Abstract

The investigation of a method for fabricating microlenses by a nozzle-free inkjet printing approach is reported. The new method, based on a pyroelectrohydrodynamic mechanism, is also able to dispense viscous liquids and to draw liquid phase drops directly from the reservoir. Specifically, by dispensing optical grade polymer dissolved in different solvent mixtures, microlenses were printed with a pattern defined directly through this deposition method. The reliability of the microlenses and the tunability of their focal properties were demonstrated through profilometric and inteferometric analyses.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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2011 (4)

H. Ren, S. Xu, D. Ren, and S.-T. Wu, Opt. Express 19, 1985 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. A. Grimaldi, A. De Girolamo Del Mauro, G. Nenna, F. Loffredo, C. Minarini, and F. Villani, J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 122, 3637 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Kim, N. B. Brauer, V. Fakhfouri, D. L. Boiko, E. Charbon, G. Grutzner, and J. Brugger, Opt. Mater. Express 1, 259 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. A. Grimaldi, A. De Girolamo Del Mauro, F. Loffredo, G. Nenna, F. Villani, and C. Minarini, Proc. SPIE 8082, 808244 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (3)

J. Shi, Z. Stratton, S.-C. S. Lin, H. Huang, and T. Jun Huang, Microfluid. Nanofluid. 9, 313 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Villani, I. A. Grimaldi, G. Nenna, A. De Girolamo Del Mauro, F. Loffredo, and C. Minarini, Opt. Lett. 35, 3333 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Ferraro, S. Coppola, S. Grilli, M. Paturzo, and V. Vespini, Nat. Nanotechnol. 5, 429 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (3)

2008 (1)

C.-T. Chen, C.-L. Chiu, Z.-F. Tseng, and C.-T. Chuang, Sens. Actuators A 147, 369 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

C. Y. Chang, S. Y. Yang, and J. L. Sheh, Microsys. Technol. 12, 754 (2006).

J.-H. Zhu, J.-X. Shi, Y. Wang, and P.-S. He, Chinese J. Chem. Phys. 19, 443 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

M. He, X.-C. Yuan, N. Q. Ngo, J. Bu, and S. H. Tao, J. Opt. A 6, 94 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

2002 (2)

W. Cheong, L. Yuan, V. Koudriachov, and W. Yu, Opt. Express 10, 586 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Ottevaere, B. Volckaerts, J. Lamprecht, J. Schwider, A. Hermanne, I. Veretennicoff, and H. Thienpont, J. Opt. A 4, S22 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

R. Danzebrink and M. A. Aegerter, Thin Solid Films 392, 223 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

A. Schilling, R. Merz, C. Ossmann, and H. P. Herzig, Opt. Eng. 39, 2171 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Aegerter, M. A.

R. Danzebrink and M. A. Aegerter, Thin Solid Films 392, 223 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Akhzar-Mehr, O.

Boiko, D. L.

Brauer, N. B.

Brugger, J.

Bu, J.

M. He, X.-C. Yuan, N. Q. Ngo, J. Bu, and S. H. Tao, J. Opt. A 6, 94 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C. Y.

C. Y. Chang, S. Y. Yang, and J. L. Sheh, Microsys. Technol. 12, 754 (2006).

Charbon, E.

Chen, C.-T.

C.-T. Chen, C.-L. Chiu, Z.-F. Tseng, and C.-T. Chuang, Sens. Actuators A 147, 369 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cheong, W.

Chiu, C.-L.

C.-T. Chen, C.-L. Chiu, Z.-F. Tseng, and C.-T. Chuang, Sens. Actuators A 147, 369 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chuang, C.-T.

C.-T. Chen, C.-L. Chiu, Z.-F. Tseng, and C.-T. Chuang, Sens. Actuators A 147, 369 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Coppola, S.

P. Ferraro, S. Coppola, S. Grilli, M. Paturzo, and V. Vespini, Nat. Nanotechnol. 5, 429 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dai, H. T.

Danzebrink, R.

R. Danzebrink and M. A. Aegerter, Thin Solid Films 392, 223 (2001).
[CrossRef]

De Girolamo Del Mauro, A.

