Abstract

A novel scheme for bit-rate-variable polarization-division-multiplexed return-to-zero to nonreturn-to-zero and NRZ to pseudo-return-to-zero format conversions is proposed using a variable differential-group-delay element inside a polarization-diversified loop. Conversion for both 2×10 and 2×12.5Gbit/s PDM signals are successfully demonstrated with approximately 1 dB additional power penalty by properly adjusting DGD values of the variable DGD element.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. I. Hayee and M. C. Cardakli, IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 13, 881 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  2. P. Groumas, V. Katopodis, C. Kouloumentas, and M. Bougioukos, IEEE Photon. Lett. 24, 179 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  3. L.-S. Yan, A.-L. Yi, W. Pan, B. Luo, and J. Ye, Opt. Express 18, 21404 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  4. L. Zhou, H. Chen, and A. W. Poon, J. Lightwave Technol. 26, 1950 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. Hu, P. Munster, E. Palushani, M. Galili, and K. Dalgaard, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC 2012) (postdeadline paper, Los Angeles, Calif., March 2012), Paper PDP5C.7.
  6. C. G. Lee, and Y. J. Kim, J. Lightwave Technol. 28, 834 (2005).
  7. C. H. Kwok, S. H. Lee, and K. K. Chow, IET Optoelectron. 1, 47 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. L. Yi and L.-S. Yan, Opt. Express 20, 9890 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. H. Lee, K. K. Chow, and C. Shu, Opt. Express 13, 1710 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  10. C. H. Kwok and C. Lin, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 451 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  11. X. Fang, H. Ji, C. T. Allen, K. Demarest, and L. Pelz, IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 9, 458 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  12. F. Zhang, X. F. Jin, X. M. Zhang, S. L. Zheng, H. Chi, K. Y. Zhou, and J. P. Yao, Electron. Lett. 46, 71 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  13. L. Wang, Y. H. Dai, G. K. P. Lei, J. Du, and C. Shu, IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 23, 368 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  14. H.-Y. Jiang and L.-S. Yan, Opt. Lett. 36, 2305 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  15. Y. Yu, X. L. Zhang, and D. X. Huang, Opt. Comm. 284, 129 (2011).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (2)

P. Groumas, V. Katopodis, C. Kouloumentas, and M. Bougioukos, IEEE Photon. Lett. 24, 179 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Yi and L.-S. Yan, Opt. Express 20, 9890 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (3)

H.-Y. Jiang and L.-S. Yan, Opt. Lett. 36, 2305 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Wang, Y. H. Dai, G. K. P. Lei, J. Du, and C. Shu, IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 23, 368 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yu, X. L. Zhang, and D. X. Huang, Opt. Comm. 284, 129 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

F. Zhang, X. F. Jin, X. M. Zhang, S. L. Zheng, H. Chi, K. Y. Zhou, and J. P. Yao, Electron. Lett. 46, 71 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L.-S. Yan, A.-L. Yi, W. Pan, B. Luo, and J. Ye, Opt. Express 18, 21404 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

C. H. Kwok, S. H. Lee, and K. K. Chow, IET Optoelectron. 1, 47 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

C. H. Kwok and C. Lin, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 451 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

C. G. Lee, and Y. J. Kim, J. Lightwave Technol. 28, 834 (2005).

S. H. Lee, K. K. Chow, and C. Shu, Opt. Express 13, 1710 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

M. I. Hayee and M. C. Cardakli, IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 13, 881 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

X. Fang, H. Ji, C. T. Allen, K. Demarest, and L. Pelz, IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 9, 458 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Allen, C. T.

X. Fang, H. Ji, C. T. Allen, K. Demarest, and L. Pelz, IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 9, 458 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bougioukos, M.

P. Groumas, V. Katopodis, C. Kouloumentas, and M. Bougioukos, IEEE Photon. Lett. 24, 179 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cardakli, M. C.

M. I. Hayee and M. C. Cardakli, IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 13, 881 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.

Chi, H.

F. Zhang, X. F. Jin, X. M. Zhang, S. L. Zheng, H. Chi, K. Y. Zhou, and J. P. Yao, Electron. Lett. 46, 71 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chow, K. K.

