Abstract

Photodegradation of melanin thin films is investigated for a UVA wavelength of 355nm and a UVC wavelength of 244nm. The technique involves interferometric exposure of melanin with two coherent beams from a low-power UV laser. The periodic photodegradation-grating pattern is monitored by diffraction of a second low-power He–Ne laser. Dependence of the photodegradation rate on UV intensity as well as the effect of ambient humidity is investigated and explained with a simple model. The technique has promise for investigating photo-induced effects in other biomolecular substrates as well.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. V. J. Hearing and S. P. L. Leong, From Melanocytes to Melanoma: The Progression to Malignancy (Humana, 2006).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. L. Rees, Am. J. Hum. Genet. 75, 739 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. B. K. Armstrong and A. Kricker, J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 63, 8 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. McGinness, P. Corry, and P. Proctor, Science 183, 853 (1974).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. H. Seppa, IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 11, 759 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. Hoppe and N. S. Sariciftci, J. Mater. Res. 19, 1924 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Sharma, Photochem. Photobiol. 86, 852 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. T. Sarna, J. M. Burke, W. Korytowski, M. Roanowska, C. M. B. Skumatz, A. Zarba, and M. Zarba, Exp. Eye Res. 76, 89 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. M. Burke, M. M. Henry, M. Zareba, and T. Sarna, Photochem. Photobiol. 83, 920 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. J. M. Taguenang, A. Kassu, and A. Sharma, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 303, 525 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. A. Sharma, M. Dokhanian, and A. Kassu, Opt. Lett. 30, 501 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. J. Zhou, J. Shen, J. Yang, Y. Ke, K. Wang, and Q. Zhang, Opt. Lett. 31, 1370 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. J. P. Bothma, J. de Boor, U. Divakar, P. E. Schwenn, and P. Meredith, Adv. Mater. 20, 3539 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. B. Nofsinger, E. F. Weinert, and J. D. Simon, Biopolymers 67, 302 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. M. R. Chedekel, S. K. Smith, P. W. Post, A. Pokora, and D. L. Vessell, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 75, 5395 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. W. Korytowski and T. Sarna, J. Biol. Chem. 265, 12410 (1990).
    [PubMed]
  17. H. C. Kim, G. Wallraff, C. R. Kreller, S. Angelos, V. Y. Lee, W. Volksen, and R. D. Miller, Nano Lett. 4, 1169 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  18. T. Geue, M. G. Saphiannikova, O. Henneberg, U. Pietsch, P. L. Rochon, and A. L. Natansohn, Phys. Rev. E 65, 052801 (2002).
    [CrossRef]

2010 (1)

A. Sharma, Photochem. Photobiol. 86, 852 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

J. P. Bothma, J. de Boor, U. Divakar, P. E. Schwenn, and P. Meredith, Adv. Mater. 20, 3539 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

J. M. Burke, M. M. Henry, M. Zareba, and T. Sarna, Photochem. Photobiol. 83, 920 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

J. M. Taguenang, A. Kassu, and A. Sharma, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 303, 525 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhou, J. Shen, J. Yang, Y. Ke, K. Wang, and Q. Zhang, Opt. Lett. 31, 1370 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

2004 (3)

J. L. Rees, Am. J. Hum. Genet. 75, 739 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Hoppe and N. S. Sariciftci, J. Mater. Res. 19, 1924 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Kim, G. Wallraff, C. R. Kreller, S. Angelos, V. Y. Lee, W. Volksen, and R. D. Miller, Nano Lett. 4, 1169 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

T. Sarna, J. M. Burke, W. Korytowski, M. Roanowska, C. M. B. Skumatz, A. Zarba, and M. Zarba, Exp. Eye Res. 76, 89 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

T. Geue, M. G. Saphiannikova, O. Henneberg, U. Pietsch, P. L. Rochon, and A. L. Natansohn, Phys. Rev. E 65, 052801 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Nofsinger, E. F. Weinert, and J. D. Simon, Biopolymers 67, 302 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

H. Seppa, IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 11, 759 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. K. Armstrong and A. Kricker, J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 63, 8 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

W. Korytowski and T. Sarna, J. Biol. Chem. 265, 12410 (1990).
[PubMed]

1978 (1)

M. R. Chedekel, S. K. Smith, P. W. Post, A. Pokora, and D. L. Vessell, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 75, 5395 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1974 (1)

J. McGinness, P. Corry, and P. Proctor, Science 183, 853 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Angelos, S.

H. C. Kim, G. Wallraff, C. R. Kreller, S. Angelos, V. Y. Lee, W. Volksen, and R. D. Miller, Nano Lett. 4, 1169 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Armstrong, B. K.

B. K. Armstrong and A. Kricker, J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 63, 8 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bothma, J. P.

J. P. Bothma, J. de Boor, U. Divakar, P. E. Schwenn, and P. Meredith, Adv. Mater. 20, 3539 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Burke, J. M.

