Abstract

We present a multibranch laser frequency comb based upon a 250 MHz mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser that spans more than 300 THz of bandwidth, from 660 nm to 2100 nm. Light from a mode-locked Er:fiber laser is amplified and then broadened in highly-nonlinear fiber to produce substantial power at 1050nm. This light is subsequently amplified in Yb:fiber to produce 1.2 nJ, 73 fs pulses at 1040 nm. Extension of the frequency comb into the visible is achieved by supercontinuum generation from the 1040 nm light. Comb coherence is verified with cascaded f-2f interferometry and comparison to a frequency stabilized laser.

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2010 (4)

F. Adler, M. J. Thorpe, K. C. Cossel, and J. Ye, Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. 3, 175 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Krauss, S. Lohss, T. Hanke, A. Sell, S. Eggert, R. Huber, and A. Leitenstorfer, Nat. Photonics 4, 33 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Kieu, R. J. Jones, and N. Peyghambarian, Opt. Express 18, 21350 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Andrianov, E. Anashkina, S. Muravyev, and A. Kim, Opt. Lett. 35, 3805 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

D. Kielpinski, M. G. Pullen, J. Canning, M. Stevenson, P. S. Westbrook, and K. S. Feder, Opt. Express 17, 20833 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Hirano, T. Nakanishi, T. Okuno, and M. Onishi, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2007 (4)

C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, I. Hartl, and M. E. Fermann, Opt. Lett. 32, 2478 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Dawkins, J. J. Mcferran, and A. N. Luiten, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 54, 918 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Wilpers, C. W. Oates, S. A. Diddams, A. Bartels, T. M. Fortier, W. H. Oskay, J. C. Bergquist, S. R. Jefferts, T. P. Heavner, T. E. Parker, and L. Hollberg, Metrologia 44, 146 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Murphy, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, A. Sizmann, L. Pasquini, C. Araujo-Hauck, H. Dekker, S. D’Odorico, M. Fischer, T. W. Hänsch, and A. Manescau, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 380, 839 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

1996 (1)

1994 (1)

1993 (1)

D. J. Kane and R. Trebino, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 571 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Adel, P.

T. Wilken, T. W. Hansch, R. Holzwarth, P. Adel, and M. Mei, in Proceedings of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper MR3.

Adler, F.

F. Adler, M. J. Thorpe, K. C. Cossel, and J. Ye, Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. 3, 175 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Alonzo, J.

Anashkina, E.

Andrianov, A.

Araujo-Hauck, C.

M. T. Murphy, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, A. Sizmann, L. Pasquini, C. Araujo-Hauck, H. Dekker, S. D’Odorico, M. Fischer, T. W. Hänsch, and A. Manescau, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 380, 839 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bartels, A.

G. Wilpers, C. W. Oates, S. A. Diddams, A. Bartels, T. M. Fortier, W. H. Oskay, J. C. Bergquist, S. R. Jefferts, T. P. Heavner, T. E. Parker, and L. Hollberg, Metrologia 44, 146 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bergquist, J. C.

G. Wilpers, C. W. Oates, S. A. Diddams, A. Bartels, T. M. Fortier, W. H. Oskay, J. C. Bergquist, S. R. Jefferts, T. P. Heavner, T. E. Parker, and L. Hollberg, Metrologia 44, 146 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bise, R.

Canning, J.

Cossel, K. C.

F. Adler, M. J. Thorpe, K. C. Cossel, and J. Ye, Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. 3, 175 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D’Odorico, S.

M. T. Murphy, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, A. Sizmann, L. Pasquini, C. Araujo-Hauck, H. Dekker, S. D’Odorico, M. Fischer, T. W. Hänsch, and A. Manescau, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 380, 839 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dawkins, S. T.

S. T. Dawkins, J. J. Mcferran, and A. N. Luiten, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 54, 918 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dekker, H.

M. T. Murphy, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, A. Sizmann, L. Pasquini, C. Araujo-Hauck, H. Dekker, S. D’Odorico, M. Fischer, T. W. Hänsch, and A. Manescau, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 380, 839 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Diddams, S. A.

G. Wilpers, C. W. Oates, S. A. Diddams, A. Bartels, T. M. Fortier, W. H. Oskay, J. C. Bergquist, S. R. Jefferts, T. P. Heavner, T. E. Parker, and L. Hollberg, Metrologia 44, 146 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Stowe, M. J. Thorpe, A. Péer, J. Ye, J. E. Stalnaker, V. Gerginov, and S. A. Diddams, in Advances in Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics (Academic, 2008), Vol. 55, pp. 1–60.