I. A. Grimaldi, A. De Girolamo Del Mauro, F. Loffredo, G. Nenna, F. Villani, and C. Minarini, Proc. SPIE 8082, 808244 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. A. Grimaldi, A. De Girolamo Del Mauro, G. Nenna, F. Loffredo, C. Minarini, and F. Villani, J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 122, 3637 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Villani, I. A. Grimaldi, G. Nenna, A. De Girolamo Del Mauro, F. Loffredo, and C. Minarini, Opt. Lett. 35, 3333 (2010).
[CrossRef]

de Lima Monteiro, D. W.

De Nicola, S.

Fakhfouri, V.

Ferraro, P.

P. Ferraro, S. Coppola, S. Grilli, M. Paturzo, and V. Vespini, Nat. Nanotechnol. 5, 429 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Miccio, A. Finizio, S. Grilli, V. Vespini, M. Paturzo, S. De Nicola, and P. Ferraro, Opt. Express 17, 2487 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Finizio, A.

Grilli, S.

P. Ferraro, S. Coppola, S. Grilli, M. Paturzo, and V. Vespini, Nat. Nanotechnol. 5, 429 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Miccio, A. Finizio, S. Grilli, V. Vespini, M. Paturzo, S. De Nicola, and P. Ferraro, Opt. Express 17, 2487 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Grimaldi, I. A.

I. A. Grimaldi, A. De Girolamo Del Mauro, G. Nenna, F. Loffredo, C. Minarini, and F. Villani, J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 122, 3637 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. A. Grimaldi, A. De Girolamo Del Mauro, F. Loffredo, G. Nenna, F. Villani, and C. Minarini, Proc. SPIE 8082, 808244 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Villani, I. A. Grimaldi, G. Nenna, A. De Girolamo Del Mauro, F. Loffredo, and C. Minarini, Opt. Lett. 35, 3333 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Grutzner, G.

He, M.

M. He, X.-C. Yuan, N. Q. Ngo, J. Bu, and S. H. Tao, J. Opt. A 6, 94 (2004).
[CrossRef]

He, P.-S.

J.-H. Zhu, J.-X. Shi, Y. Wang, and P.-S. He, Chinese J. Chem. Phys. 19, 443 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hermanne, A.

H. Ottevaere, B. Volckaerts, J. Lamprecht, J. Schwider, A. Hermanne, I. Veretennicoff, and H. Thienpont, J. Opt. A 4, S22 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Herzig, H. P.

A. Schilling, R. Merz, C. Ossmann, and H. P. Herzig, Opt. Eng. 39, 2171 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Huang, H.

J. Shi, Z. Stratton, S.-C. S. Lin, H. Huang, and T. Jun Huang, Microfluid. Nanofluid. 9, 313 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jun Huang, T.

J. Shi, Z. Stratton, S.-C. S. Lin, H. Huang, and T. Jun Huang, Microfluid. Nanofluid. 9, 313 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. Y.

Koudriachov, V.

Lamprecht, J.

H. Ottevaere, B. Volckaerts, J. Lamprecht, J. Schwider, A. Hermanne, I. Veretennicoff, and H. Thienpont, J. Opt. A 4, S22 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lin, S.-C. S.

J. Shi, Z. Stratton, S.-C. S. Lin, H. Huang, and T. Jun Huang, Microfluid. Nanofluid. 9, 313 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Y.-J.

Liu, Y. J.

Loffredo, F.

I. A. Grimaldi, A. De Girolamo Del Mauro, F. Loffredo, G. Nenna, F. Villani, and C. Minarini, Proc. SPIE 8082, 808244 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. A. Grimaldi, A. De Girolamo Del Mauro, G. Nenna, F. Loffredo, C. Minarini, and F. Villani, J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 122, 3637 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Villani, I. A. Grimaldi, G. Nenna, A. De Girolamo Del Mauro, F. Loffredo, and C. Minarini, Opt. Lett. 35, 3333 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Luo, D.

Merz, R.

A. Schilling, R. Merz, C. Ossmann, and H. P. Herzig, Opt. Eng. 39, 2171 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Miccio, L.

