Abstract

A simple and robust refractive index (RI) sensor based on a Mach–Zehnder interferometer has been demonstrated. A section of optical microfiber drawn from silica fiber is employed as the sensing arm. Because of the evanescent field, a slight change of the ambient RI will lead to the variation of the microfiber propagation constant, which will further change the optical length. In order to compensate the variation of the optical length difference, a tunable optical delay line (ODL) is inserted into the other arm. By measuring the delay of the ODL, the ambient RI can be simply demodulated. A high RI sensitivity of about 7159μm/refractive index unit is achieved at microfiber diameter of 2.0 μm.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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References

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C. R. Liao, D. N. Wang, X. Y. He, and M. W. Yang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 848 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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2008 (3)

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L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, Nature 426, 816 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1990 (1)

N. Takato, T. Kominato, A. Sugita, K. Jinguji, H. Toba, and M. Kawachi, IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 8, 1120 (1990).
[CrossRef]

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G. K. White, J. Phys. D 6, 2070 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

F. N. D. D. Pereira and A. C. H. Hallett, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 42, 490 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Ashcom, J. B.

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, Nature 426, 816 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Birks, T. A.

Brambilla, G.

Bures, J.

Dulashko, Y.

M. Sumetsky, Y. Dulashko, and S. Ghalmi, Opt. Lasers Eng. 48, 272 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fang, X.

Gattass, R. R.

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, Nature 426, 816 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ghalmi, S.

M. Sumetsky, Y. Dulashko, and S. Ghalmi, Opt. Lasers Eng. 48, 272 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ghosh, R.

Guo, X.

Hallett, A. C. H.

F. N. D. D. Pereira and A. C. H. Hallett, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 42, 490 (1971).
[CrossRef]

He, S. L.

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, Nature 426, 816 (2003).
[CrossRef]

He, X. Y.

C. R. Liao, D. N. Wang, X. Y. He, and M. W. Yang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 848 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Horak, P.

Huang, K. J.

Jeong, Y. C.

Jinguji, K.

N. Takato, T. Kominato, A. Sugita, K. Jinguji, H. Toba, and M. Kawachi, IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 8, 1120 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Jung, Y. M.

Kawachi, M.

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[CrossRef]

Kominato, T.

N. Takato, T. Kominato, A. Sugita, K. Jinguji, H. Toba, and M. Kawachi, IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 8, 1120 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Leon-Saval, S. G.

Li, Y. H.

Liao, C. R.

C. R. Liao, D. N. Wang, X. Y. He, and M. W. Yang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 848 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. Fang, C. R. Liao, and D. N. Wang, Opt. Lett. 35, 1007 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lin, B.

Lou, J.

Lou, J. Y.

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, Nature 426, 816 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Love, J.

A. W. Snyder and J. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory(Chapman and Hall, 1983).

Mansuripur, M.

Maxwell, I.

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, Nature 426, 816 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mazur, E.

L. M. Tong, J. Lou, and E. Mazur, Opt. Express 12, 1025 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, Nature 426, 816 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pereira, F. N. D. D.

F. N. D. D. Pereira and A. C. H. Hallett, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 42, 490 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Peyghambarian, N.

Polynkin, A.

Polynkin, P.

Richardson, D. J.

Russell, P. St. J.

Shen, M. Y.

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, Nature 426, 816 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shum, P.

Snyder, A. W.

A. W. Snyder and J. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory(Chapman and Hall, 1983).

Sugita, A.

N. Takato, T. Kominato, A. Sugita, K. Jinguji, H. Toba, and M. Kawachi, IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 8, 1120 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Sumetsky, M.

M. Sumetsky, Y. Dulashko, and S. Ghalmi, Opt. Lasers Eng. 48, 272 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Sumetsky, Opt. Lett. 31, 870 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Takato, N.

N. Takato, T. Kominato, A. Sugita, K. Jinguji, H. Toba, and M. Kawachi, IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 8, 1120 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Tjin, S. C.

Toba, H.

N. Takato, T. Kominato, A. Sugita, K. Jinguji, H. Toba, and M. Kawachi, IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 8, 1120 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Tong, L. M.

Wadsworth, W. J.

Wang, D. N.

C. R. Liao, D. N. Wang, X. Y. He, and M. W. Yang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 848 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. Fang, C. R. Liao, and D. N. Wang, Opt. Lett. 35, 1007 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, G. H.

White, G. K.

G. K. White, J. Phys. D 6, 2070 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Xu, F.

F. Xu and G. Brambilla, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 101126 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Xu, P. Horak, and G. Brambilla, Opt. Express 15, 7888 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yang, M. W.

C. R. Liao, D. N. Wang, X. Y. He, and M. W. Yang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 848 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yang, S. Y.

Zhang, H.

Zhang, X. L.

Zhang, Y.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

F. Xu and G. Brambilla, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 101126 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (1)

N. Takato, T. Kominato, A. Sugita, K. Jinguji, H. Toba, and M. Kawachi, IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 8, 1120 (1990).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

C. R. Liao, D. N. Wang, X. Y. He, and M. W. Yang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 848 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Phys. D (1)

G. K. White, J. Phys. D 6, 2070 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, Nature 426, 816 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lasers Eng. (1)

M. Sumetsky, Y. Dulashko, and S. Ghalmi, Opt. Lasers Eng. 48, 272 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (5)

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

F. N. D. D. Pereira and A. C. H. Hallett, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 42, 490 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

A. W. Snyder and J. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory(Chapman and Hall, 1983).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Schematic configuration of the MZI-based RI sensor; (b) schematic diagram of the sensing arm. BBS, broadband light source; ODL, optical delay line; OSA, optical spectrum analyzer; MF, microfiber.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Calculated propagation constant (β) versus ambient RI of different diameters of microfiber operating at 1550 nm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Measured spectrum of the MZI of different optical length difference.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Microfiber image taken with an optical microscope.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Optical length variation with the RI at different microfiber diameters.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ΔϕMF=(β1β2)·L=2πλ·ΔQMF=2πλΔneffL,
{Jl(U)UJl(U)+Kl(U)WKl(U)}{n12n22Jl(U)UJl(U)+Kl(U)WKl(U)}=l(n12n22·1U2+1W2),
Δβ=2πλΔneff=KΔn2,
FSR=Δλ=λ1λ2/(ΔQ),
d(ΔQ)=ΔneffLn1Δl=λ2πKΔn2Ln1Δl,

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