Dimarcello, F.

Eggert, S.

G. Krauss, S. Lohss, T. Hanke, A. Sell, S. Eggert, R. Huber, and A. Leitenstorfer, Nat. Photonics 4, 33 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Feder, K. S.

Fejer, M. M.

Fermann, M. E.

Fini, J.

Fischer, M.

M. T. Murphy, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, A. Sizmann, L. Pasquini, C. Araujo-Hauck, H. Dekker, S. D’Odorico, M. Fischer, T. W. Hänsch, and A. Manescau, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 380, 839 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fleming, J.

Fortier, T. M.

G. Wilpers, C. W. Oates, S. A. Diddams, A. Bartels, T. M. Fortier, W. H. Oskay, J. C. Bergquist, S. R. Jefferts, T. P. Heavner, T. E. Parker, and L. Hollberg, Metrologia 44, 146 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gerginov, V.

M. C. Stowe, M. J. Thorpe, A. Péer, J. Ye, J. E. Stalnaker, V. Gerginov, and S. A. Diddams, in Advances in Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics (Academic, 2008), Vol. 55, pp. 1–60.

Hanke, T.

G. Krauss, S. Lohss, T. Hanke, A. Sell, S. Eggert, R. Huber, and A. Leitenstorfer, Nat. Photonics 4, 33 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hansch, T. W.

T. Wilken, T. W. Hansch, R. Holzwarth, P. Adel, and M. Mei, in Proceedings of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper MR3.

Hänsch, T. W.

M. T. Murphy, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, A. Sizmann, L. Pasquini, C. Araujo-Hauck, H. Dekker, S. D’Odorico, M. Fischer, T. W. Hänsch, and A. Manescau, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 380, 839 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hartl, I.

Heavner, T. P.

G. Wilpers, C. W. Oates, S. A. Diddams, A. Bartels, T. M. Fortier, W. H. Oskay, J. C. Bergquist, S. R. Jefferts, T. P. Heavner, T. E. Parker, and L. Hollberg, Metrologia 44, 146 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hirai, A.

Hirano, M.

M. Hirano, T. Nakanishi, T. Okuno, and M. Onishi, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hollberg, L.

G. Wilpers, C. W. Oates, S. A. Diddams, A. Bartels, T. M. Fortier, W. H. Oskay, J. C. Bergquist, S. R. Jefferts, T. P. Heavner, T. E. Parker, and L. Hollberg, Metrologia 44, 146 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Holzwarth, R.

M. T. Murphy, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, A. Sizmann, L. Pasquini, C. Araujo-Hauck, H. Dekker, S. D’Odorico, M. Fischer, T. W. Hänsch, and A. Manescau, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 380, 839 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Wilken, T. W. Hansch, R. Holzwarth, P. Adel, and M. Mei, in Proceedings of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper MR3.

Hong, F.-L.

Huber, R.

G. Krauss, S. Lohss, T. Hanke, A. Sell, S. Eggert, R. Huber, and A. Leitenstorfer, Nat. Photonics 4, 33 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Inaba, H.

Jefferts, S. R.

G. Wilpers, C. W. Oates, S. A. Diddams, A. Bartels, T. M. Fortier, W. H. Oskay, J. C. Bergquist, S. R. Jefferts, T. P. Heavner, T. E. Parker, and L. Hollberg, Metrologia 44, 146 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jones, R. J.

Kane, D. J.

D. J. Kane and R. Trebino, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 571 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kielpinski, D.

Kieu, K.

Kim, A.

Kim, S.

Y. Kim, Y.-J. Kim, S. Kim, and S.-W. Kim, in Proc. Conf. Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2010), p. FD7.

Kim, S.-W.

Y. Kim, Y.-J. Kim, S. Kim, and S.-W. Kim, in Proc. Conf. Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2010), p. FD7.

Kim, Y.

Y. Kim, Y.-J. Kim, S. Kim, and S.-W. Kim, in Proc. Conf. Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2010), p. FD7.

Kim, Y.-J.

Y. Kim, Y.-J. Kim, S. Kim, and S.-W. Kim, in Proc. Conf. Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2010), p. FD7.

Krauss, G.

G. Krauss, S. Lohss, T. Hanke, A. Sell, S. Eggert, R. Huber, and A. Leitenstorfer, Nat. Photonics 4, 33 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lai, M.

Lai, S. T.

Langrock, C.

Leitenstorfer, A.