Minarini, C.

I. A. Grimaldi, A. De Girolamo Del Mauro, G. Nenna, F. Loffredo, C. Minarini, and F. Villani, J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 122, 3637 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. A. Grimaldi, A. De Girolamo Del Mauro, F. Loffredo, G. Nenna, F. Villani, and C. Minarini, Proc. SPIE 8082, 808244 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Villani, I. A. Grimaldi, G. Nenna, A. De Girolamo Del Mauro, F. Loffredo, and C. Minarini, Opt. Lett. 35, 3333 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nenna, G.

I. A. Grimaldi, A. De Girolamo Del Mauro, G. Nenna, F. Loffredo, C. Minarini, and F. Villani, J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 122, 3637 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. A. Grimaldi, A. De Girolamo Del Mauro, F. Loffredo, G. Nenna, F. Villani, and C. Minarini, Proc. SPIE 8082, 808244 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Villani, I. A. Grimaldi, G. Nenna, A. De Girolamo Del Mauro, F. Loffredo, and C. Minarini, Opt. Lett. 35, 3333 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ngo, N. Q.

M. He, X.-C. Yuan, N. Q. Ngo, J. Bu, and S. H. Tao, J. Opt. A 6, 94 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ossmann, C.

A. Schilling, R. Merz, C. Ossmann, and H. P. Herzig, Opt. Eng. 39, 2171 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ottevaere, H.

H. Ottevaere, B. Volckaerts, J. Lamprecht, J. Schwider, A. Hermanne, I. Veretennicoff, and H. Thienpont, J. Opt. A 4, S22 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Paturzo, M.

P. Ferraro, S. Coppola, S. Grilli, M. Paturzo, and V. Vespini, Nat. Nanotechnol. 5, 429 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Miccio, A. Finizio, S. Grilli, V. Vespini, M. Paturzo, S. De Nicola, and P. Ferraro, Opt. Express 17, 2487 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ren, D.

Ren, H.

Sarro, P. M.

Schilling, A.

A. Schilling, R. Merz, C. Ossmann, and H. P. Herzig, Opt. Eng. 39, 2171 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schwider, J.

H. Ottevaere, B. Volckaerts, J. Lamprecht, J. Schwider, A. Hermanne, I. Veretennicoff, and H. Thienpont, J. Opt. A 4, S22 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sheh, J. L.

C. Y. Chang, S. Y. Yang, and J. L. Sheh, Microsys. Technol. 12, 754 (2006).

Shi, J.

J. Shi, Z. Stratton, S.-C. S. Lin, H. Huang, and T. Jun Huang, Microfluid. Nanofluid. 9, 313 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shi, J.-X.

J.-H. Zhu, J.-X. Shi, Y. Wang, and P.-S. He, Chinese J. Chem. Phys. 19, 443 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Stratton, Z.

J. Shi, Z. Stratton, S.-C. S. Lin, H. Huang, and T. Jun Huang, Microfluid. Nanofluid. 9, 313 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sun, X. W.

Tao, S. H.

M. He, X.-C. Yuan, N. Q. Ngo, J. Bu, and S. H. Tao, J. Opt. A 6, 94 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Thienpont, H.

H. Ottevaere, B. Volckaerts, J. Lamprecht, J. Schwider, A. Hermanne, I. Veretennicoff, and H. Thienpont, J. Opt. A 4, S22 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tseng, Z.-F.

C.-T. Chen, C.-L. Chiu, Z.-F. Tseng, and C.-T. Chuang, Sens. Actuators A 147, 369 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Vdovin, G.

Veretennicoff, I.

H. Ottevaere, B. Volckaerts, J. Lamprecht, J. Schwider, A. Hermanne, I. Veretennicoff, and H. Thienpont, J. Opt. A 4, S22 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Vespini, V.

P. Ferraro, S. Coppola, S. Grilli, M. Paturzo, and V. Vespini, Nat. Nanotechnol. 5, 429 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Miccio, A. Finizio, S. Grilli, V. Vespini, M. Paturzo, S. De Nicola, and P. Ferraro, Opt. Express 17, 2487 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Villani, F.

I. A. Grimaldi, A. De Girolamo Del Mauro, F. Loffredo, G. Nenna, F. Villani, and C. Minarini, Proc. SPIE 8082, 808244 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. A. Grimaldi, A. De Girolamo Del Mauro, G. Nenna, F. Loffredo, C. Minarini, and F. Villani, J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 122, 3637 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Villani, I. A. Grimaldi, G. Nenna, A. De Girolamo Del Mauro, F. Loffredo, and C. Minarini, Opt. Lett. 35, 3333 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Volckaerts, B.

H. Ottevaere, B. Volckaerts, J. Lamprecht, J. Schwider, A. Hermanne, I. Veretennicoff, and H. Thienpont, J. Opt. A 4, S22 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

J.-H. Zhu, J.-X. Shi, Y. Wang, and P.-S. He, Chinese J. Chem. Phys. 19, 443 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S.-T.

Xu, S.

Yang, S. Y.

C. Y. Chang, S. Y. Yang, and J. L. Sheh, Microsys. Technol. 12, 754 (2006).

Yu, W.

Yuan, L.

Yuan, X.-C.

M. He, X.-C. Yuan, N. Q. Ngo, J. Bu, and S. H. Tao, J. Opt. A 6, 94 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, J.-H.

J.-H. Zhu, J.-X. Shi, Y. Wang, and P.-S. He, Chinese J. Chem. Phys. 19, 443 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chinese J. Chem. Phys. (1)

J.-H. Zhu, J.-X. Shi, Y. Wang, and P.-S. He, Chinese J. Chem. Phys. 19, 443 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Polym. Sci. (1)

I. A. Grimaldi, A. De Girolamo Del Mauro, G. Nenna, F. Loffredo, C. Minarini, and F. Villani, J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 122, 3637 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A (2)

H. Ottevaere, B. Volckaerts, J. Lamprecht, J. Schwider, A. Hermanne, I. Veretennicoff, and H. Thienpont, J. Opt. A 4, S22 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. He, X.-C. Yuan, N. Q. Ngo, J. Bu, and S. H. Tao, J. Opt. A 6, 94 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Microfluid. Nanofluid. (1)

J. Shi, Z. Stratton, S.-C. S. Lin, H. Huang, and T. Jun Huang, Microfluid. Nanofluid. 9, 313 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Microsys. Technol. (1)

C. Y. Chang, S. Y. Yang, and J. L. Sheh, Microsys. Technol. 12, 754 (2006).

Nat. Nanotechnol. (1)

P. Ferraro, S. Coppola, S. Grilli, M. Paturzo, and V. Vespini, Nat. Nanotechnol. 5, 429 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

A. Schilling, R. Merz, C. Ossmann, and H. P. Herzig, Opt. Eng. 39, 2171 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (6)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Mater. Express (1)

Proc. SPIE (1)

I. A. Grimaldi, A. De Girolamo Del Mauro, F. Loffredo, G. Nenna, F. Villani, and C. Minarini, Proc. SPIE 8082, 808244 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators A (1)

C.-T. Chen, C.-L. Chiu, Z.-F. Tseng, and C.-T. Chuang, Sens. Actuators A 147, 369 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (1)

R. Danzebrink and M. A. Aegerter, Thin Solid Films 392, 223 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Scheme of the printing system consisting of a lithium niobate (LN) plate, a heat source, and a drop reservoir, and formation of the (b) pyro-polymer bridge and of the (c) polymer microlens on the translating target substrate.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

3D image of the microlens obtained printing PMMA dissolved in (a) pure NMP; (b) NMP:TOL 73; and (c) NMP:TOL 64.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Schema of the digital holographic microscope (DHM).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Hologram; (b) wrapped phase map; and (c) unwrapped phase map of the PMMA droplet prepared with volume mixing ratio 73.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Diameters, Heights, and Focal Properties of the Microlenses Realized by Using Different NMP:TOL Mixing Ratios

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

f=Rn1
R=hL2+r22hL,
Δϕ(x,y)=πλ(x2+y2)f.

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