C. H. Kwok, S. H. Lee, and K. K. Chow, IET Optoelectron. 1, 47 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Lee, K. K. Chow, and C. Shu, Opt. Express 13, 1710 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dai, Y. H.

L. Wang, Y. H. Dai, G. K. P. Lei, J. Du, and C. Shu, IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 23, 368 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dalgaard, K.

H. Hu, P. Munster, E. Palushani, M. Galili, and K. Dalgaard, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC 2012) (postdeadline paper, Los Angeles, Calif., March 2012), Paper PDP5C.7.

Demarest, K.

X. Fang, H. Ji, C. T. Allen, K. Demarest, and L. Pelz, IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 9, 458 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Du, J.

L. Wang, Y. H. Dai, G. K. P. Lei, J. Du, and C. Shu, IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 23, 368 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fang, X.

X. Fang, H. Ji, C. T. Allen, K. Demarest, and L. Pelz, IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 9, 458 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Galili, M.

H. Hu, P. Munster, E. Palushani, M. Galili, and K. Dalgaard, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC 2012) (postdeadline paper, Los Angeles, Calif., March 2012), Paper PDP5C.7.

Groumas, P.

P. Groumas, V. Katopodis, C. Kouloumentas, and M. Bougioukos, IEEE Photon. Lett. 24, 179 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hayee, M. I.

M. I. Hayee and M. C. Cardakli, IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 13, 881 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hu, H.

H. Hu, P. Munster, E. Palushani, M. Galili, and K. Dalgaard, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC 2012) (postdeadline paper, Los Angeles, Calif., March 2012), Paper PDP5C.7.

Huang, D. X.

Y. Yu, X. L. Zhang, and D. X. Huang, Opt. Comm. 284, 129 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ji, H.

X. Fang, H. Ji, C. T. Allen, K. Demarest, and L. Pelz, IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 9, 458 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, H.-Y.

Jin, X. F.

F. Zhang, X. F. Jin, X. M. Zhang, S. L. Zheng, H. Chi, K. Y. Zhou, and J. P. Yao, Electron. Lett. 46, 71 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Katopodis, V.

P. Groumas, V. Katopodis, C. Kouloumentas, and M. Bougioukos, IEEE Photon. Lett. 24, 179 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y. J.

C. G. Lee, and Y. J. Kim, J. Lightwave Technol. 28, 834 (2005).

Kouloumentas, C.

P. Groumas, V. Katopodis, C. Kouloumentas, and M. Bougioukos, IEEE Photon. Lett. 24, 179 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kwok, C. H.

C. H. Kwok, S. H. Lee, and K. K. Chow, IET Optoelectron. 1, 47 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Kwok and C. Lin, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 451 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. G.

C. G. Lee, and Y. J. Kim, J. Lightwave Technol. 28, 834 (2005).

Lee, S. H.

C. H. Kwok, S. H. Lee, and K. K. Chow, IET Optoelectron. 1, 47 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Lee, K. K. Chow, and C. Shu, Opt. Express 13, 1710 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lei, G. K. P.

L. Wang, Y. H. Dai, G. K. P. Lei, J. Du, and C. Shu, IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 23, 368 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C.

C. H. Kwok and C. Lin, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 451 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Luo, B.

Munster, P.

H. Hu, P. Munster, E. Palushani, M. Galili, and K. Dalgaard, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC 2012) (postdeadline paper, Los Angeles, Calif., March 2012), Paper PDP5C.7.

Palushani, E.

H. Hu, P. Munster, E. Palushani, M. Galili, and K. Dalgaard, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC 2012) (postdeadline paper, Los Angeles, Calif., March 2012), Paper PDP5C.7.

Pan, W.

Pelz, L.

X. Fang, H. Ji, C. T. Allen, K. Demarest, and L. Pelz, IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 9, 458 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Poon, A. W.

Shu, C.

L. Wang, Y. H. Dai, G. K. P. Lei, J. Du, and C. Shu, IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 23, 368 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Lee, K. K. Chow, and C. Shu, Opt. Express 13, 1710 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L.

L. Wang, Y. H. Dai, G. K. P. Lei, J. Du, and C. Shu, IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 23, 368 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yan, L.-S.

