Abstract

We propose a technique for realizing stereoscopic microscopy. We employ a spatial-light-modulator–based microscope to record two images under different angles in one shot. We additionally investigate the possibilities of dynamic aberration correction. It is found that aberration correction is unavoidable because of the employed commercial liquid crystal on a silicon modulator. Also, imaging of phase objects and highly reflective specimens is experimentally investigated. For some of the specimens, an inversion of the recorded intensity is observed, which leads to problems when viewing the stereo pairs. We explain the origin of this effect and show that a reasonable visualization of microscopic three-dimensional objects can be achieved by simple image inversion.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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  1. E. Hoppe, Geschichte der Optik (Dr. Martin Sandig oHG, 1967).
  2. J. Mouwen, Vet. Pathol. 8, 364 (1971).
  3. M. Pluta, Advanced Light Microscopy (Elsevier, 2009), Vol. 2.
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    [CrossRef]
  5. P. Azad, A. Ude, T. Asfour, and R. Dillmann, IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation3951 (IEEE, 2007).
  6. B. Mendibru, 3D Movie Making: Stereoscopic Digital Cinema from Script to Screen (Elsevier, 2009).
  7. S. Fürhapter, A. Jesacher, S. Bernet, and M. Ritsch-marte, Opt. Express 13, 689 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  12. J. S. Dam, I. R. Perch-Nielsen, D. Palima, and J. Glückstad, J. Euro. Opt. Soc. Rapid Public. 4, 09045 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2011 (1)

T. Zhu, M. Sutton, N. Li, J.-J. Orteu, N. Cornille, X. Li, and A. Reynolds, Exp. Mech. 51, 97 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

2009 (1)

J. S. Dam, I. R. Perch-Nielsen, D. Palima, and J. Glückstad, J. Euro. Opt. Soc. Rapid Public. 4, 09045 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2006 (1)

T. Haist, M. Reicherter, M. Wu, and L. Seifert, Comput. Sci. Eng. 8, 8 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

M. Reicherter, W. Gorski, T. Haist, and W. Osten, Proc. SPIE68 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

D. G. Grier, Nature 424, 21 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

J. Glückstad, Opt. Commun. 130, 225 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

J. Mouwen, Vet. Pathol. 8, 364 (1971).

Asfour, T.

P. Azad, A. Ude, T. Asfour, and R. Dillmann, IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation3951 (IEEE, 2007).

Azad, P.

P. Azad, A. Ude, T. Asfour, and R. Dillmann, IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation3951 (IEEE, 2007).

Bernet, S.

Cornille, N.

T. Zhu, M. Sutton, N. Li, J.-J. Orteu, N. Cornille, X. Li, and A. Reynolds, Exp. Mech. 51, 97 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dam, J. S.

J. S. Dam, I. R. Perch-Nielsen, D. Palima, and J. Glückstad, J. Euro. Opt. Soc. Rapid Public. 4, 09045 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Dam, I. R. Perch-Nielsen, D. Palima, and J. Glückstad, Opt. Express 16, 7244 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dillmann, R.

P. Azad, A. Ude, T. Asfour, and R. Dillmann, IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation3951 (IEEE, 2007).

Fürhapter, S.

Glückstad, J.

J. S. Dam, I. R. Perch-Nielsen, D. Palima, and J. Glückstad, J. Euro. Opt. Soc. Rapid Public. 4, 09045 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Dam, I. R. Perch-Nielsen, D. Palima, and J. Glückstad, Opt. Express 16, 7244 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Glückstad, Opt. Commun. 130, 225 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gorski, W.

M. Reicherter, W. Gorski, T. Haist, and W. Osten, Proc. SPIE68 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Grier, D. G.

D. G. Grier, Nature 424, 21 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Haist, T.

M. Warber, S. Maier, T. Haist, and W. Osten, Appl. Opt. 49, 5474 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Zwick, T. Haist, M. Warber, and W. Osten, Appl. Opt. 49, F47 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Haist, M. Reicherter, M. Wu, and L. Seifert, Comput. Sci. Eng. 8, 8 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Reicherter, W. Gorski, T. Haist, and W. Osten, Proc. SPIE68 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hoppe, E.

E. Hoppe, Geschichte der Optik (Dr. Martin Sandig oHG, 1967).

Jesacher, A.

Li, N.

T. Zhu, M. Sutton, N. Li, J.-J. Orteu, N. Cornille, X. Li, and A. Reynolds, Exp. Mech. 51, 97 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Li, X.

T. Zhu, M. Sutton, N. Li, J.-J. Orteu, N. Cornille, X. Li, and A. Reynolds, Exp. Mech. 51, 97 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Maier, S.

Mendibru, B.