J. M. Burke, M. M. Henry, M. Zareba, and T. Sarna, Photochem. Photobiol. 83, 920 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Sarna, J. M. Burke, W. Korytowski, M. Roanowska, C. M. B. Skumatz, A. Zarba, and M. Zarba, Exp. Eye Res. 76, 89 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chedekel, M. R.

M. R. Chedekel, S. K. Smith, P. W. Post, A. Pokora, and D. L. Vessell, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 75, 5395 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Corry, P.

J. McGinness, P. Corry, and P. Proctor, Science 183, 853 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Boor, J.

J. P. Bothma, J. de Boor, U. Divakar, P. E. Schwenn, and P. Meredith, Adv. Mater. 20, 3539 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Divakar, U.

J. P. Bothma, J. de Boor, U. Divakar, P. E. Schwenn, and P. Meredith, Adv. Mater. 20, 3539 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dokhanian, M.

Geue, T.

T. Geue, M. G. Saphiannikova, O. Henneberg, U. Pietsch, P. L. Rochon, and A. L. Natansohn, Phys. Rev. E 65, 052801 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hearing, V. J.

V. J. Hearing and S. P. L. Leong, From Melanocytes to Melanoma: The Progression to Malignancy (Humana, 2006).
[CrossRef]

Henneberg, O.

T. Geue, M. G. Saphiannikova, O. Henneberg, U. Pietsch, P. L. Rochon, and A. L. Natansohn, Phys. Rev. E 65, 052801 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Henry, M. M.

J. M. Burke, M. M. Henry, M. Zareba, and T. Sarna, Photochem. Photobiol. 83, 920 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoppe, H.

H. Hoppe and N. S. Sariciftci, J. Mater. Res. 19, 1924 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kassu, A.

J. M. Taguenang, A. Kassu, and A. Sharma, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 303, 525 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Sharma, M. Dokhanian, and A. Kassu, Opt. Lett. 30, 501 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ke, Y.

Kim, H. C.

H. C. Kim, G. Wallraff, C. R. Kreller, S. Angelos, V. Y. Lee, W. Volksen, and R. D. Miller, Nano Lett. 4, 1169 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Korytowski, W.

T. Sarna, J. M. Burke, W. Korytowski, M. Roanowska, C. M. B. Skumatz, A. Zarba, and M. Zarba, Exp. Eye Res. 76, 89 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Korytowski and T. Sarna, J. Biol. Chem. 265, 12410 (1990).
[PubMed]

Kreller, C. R.

H. C. Kim, G. Wallraff, C. R. Kreller, S. Angelos, V. Y. Lee, W. Volksen, and R. D. Miller, Nano Lett. 4, 1169 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kricker, A.

B. K. Armstrong and A. Kricker, J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 63, 8 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, V. Y.

H. C. Kim, G. Wallraff, C. R. Kreller, S. Angelos, V. Y. Lee, W. Volksen, and R. D. Miller, Nano Lett. 4, 1169 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Leong, S. P. L.

V. J. Hearing and S. P. L. Leong, From Melanocytes to Melanoma: The Progression to Malignancy (Humana, 2006).
[CrossRef]

McGinness, J.

J. McGinness, P. Corry, and P. Proctor, Science 183, 853 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meredith, P.

J. P. Bothma, J. de Boor, U. Divakar, P. E. Schwenn, and P. Meredith, Adv. Mater. 20, 3539 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Miller, R. D.

H. C. Kim, G. Wallraff, C. R. Kreller, S. Angelos, V. Y. Lee, W. Volksen, and R. D. Miller, Nano Lett. 4, 1169 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Natansohn, A. L.

T. Geue, M. G. Saphiannikova, O. Henneberg, U. Pietsch, P. L. Rochon, and A. L. Natansohn, Phys. Rev. E 65, 052801 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nofsinger, J. B.

J. B. Nofsinger, E. F. Weinert, and J. D. Simon, Biopolymers 67, 302 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pietsch, U.

T. Geue, M. G. Saphiannikova, O. Henneberg, U. Pietsch, P. L. Rochon, and A. L. Natansohn, Phys. Rev. E 65, 052801 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pokora, A.

M. R. Chedekel, S. K. Smith, P. W. Post, A. Pokora, and D. L. Vessell, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 75, 5395 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Post, P. W.

M. R. Chedekel, S. K. Smith, P. W. Post, A. Pokora, and D. L. Vessell, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 75, 5395 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proctor, P.

J. McGinness, P. Corry, and P. Proctor, Science 183, 853 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rees, J. L.

J. L. Rees, Am. J. Hum. Genet. 75, 739 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roanowska, M.

T. Sarna, J. M. Burke, W. Korytowski, M. Roanowska, C. M. B. Skumatz, A. Zarba, and M. Zarba, Exp. Eye Res. 76, 89 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rochon, P. L.

T. Geue, M. G. Saphiannikova, O. Henneberg, U. Pietsch, P. L. Rochon, and A. L. Natansohn, Phys. Rev. E 65, 052801 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Saphiannikova, M. G.

T. Geue, M. G. Saphiannikova, O. Henneberg, U. