Abstract

We implement and test what, to our knowledge, is the first deployable coherent Doppler lidar (CDL) system based on a compact, inexpensive all-semiconductor laser (SL). To demonstrate the field performance of our SL-CDL remote sensor, we compare a 36 h time series of averaged radial wind speeds measured by our instrument at an 80 m distance to those simultaneously obtained from an industry-standard sonic anemometer (SA). An excellent degree of correlation (R2=0.994 and slope=0.996) is achieved from a linear regression analysis of the CDL versus SA wind speed data. The lidar system is capable of providing high data availability, ranging from 85% to 100% even under varying outdoor (temperature and humidity) conditions during the test period. We also show the use of our SL-CDL for monitoring the dependence of aerosol backscatter on relative humidity. This work points to the feasibility of a more general class of low-cost, portable remote sensors based on all-SL emitters for applications that require demanding laser stability and coherence.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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2012 (1)

R. Krishnamurthy, A. Choukulkar, R. Calhoun, J. Fine, A. Oliver, and K. S. Barr, Wind Energy doi:10.1002/we.539 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (1)

R. Wagner, M. Courtney, J. Gottschall, and P. Lindelöw-Marsden, Wind Energy 14, 993 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

2009 (1)

J. Mann, J.-P. Cariou, M. S. Courtney, R. Parmentier, T. Mikkelsen, R. Wagner, P. Lindelöw, M. Sjöholm, and K. Enevoldsen, Meteor. Z. 18, 135 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

M. Sjöholm, T. Mikkelsen, J. Mann, K. Enevoldsen, and M. Courtney, IOP Conf. Ser. Earth Environ. Sci. 1, 012051 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Hansen and C. Pedersen, Opt. Express 16, 18288 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

D. A. Smith, M. Harris, A. S. Coffey, T. Mikkelsen, H. E. Jørgensen, J. Mann, and R. Danielian, Wind Energy 9, 87 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

M. Harris, R. Young, F. Köpp, A. Dolfi, and J. Cariou, Aerospace Sci. Technol. 6, 325 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

J-.S. Im, V. K. Saxena, and B. N. Wenny, J. Geophys. Res. 106, 20213 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Rahm, Opt. Lett. 26, 319 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1989 (1)

1984 (1)

Barr, K. S.

R. Krishnamurthy, A. Choukulkar, R. Calhoun, J. Fine, A. Oliver, and K. S. Barr, Wind Energy doi:10.1002/we.539 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Calhoun, R.

R. Krishnamurthy, A. Choukulkar, R. Calhoun, J. Fine, A. Oliver, and K. S. Barr, Wind Energy doi:10.1002/we.539 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cariou, J.

M. Harris, R. Young, F. Köpp, A. Dolfi, and J. Cariou, Aerospace Sci. Technol. 6, 325 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cariou, J.-P.

J. Mann, J.-P. Cariou, M. S. Courtney, R. Parmentier, T. Mikkelsen, R. Wagner, P. Lindelöw, M. Sjöholm, and K. Enevoldsen, Meteor. Z. 18, 135 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Choukulkar, A.

R. Krishnamurthy, A. Choukulkar, R. Calhoun, J. Fine, A. Oliver, and K. S. Barr, Wind Energy doi:10.1002/we.539 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Coffey, A. S.

D. A. Smith, M. Harris, A. S. Coffey, T. Mikkelsen, H. E. Jørgensen, J. Mann, and R. Danielian, Wind Energy 9, 87 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Courtney, M.

R. Wagner, M. Courtney, J. Gottschall, and P. Lindelöw-Marsden, Wind Energy 14, 993 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Sjöholm, T. Mikkelsen, J. Mann, K. Enevoldsen, and M. Courtney, IOP Conf. Ser. Earth Environ. Sci. 1, 012051 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Courtney, M. S.

J. Mann, J.-P. Cariou, M. S. Courtney, R. Parmentier, T. Mikkelsen, R. Wagner, P. Lindelöw, M. Sjöholm, and K. Enevoldsen, Meteor. Z. 18, 135 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Danielian, R.

D. A. Smith, M. Harris, A. S. Coffey, T. Mikkelsen, H. E. Jørgensen, J. Mann, and R. Danielian, Wind Energy 9, 87 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dolfi, A.

M. Harris, R. Young, F. Köpp, A. Dolfi, and J. Cariou, Aerospace Sci. Technol. 6, 325 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Enevoldsen, K.

J. Mann, J.-P. Cariou, M. S. Courtney, R. Parmentier, T. Mikkelsen, R. Wagner, P. Lindelöw, M. Sjöholm, and K. Enevoldsen, Meteor. Z. 18, 135 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Sjöholm, T. Mikkelsen, J. Mann, K. Enevoldsen, and M. Courtney, IOP Conf. Ser. Earth Environ. Sci. 1, 012051 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fine, J.

R. Krishnamurthy, A. Choukulkar, R. Calhoun, J. Fine, A. Oliver, and K. S. Barr, Wind Energy doi:10.1002/we.539 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Fitzgerald, J. W.

Gottschall, J.

R. Wagner, M. Courtney, J. Gottschall, and P. Lindelöw-Marsden, Wind Energy 14, 993 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hale, C. P.

Hansen, R. S.

R. S. Hansen and C. Pedersen, Opt. Express 16, 18288 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Pedersen and R. S. Hansen, “Coherent lidar system based on a semiconductor laser and amplifier,” U. S. patent application US 2010/0277714 A1 (November4, 2010).

Harris, M.

D. A. Smith, M. Harris, A. S. Coffey, T. Mikkelsen, H. E. Jørgensen, J. Mann, and R. Danielian, Wind Energy 9, 87 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Harris, R. Young, F. Köpp, A. Dolfi, and J. Cariou, Aerospace Sci. Technol. 6, 325 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Karlsson, F. Å. A. Olsson, D. Letalick, and M. Harris, Appl. Opt. 39, 3716 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Henderson, S. W.

Im, J-.S.

J-.S. Im, V. K. Saxena, and B. N. Wenny, J. Geophys. Res. 106, 20213 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jørgensen, H. E.

D. A. Smith, M. Harris, A. S. Coffey, T. Mikkelsen, H. E. Jørgensen, J. Mann, and R. Danielian, Wind Energy 9, 87 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Karlsson, C. J.

Kavaya, M. J.

Köpp, F.

M. Harris, R. Young, F. Köpp, A. Dolfi, and J. Cariou, Aerospace Sci. Technol. 6, 325 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Krishnamurthy, R.

R. Krishnamurthy, A. Choukulkar, R. Calhoun, J. Fine, A. Oliver, and K. S. Barr, Wind Energy doi:10.1002/we.539 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Letalick, D.

Lindelöw, P.

J. Mann, J.-P. Cariou, M. S. Courtney, R. Parmentier, T. Mikkelsen, R. Wagner, P. Lindelöw, M. Sjöholm, and K. Enevoldsen, Meteor. Z. 18, 135 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lindelöw-Marsden, P.

R. Wagner, M. Courtney, J. Gottschall, and P. Lindelöw-Marsden, Wind Energy 14, 993 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Magee, J. R.

Mann, J.

J. Mann, J.-P. Cariou, M. S. Courtney, R. Parmentier, T. Mikkelsen, R. Wagner, P. Lindelöw, M. Sjöholm, and K. Enevoldsen, Meteor. Z. 18, 135 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Sjöholm, T. Mikkelsen, J. Mann, K. Enevoldsen, and M. Courtney, IOP Conf. Ser. Earth Environ. Sci. 1, 012051 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Smith, M. Harris, A. S. Coffey, T. Mikkelsen, H. E. Jørgensen, J. Mann, and R. Danielian, Wind Energy 9, 87 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mikkelsen, T.

J. Mann, J.-P. Cariou, M. S. Courtney, R. Parmentier, T. Mikkelsen, R. Wagner, P. Lindelöw, M. Sjöholm, and K. Enevoldsen, Meteor. Z. 18, 135 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Sjöholm, T. Mikkelsen, J. Mann, K. Enevoldsen, and M. Courtney, IOP Conf. Ser. Earth Environ. Sci. 1, 012051 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Smith, M. Harris, A. S. Coffey, T. Mikkelsen, H. E. Jørgensen, J. Mann, and R. Danielian, Wind Energy 9, 87 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Milton Huffaker, R.

Oliver, A.

R. Krishnamurthy, A. Choukulkar, R. Calhoun, J. Fine, A. Oliver, and K. S. Barr, Wind Energy doi:10.1002/we.539 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Olsson, F. Å. A.

Parmentier, R.

J. Mann, J.-P. Cariou, M. S. Courtney, R. Parmentier, T. Mikkelsen, R. Wagner, P. Lindelöw, M. Sjöholm, and K. Enevoldsen, Meteor. Z. 18, 135 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pedersen, C.

P. J. Rodrigo and C. Pedersen, Opt. Express 18, 5320 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Hansen and C. Pedersen, Opt. Express 16, 18288 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Pedersen and R. S. Hansen, “Coherent lidar system based on a semiconductor laser and amplifier,” U. S. patent application US 2010/0277714 A1 (November4, 2010).

Rahm, S.

Rodrigo, P. J.

Saxena, V. K.

J-.S. Im, V. K. Saxena, and B. N. Wenny, J. Geophys. Res. 106, 20213 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sjöholm, M.

J. Mann, J.-P. Cariou, M. S. Courtney, R. Parmentier, T. Mikkelsen, R. Wagner, P. Lindelöw, M. Sjöholm, and K. Enevoldsen, Meteor. Z. 18, 135 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Sjöholm, T. Mikkelsen, J. Mann, K. Enevoldsen, and M. Courtney, IOP Conf. Ser. Earth Environ. Sci. 1, 012051 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. A.

D. A. Smith, M. Harris, A. S. Coffey, T. Mikkelsen, H. E. Jørgensen, J. Mann, and R. Danielian, Wind Energy 9, 87 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wagner, R.

R. Wagner, M. Courtney, J. Gottschall, and P. Lindelöw-Marsden, Wind Energy 14, 993 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Mann, J.-P. Cariou, M. S. Courtney, R. Parmentier, T. Mikkelsen, R. Wagner, P. Lindelöw, M. Sjöholm, and K. Enevoldsen, Meteor. Z. 18, 135 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wenny, B. N.

J-.S. Im, V. K. Saxena, and B. N. Wenny, J. Geophys. Res. 106, 20213 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Young, R.

M. Harris, R. Young, F. Köpp, A. Dolfi, and J. Cariou, Aerospace Sci. Technol. 6, 325 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Aerospace Sci. Technol. (1)

M. Harris, R. Young, F. Köpp, A. Dolfi, and J. Cariou, Aerospace Sci. Technol. 6, 325 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

IOP Conf. Ser. Earth Environ. Sci. (1)

M. Sjöholm, T. Mikkelsen, J. Mann, K. Enevoldsen, and M. Courtney, IOP Conf. Ser. Earth Environ. Sci. 1, 012051 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (1)

J-.S. Im, V. K. Saxena, and B. N. Wenny, J. Geophys. Res. 106, 20213 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Meteor. Z. (1)

J. Mann, J.-P. Cariou, M. S. Courtney, R. Parmentier, T. Mikkelsen, R. Wagner, P. Lindelöw, M. Sjöholm, and K. Enevoldsen, Meteor. Z. 18, 135 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Wind Energy (3)

R. Krishnamurthy, A. Choukulkar, R. Calhoun, J. Fine, A. Oliver, and K. S. Barr, Wind Energy doi:10.1002/we.539 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Wagner, M. Courtney, J. Gottschall, and P. Lindelöw-Marsden, Wind Energy 14, 993 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Smith, M. Harris, A. S. Coffey, T. Mikkelsen, H. E. Jørgensen, J. Mann, and R. Danielian, Wind Energy 9, 87 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

P. Lindelöw-Marsden, www.upwind.eu/media/585/D6.1.3.pdf .

C. Pedersen and R. S. Hansen, “Coherent lidar system based on a semiconductor laser and amplifier,” U. S. patent application US 2010/0277714 A1 (November4, 2010).

T. Fujii and T. Fukuchi, eds., Laser Remote Sensing(CRC Press, 2005).

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