G. Krauss, S. Lohss, T. Hanke, A. Sell, S. Eggert, R. Huber, and A. Leitenstorfer, Nat. Photonics 4, 33 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lohss, S.

G. Krauss, S. Lohss, T. Hanke, A. Sell, S. Eggert, R. Huber, and A. Leitenstorfer, Nat. Photonics 4, 33 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Luiten, A. N.

S. T. Dawkins, J. J. Mcferran, and A. N. Luiten, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 54, 918 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Manescau, A.

M. T. Murphy, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, A. Sizmann, L. Pasquini, C. Araujo-Hauck, H. Dekker, S. D’Odorico, M. Fischer, T. W. Hänsch, and A. Manescau, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 380, 839 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Matsumoto, H.

Mcferran, J. J.

S. T. Dawkins, J. J. Mcferran, and A. N. Luiten, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 54, 918 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mei, M.

T. Wilken, T. W. Hansch, R. Holzwarth, P. Adel, and M. Mei, in Proceedings of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper MR3.

Minoshima, K.

Monberg, E.

Muravyev, S.

Murphy, M. T.

M. T. Murphy, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, A. Sizmann, L. Pasquini, C. Araujo-Hauck, H. Dekker, S. D’Odorico, M. Fischer, T. W. Hänsch, and A. Manescau, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 380, 839 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nakanishi, T.

M. Hirano, T. Nakanishi, T. Okuno, and M. Onishi, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nakazawa, M.

Nicholson, J. W.

Oates, C. W.

G. Wilpers, C. W. Oates, S. A. Diddams, A. Bartels, T. M. Fortier, W. H. Oskay, J. C. Bergquist, S. R. Jefferts, T. P. Heavner, T. E. Parker, and L. Hollberg, Metrologia 44, 146 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Okuno, T.

M. Hirano, T. Nakanishi, T. Okuno, and M. Onishi, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Onae, A.

Onishi, M.

M. Hirano, T. Nakanishi, T. Okuno, and M. Onishi, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Oskay, W. H.

G. Wilpers, C. W. Oates, S. A. Diddams, A. Bartels, T. M. Fortier, W. H. Oskay, J. C. Bergquist, S. R. Jefferts, T. P. Heavner, T. E. Parker, and L. Hollberg, Metrologia 44, 146 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Parker, T. E.

G. Wilpers, C. W. Oates, S. A. Diddams, A. Bartels, T. M. Fortier, W. H. Oskay, J. C. Bergquist, S. R. Jefferts, T. P. Heavner, T. E. Parker, and L. Hollberg, Metrologia 44, 146 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pasquini, L.

M. T. Murphy, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, A. Sizmann, L. Pasquini, C. Araujo-Hauck, H. Dekker, S. D’Odorico, M. Fischer, T. W. Hänsch, and A. Manescau, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 380, 839 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Péer, A.

M. C. Stowe, M. J. Thorpe, A. Péer, J. Ye, J. E. Stalnaker, V. Gerginov, and S. A. Diddams, in Advances in Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics (Academic, 2008), Vol. 55, pp. 1–60.

Peyghambarian, N.

Pullen, M. G.

Sell, A.

G. Krauss, S. Lohss, T. Hanke, A. Sell, S. Eggert, R. Huber, and A. Leitenstorfer, Nat. Photonics 4, 33 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sizmann, A.

M. T. Murphy, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, A. Sizmann, L. Pasquini, C. Araujo-Hauck, H. Dekker, S. D’Odorico, M. Fischer, T. W. Hänsch, and A. Manescau, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 380, 839 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Stalnaker, J. E.

M. C. Stowe, M. J. Thorpe, A. Péer, J. Ye, J. E. Stalnaker, V. Gerginov, and S. A. Diddams, in Advances in Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics (Academic, 2008), Vol. 55, pp. 1–60.

Stevenson, M.

Stockert, T.

Stowe, M. C.

M. C. Stowe, M. J. Thorpe, A. Péer, J. Ye, J. E. Stalnaker, V. Gerginov, and S. A. Diddams, in Advances in Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics (Academic, 2008), Vol. 55, pp. 1–60.

Sugiura, T.

Swinger, C.

Takada, H.

Tamura, K.

Thorpe, M. J.

F. Adler, M. J. Thorpe, K. C. Cossel, and J. Ye, Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. 3, 175 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Stowe, M. J. Thorpe, A. Péer, J. Ye, J. E. Stalnaker, V. Gerginov, and S. A. Diddams, in Advances in Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics (Academic, 2008), Vol. 55, pp. 1–60.