B. Mendibru, 3D Movie Making: Stereoscopic Digital Cinema from Script to Screen (Elsevier, 2009).

Mouwen, J.

J. Mouwen, Vet. Pathol. 8, 364 (1971).

Orteu, J.-J.

T. Zhu, M. Sutton, N. Li, J.-J. Orteu, N. Cornille, X. Li, and A. Reynolds, Exp. Mech. 51, 97 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Osten, W.

Palima, D.

J. S. Dam, I. R. Perch-Nielsen, D. Palima, and J. Glückstad, J. Euro. Opt. Soc. Rapid Public. 4, 09045 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Dam, I. R. Perch-Nielsen, D. Palima, and J. Glückstad, Opt. Express 16, 7244 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Perch-Nielsen, I. R.

J. S. Dam, I. R. Perch-Nielsen, D. Palima, and J. Glückstad, J. Euro. Opt. Soc. Rapid Public. 4, 09045 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Dam, I. R. Perch-Nielsen, D. Palima, and J. Glückstad, Opt. Express 16, 7244 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pluta, M.

M. Pluta, Advanced Light Microscopy (Elsevier, 2009), Vol. 2.

Reicherter, M.

T. Haist, M. Reicherter, M. Wu, and L. Seifert, Comput. Sci. Eng. 8, 8 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Reicherter, W. Gorski, T. Haist, and W. Osten, Proc. SPIE68 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Reynolds, A.

T. Zhu, M. Sutton, N. Li, J.-J. Orteu, N. Cornille, X. Li, and A. Reynolds, Exp. Mech. 51, 97 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ritsch-marte, M.

Seifert, L.

T. Haist, M. Reicherter, M. Wu, and L. Seifert, Comput. Sci. Eng. 8, 8 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sutton, M.

T. Zhu, M. Sutton, N. Li, J.-J. Orteu, N. Cornille, X. Li, and A. Reynolds, Exp. Mech. 51, 97 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ude, A.

P. Azad, A. Ude, T. Asfour, and R. Dillmann, IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation3951 (IEEE, 2007).

Warber, M.

Wu, M.

T. Haist, M. Reicherter, M. Wu, and L. Seifert, Comput. Sci. Eng. 8, 8 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, T.

T. Zhu, M. Sutton, N. Li, J.-J. Orteu, N. Cornille, X. Li, and A. Reynolds, Exp. Mech. 51, 97 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zwick, S.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Comput. Sci. Eng. (1)

T. Haist, M. Reicherter, M. Wu, and L. Seifert, Comput. Sci. Eng. 8, 8 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Exp. Mech. (1)

T. Zhu, M. Sutton, N. Li, J.-J. Orteu, N. Cornille, X. Li, and A. Reynolds, Exp. Mech. 51, 97 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Euro. Opt. Soc. Rapid Public. (1)

J. S. Dam, I. R. Perch-Nielsen, D. Palima, and J. Glückstad, J. Euro. Opt. Soc. Rapid Public. 4, 09045 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

D. G. Grier, Nature 424, 21 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

J. Glückstad, Opt. Commun. 130, 225 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Proc. SPIE (1)

M. Reicherter, W. Gorski, T. Haist, and W. Osten, Proc. SPIE68 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Vet. Pathol. (1)

J. Mouwen, Vet. Pathol. 8, 364 (1971).

Other (4)

M. Pluta, Advanced Light Microscopy (Elsevier, 2009), Vol. 2.

P. Azad, A. Ude, T. Asfour, and R. Dillmann, IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation3951 (IEEE, 2007).

B. Mendibru, 3D Movie Making: Stereoscopic Digital Cinema from Script to Screen (Elsevier, 2009).

E. Hoppe, Geschichte der Optik (Dr. Martin Sandig oHG, 1967).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Setup for SLM-based stereo microscopy.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Imaging of a Siemens star in transmission (a) with Zeiss Ergoplan (Leitz Wetzlar objective lens, NA=0.95, l=540580nm), (b) with the SLM microscope (Olympus UmPlanFl objective lens, NA=0.8, l=633nm) with aberration correction, and (c) without aberration correction. The half-pitch of the smallest grating structures is 450 nm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Anaglyph of a roughness standard class A grade 1. (Viewable with red/blue glasses).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Stereoscopic phase-contrast image (CCD plane) of coney taste buds. At most edges the inversion of intensity is clearly visible.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Parallel illumination of a phase object leads to uneven pupil illumination. Light deflected at edges will predominantly hit one or the other half of the SLM, and, therefore, the intensity of the corresponding structure in the image will be low or high.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

A 3D representation of a computer generated hologram recorded in transmission. (Viewable with red/blue glasses).

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