Abstract

We present a photorefractive hybrid liquid crystal system that allows strong photorefractive effects on surface plasmon polaritons. We demonstrate its capability to couple energy between two 1.03 eV surface plasmon polariton modes with an efficiency of 25.3±2.3%. We present the energy and grating pitch dependence of the diffraction and a model that can qualitatively explain them.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, Sens. Actuators B Chem. 54, 3 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. J. Lezec, J. A. Dionne, and H. A. Atwater, Science 316, 430 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. O. S. Melville and R. J. Blaikie, Opt. Express 13, 2127 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  4. H. T. Miyazaki and Y. Kurokawa, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 097401 (2006).
  5. G. A. Baker and D. S. Moore, Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 382, 1751 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. P. Muhlschlegel, H. J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, Science 308, 1607 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. V. K. S. Hsiao, Y. B. Zheng, B. K. Juluri, and T. J. Huang, Adv. Mater. 20, 3528 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  8. I. I. Smolyaninov, A. V. Zayats, A. Gungor, and C. C. Davis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Abb, P. Albella, J. Aizpurua, and O. L. Muskens, Nano Lett. 11, 2457 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  10. K. F. MacDonald, Z. L. Samson, I. M. Stockman, and N. I. Zheludev, Nat. Photon. 3, 55 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  11. D. Pacifici, H. J. Lezec, and H. A. Atwater, Nat. Photon. 1, 402 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. Bartkiewicz, K. Matczyszyn, A. Miniewicz, and F. Kajzar, Opt. Commun. 187, 257 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. Kaczmarek, A. Dyadyusha, S. Slussarenko, and I. C. Khoo, J. Appl. Phys. 96, 2616 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  14. K. R. Daly, “Light–matter interaction in liquid crystal cells,” Ph.D thesis (Univ. of Southampton, 2011).
  15. K. R. Daly, G. D’Alessandro, and M. Kaczmarek, SIAM J. Appl. Math. 70, 2844 (2010).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (1)

M. Abb, P. Albella, J. Aizpurua, and O. L. Muskens, Nano Lett. 11, 2457 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

K. R. Daly, G. D’Alessandro, and M. Kaczmarek, SIAM J. Appl. Math. 70, 2844 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

K. F. MacDonald, Z. L. Samson, I. M. Stockman, and N. I. Zheludev, Nat. Photon. 3, 55 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. K. S. Hsiao, Y. B. Zheng, B. K. Juluri, and T. J. Huang, Adv. Mater. 20, 3528 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

D. Pacifici, H. J. Lezec, and H. A. Atwater, Nat. Photon. 1, 402 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Lezec, J. A. Dionne, and H. A. Atwater, Science 316, 430 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

H. T. Miyazaki and Y. Kurokawa, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 097401 (2006).

2005 (3)

G. A. Baker and D. S. Moore, Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 382, 1751 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Muhlschlegel, H. J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, Science 308, 1607 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. O. S. Melville and R. J. Blaikie, Opt. Express 13, 2127 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

M. Kaczmarek, A. Dyadyusha, S. Slussarenko, and I. C. Khoo, J. Appl. Phys. 96, 2616 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

I. I. Smolyaninov, A. V. Zayats, A. Gungor, and C. C. Davis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

S. Bartkiewicz, K. Matczyszyn, A. Miniewicz, and F. Kajzar, Opt. Commun. 187, 257 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, Sens. Actuators B Chem. 54, 3 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Abb, M.

M. Abb, P. Albella, J. Aizpurua, and O. L. Muskens, Nano Lett. 11, 2457 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Aizpurua, J.

M. Abb, P. Albella, J. Aizpurua, and O. L. Muskens, Nano Lett. 11, 2457 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Albella, P.

M. Abb, P. Albella, J. Aizpurua, and O. L. Muskens, Nano Lett. 11, 2457 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Atwater, H. A.

D. Pacifici, H. J. Lezec, and H. A. Atwater, Nat. Photon. 1, 402 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Lezec, J. A. Dionne, and H. A. Atwater, Science 316, 430 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Baker, G. A.

G. A. Baker and D. S. Moore, Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 382, 1751 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bartkiewicz, S.

S. Bartkiewicz, K. Matczyszyn, A. Miniewicz, and F. Kajzar, Opt. Commun. 187, 257 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Blaikie, R. J.

D’Alessandro, G.

K. R. Daly, G. D’Alessandro, and M. Kaczmarek, SIAM J. Appl. Math. 70, 2844 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Daly, K. R.

K. R. Daly, G. D’Alessandro, and M. Kaczmarek, SIAM J. Appl. Math. 70, 2844 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. R. Daly, “Light–matter interaction in liquid crystal cells,” Ph.D thesis (Univ. of Southampton, 2011).

Davis, C. C.

I. I. Smolyaninov, A. V. Zayats, A. Gungor, and C. C. Davis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dionne, J. A.

H. J. Lezec, J. A. Dionne, and H. A. Atwater, Science 316, 430 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dyadyusha, A.

M. Kaczmarek, A. Dyadyusha, S. Slussarenko, and I. C. Khoo, J. Appl. Phys. 96, 2616 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Eisler, H. J.

P. Muhlschlegel, H. J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, Science 308, 1607 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gauglitz, G.

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, Sens. Actuators B Chem. 54, 3 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gungor, A.

I. I. Smolyaninov, A. V. Zayats, A. Gungor, and C. C. Davis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hecht, B.

P. Muhlschlegel, H. J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, Science 308, 1607 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Homola, J.

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, Sens. Actuators B Chem. 54, 3 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hsiao, V. K. S.

V. K. S. Hsiao, Y. B. Zheng, B. K. Juluri, and T. J. Huang, Adv. Mater. 20, 3528 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Huang, T. J.

V. K. S. Hsiao, Y. B. Zheng, B. K. Juluri, and T. J. Huang, Adv. Mater. 20, 3528 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Juluri, B. K.

V. K. S. Hsiao, Y. B. Zheng, B. K. Juluri, and T. J. Huang, Adv. Mater. 20, 3528 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kaczmarek, M.

K. R. Daly, G. D’Alessandro, and M. Kaczmarek, SIAM J. Appl. Math. 70, 2844 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Kaczmarek, A. Dyadyusha, S. Slussarenko, and I. C. Khoo, J. Appl. Phys. 96, 2616 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kajzar, F.

S. Bartkiewicz, K. Matczyszyn, A. Miniewicz, and F. Kajzar, Opt. Commun. 187, 257 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Khoo, I. C.

M. Kaczmarek, A. Dyadyusha, S. Slussarenko, and I. C. Khoo, J. Appl. Phys. 96, 2616 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kurokawa, Y.

H. T. Miyazaki and Y. Kurokawa, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 097401 (2006).

Lezec, H. J.

D. Pacifici, H. J. Lezec, and H. A. Atwater, Nat. Photon. 1, 402 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Lezec, J. A. Dionne, and H. A. Atwater, Science 316, 430 (2007).
[CrossRef]

MacDonald, K. F.

K. F. MacDonald, Z. L. Samson, I. M. Stockman, and N. I. Zheludev, Nat. Photon. 3, 55 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Martin, O. J. F.

P. Muhlschlegel, H. J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, Science 308, 1607 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Matczyszyn, K.

S. Bartkiewicz, K. Matczyszyn, A. Miniewicz, and F. Kajzar, Opt. Commun. 187, 257 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Melville, D. O. S.

Miniewicz, A.

S. Bartkiewicz, K. Matczyszyn, A. Miniewicz, and F. Kajzar, Opt. Commun. 187, 257 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Miyazaki, H. T.

H. T. Miyazaki and Y. Kurokawa, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 097401 (2006).

Moore, D. S.

G. A. Baker and D. S. Moore, Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 382, 1751 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Muhlschlegel, P.

P. Muhlschlegel, H. J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, Science 308, 1607 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Muskens, O. L.

M. Abb, P. Albella, J. Aizpurua, and O. L. Muskens, Nano Lett. 11, 2457 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Pacifici, D.

D. Pacifici, H. J. Lezec, and H. A. Atwater, Nat. Photon. 1, 402 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pohl, D. W.

P. Muhlschlegel, H. J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, Science 308, 1607 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Samson, Z. L.

K. F. MacDonald, Z. L. Samson, I. M. Stockman, and N. I. Zheludev, Nat. Photon. 3, 55 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Slussarenko, S.

M. Kaczmarek, A. Dyadyusha, S. Slussarenko, and I. C. Khoo, J. Appl. Phys. 96, 2616 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Smolyaninov, I. I.

I. I. Smolyaninov, A. V. Zayats, A. Gungor, and C. C. Davis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Stockman, I. M.

K. F. MacDonald, Z. L. Samson, I. M. Stockman, and N. I. Zheludev, Nat. Photon. 3, 55 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yee, S. S.

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, Sens. Actuators B Chem. 54, 3 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zayats, A. V.

I. I. Smolyaninov, A. V. Zayats, A. Gungor, and C. C. Davis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zheludev, N. I.

K. F. MacDonald, Z. L. Samson, I. M. Stockman, and N. I. Zheludev, Nat. Photon. 3, 55 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, Y. B.

V. K. S. Hsiao, Y. B. Zheng, B. K. Juluri, and T. J. Huang, Adv. Mater. 20, 3528 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (1)

V. K. S. Hsiao, Y. B. Zheng, B. K. Juluri, and T. J. Huang, Adv. Mater. 20, 3528 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Bioanal. Chem. (1)

G. A. Baker and D. S. Moore, Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 382, 1751 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. Kaczmarek, A. Dyadyusha, S. Slussarenko, and I. C. Khoo, J. Appl. Phys. 96, 2616 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (1)

M. Abb, P. Albella, J. Aizpurua, and O. L. Muskens, Nano Lett. 11, 2457 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photon. (2)

K. F. MacDonald, Z. L. Samson, I. M. Stockman, and N. I. Zheludev, Nat. Photon. 3, 55 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Pacifici, H. J. Lezec, and H. A. Atwater, Nat. Photon. 1, 402 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

S. Bartkiewicz, K. Matczyszyn, A. Miniewicz, and F. Kajzar, Opt. Commun. 187, 257 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

H. T. Miyazaki and Y. Kurokawa, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 097401 (2006).

I. I. Smolyaninov, A. V. Zayats, A. Gungor, and C. C. Davis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Science (2)

P. Muhlschlegel, H. J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, Science 308, 1607 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Lezec, J. A. Dionne, and H. A. Atwater, Science 316, 430 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators B Chem. (1)

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, Sens. Actuators B Chem. 54, 3 (1999).
[CrossRef]

SIAM J. Appl. Math. (1)

K. R. Daly, G. D’Alessandro, and M. Kaczmarek, SIAM J. Appl. Math. 70, 2844 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

K. R. Daly, “Light–matter interaction in liquid crystal cells,” Ph.D thesis (Univ. of Southampton, 2011).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) The design of the hybrid SPP photorefractive LC cell. The SPP propagates at the Au-PVK/LC interface. (b) SPP modes are excited in our cells by the Kretschmann method. (c) k-space diagram of the SPP coupling system examined.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Diffraction of a 1.462 eV SPP with a 5 μm grating at an angle ϕ=93.0°. Middle panel presents the excitation efficiency and the other two panels the diffraction efficiency (×10). The dashed line is the wavevector contour for a 1.462 eV SPP and the arrow kΛ.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) The pitch dependence of the SPP diffraction efficiency for a 1.462 eV SPP. (b) The diffraction efficiency dependence on ESPP for a 4 μm grating. The solid lines are numerical simulations using the model detailed in [14,15].

Equations (1)

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|EΛ|kΛekΛz,

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