Trebino, R.

D. J. Kane and R. Trebino, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 571 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Trevor, D. J.

Udem, T.

M. T. Murphy, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, A. Sizmann, L. Pasquini, C. Araujo-Hauck, H. Dekker, S. D’Odorico, M. Fischer, T. W. Hänsch, and A. Manescau, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 380, 839 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Westbrook, P. S.

Wilken, T.

T. Wilken, T. W. Hansch, R. Holzwarth, P. Adel, and M. Mei, in Proceedings of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper MR3.

Wilpers, G.

G. Wilpers, C. W. Oates, S. A. Diddams, A. Bartels, T. M. Fortier, W. H. Oskay, J. C. Bergquist, S. R. Jefferts, T. P. Heavner, T. E. Parker, and L. Hollberg, Metrologia 44, 146 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wisk, P.

Yablon, A. D.

Yan, M. F.

Ye, J.

F. Adler, M. J. Thorpe, K. C. Cossel, and J. Ye, Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. 3, 175 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Stowe, M. J. Thorpe, A. Péer, J. Ye, J. E. Stalnaker, V. Gerginov, and S. A. Diddams, in Advances in Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics (Academic, 2008), Vol. 55, pp. 1–60.

Yoshida, M.

Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. (1)

F. Adler, M. J. Thorpe, K. C. Cossel, and J. Ye, Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. 3, 175 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

D. J. Kane and R. Trebino, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 571 (1993).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Hirano, T. Nakanishi, T. Okuno, and M. Onishi, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control (1)

S. T. Dawkins, J. J. Mcferran, and A. N. Luiten, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 54, 918 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Metrologia (1)

G. Wilpers, C. W. Oates, S. A. Diddams, A. Bartels, T. M. Fortier, W. H. Oskay, J. C. Bergquist, S. R. Jefferts, T. P. Heavner, T. E. Parker, and L. Hollberg, Metrologia 44, 146 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. (1)

M. T. Murphy, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, A. Sizmann, L. Pasquini, C. Araujo-Hauck, H. Dekker, S. D’Odorico, M. Fischer, T. W. Hänsch, and A. Manescau, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 380, 839 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

G. Krauss, S. Lohss, T. Hanke, A. Sell, S. Eggert, R. Huber, and A. Leitenstorfer, Nat. Photonics 4, 33 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Other (3)

M. C. Stowe, M. J. Thorpe, A. Péer, J. Ye, J. E. Stalnaker, V. Gerginov, and S. A. Diddams, in Advances in Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics (Academic, 2008), Vol. 55, pp. 1–60.

T. Wilken, T. W. Hansch, R. Holzwarth, P. Adel, and M. Mei, in Proceedings of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper MR3.

Y. Kim, Y.-J. Kim, S. Kim, and S.-W. Kim, in Proc. Conf. Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2010), p. FD7.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Top: Schematic of apparatus used to generate and characterize 660 nm–2100 nm spectrum. LD: 600 mW, 976 nm laser diode; WDM: wavelength division multiplexer; Q(H)WP: quarter (half) waveplate; PC: polarization controller; VPH: volume phase holographic grating (Kaiser Optical Systems); DCM: dichroic mirror; PPLN: periodically-poled lithium niobate; PD: photodiode; RFSA: radio-frequency spectrum analyzer. (a) Optical spectra taken at locations (i), (ii), and (iii) in the system, offset for clarity. (b) Heterodyne beat note of the LFC with a 657 nm cavity-stabilized laser, (c) the fCEO beat from (I) 1 μm to 2 μm and (II) 660 nm to 1320 nm; all acquired with LFC stabilized.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Amplitude (solid) and phase (dashed) of the amplified 1040 nm pulse after compression, measured by SHG-FROG. The FWHM pulse duration is 73 fs. (b) Optical spectrum measured with linear spectrometer (solid) and retrieved with FROG (dotted).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Fractional frequency instability measurements of the LFC normalized by the detected optical frequency. Beat between the LFC and a 657 nm cavity-stabilized laser when the LFC is stabilized to (a) an Rb clock and (b) a hydrogen maser. At short times, the instability is limited by the Rb clock or maser, while at long times the instability is dominated by the cavity drift (0.4Hz/s). Curves (c) and (d) are the instability of fCEO measured out-of-loop between 660 nm and 1320 nm and in-loop between 1 μm and 2 μm, respectively.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Phase noise of fCEO with servos engaged, measured on the signal used to lock the laser (dotted) and the out-of-loop Yb branch (solid).

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