero, L. O. Vodkin, and B. T. Cunningham, Anal. Chem. 82, 6854 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zangar, R. C.

C.-S. Huang, S. George, M. Lu, V. Chaudhery, R. Tan, R. C. Zangar, B. T. Cunningham, Anal. Chem. 83, 1425 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, P.

M. Li, P. Zhang, J. Li, J. Zhou, A. Sinitskii, V. Abramova, S. O. Klimonsky, and Y. D. Tretyakov, Appl. Phys. B 89, 251 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, W.

N. Ganesh, P. C. Mathias, W. Zhang, and B. T. Cunningham, J. Appl. Phys. 103, 083104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Ganesh, W. Zhang, P. C. Mathias, E. Chow, J. Soares, V. Malyarchuk, A. D. Smith, and B. T. Cunningham, Nat. Nanotechnol. 2, 515 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, J.

M. Li, P. Zhang, J. Li, J. Zhou, A. Sinitskii, V. Abramova, S. O. Klimonsky, and Y. D. Tretyakov, Appl. Phys. B 89, 251 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Chem. (2)

C.-S. Huang, S. George, M. Lu, V. Chaudhery, R. Tan, R. C. Zangar, B. T. Cunningham, Anal. Chem. 83, 1425 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. C. Mathias, S. I. Jones, H. Y. Wu, F. Yang, N. Ganesh, D. O. Gonzalez, G. Bollero, L. O. Vodkin, and B. T. Cunningham, Anal. Chem. 82, 6854 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

M. Li, P. Zhang, J. Li, J. Zhou, A. Sinitskii, V. Abramova, S. O. Klimonsky, and Y. D. Tretyakov, Appl. Phys. B 89, 251 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

I. V. Soboleva, E. Descrovi, C. Summonte, A. A. Fedyanin, and F. Giorgis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 231122 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. C. Mathias, H.-Y. Wu, and B. T. Cunningham, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 021111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Sens. J. (1)

V. Chaudhery, M. Lu, A. Pokhriyal, S. Schulz, and B. Cunningham, IEEE Sens. J. 12, 1272 (2011).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

N. Ganesh, P. C. Mathias, W. Zhang, and B. T. Cunningham, J. Appl. Phys. 103, 083104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. Lett. (1)

T. Kaji, T. Yamada, R. Ueda, and A. Otomo, J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2, 1651 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (1)

N. Ganesh, W. Zhang, P. C. Mathias, E. Chow, J. Soares, V. Malyarchuk, A. D. Smith, and B. T. Cunningham, Nat. Nanotechnol. 2, 515 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

A. Brzezinski, J.-T. Lee, J. D. Slinker, G. G. Malliaras, P. V. Braun, and P. Wiltzius, Phys. Rev. B 77, 233106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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