Yao, J. P.

F. Zhang, X. F. Jin, X. M. Zhang, S. L. Zheng, H. Chi, K. Y. Zhou, and J. P. Yao, Electron. Lett. 46, 71 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ye, J.

Yi, A. L.

Yi, A.-L.

Yu, Y.

Y. Yu, X. L. Zhang, and D. X. Huang, Opt. Comm. 284, 129 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, F.

F. Zhang, X. F. Jin, X. M. Zhang, S. L. Zheng, H. Chi, K. Y. Zhou, and J. P. Yao, Electron. Lett. 46, 71 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X. L.

Y. Yu, X. L. Zhang, and D. X. Huang, Opt. Comm. 284, 129 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X. M.

F. Zhang, X. F. Jin, X. M. Zhang, S. L. Zheng, H. Chi, K. Y. Zhou, and J. P. Yao, Electron. Lett. 46, 71 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, S. L.

F. Zhang, X. F. Jin, X. M. Zhang, S. L. Zheng, H. Chi, K. Y. Zhou, and J. P. Yao, Electron. Lett. 46, 71 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, K. Y.

F. Zhang, X. F. Jin, X. M. Zhang, S. L. Zheng, H. Chi, K. Y. Zhou, and J. P. Yao, Electron. Lett. 46, 71 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, L.

Electron. Lett. (1)

F. Zhang, X. F. Jin, X. M. Zhang, S. L. Zheng, H. Chi, K. Y. Zhou, and J. P. Yao, Electron. Lett. 46, 71 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

C. H. Kwok and C. Lin, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 451 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Lett. (1)

P. Groumas, V. Katopodis, C. Kouloumentas, and M. Bougioukos, IEEE Photon. Lett. 24, 179 (2012).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. (3)

X. Fang, H. Ji, C. T. Allen, K. Demarest, and L. Pelz, IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 9, 458 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. Wang, Y. H. Dai, G. K. P. Lei, J. Du, and C. Shu, IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 23, 368 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Hayee and M. C. Cardakli, IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 13, 881 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IET Optoelectron. (1)

C. H. Kwok, S. H. Lee, and K. K. Chow, IET Optoelectron. 1, 47 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

C. G. Lee, and Y. J. Kim, J. Lightwave Technol. 28, 834 (2005).

L. Zhou, H. Chen, and A. W. Poon, J. Lightwave Technol. 26, 1950 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Comm. (1)

Y. Yu, X. L. Zhang, and D. X. Huang, Opt. Comm. 284, 129 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (1)

H. Hu, P. Munster, E. Palushani, M. Galili, and K. Dalgaard, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC 2012) (postdeadline paper, Los Angeles, Calif., March 2012), Paper PDP5C.7.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Conceptual diagram of proposed tunable PDM format convertor. PBS, polarization beam splitter; VDGD, variable differential-group delay module; IFR, inline Faraday rotator; PC, polarization controller.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Experiment setup. ECL, external cavity laser; PC, polarization controller; MZM, Mach–Zehnder modulators; SMF, single-mode fiber; PC, polarization controller; IFR, inline Faraday rotator; VOA, variable optical attenuator; VDGD, variable differential-group delay module; OSA, optical spectrum analyzer.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Measured spectra of (a) the original RZ signal; (b) the transfer function of the spectral filter; and (c) the converted NRZ signal.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Measured BER curves in the 2×10 and 2×12.5Gbit/s PDM systems for RZ-to-NRZ format conversion. Covt., converted; CH1, channel 1; CH2, channel 2; B2B, back-to-back.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Measured spectra of (a) the original NRZ signal; (b) the transfer function of the spectral filter; and (c) the converted PRZ signal.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) Bit pattern of the NRZ and converted PRZ signals in a 2×10Gbit/s PDM system with the fixed pattern “1001110100101.” (b) Corresponding electrical spectra.

Equations (2)

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T(λ)=cos2(πΔτf).
E⃗(ω,t)=12x^[E01(t)cos(ωt)+E01(tT02)cos(ωt+πf(ΔτT0))]+12y^[E02(t)cos(ωt)+E02(tT02)cos(ωt+πf(ΔτT0))],

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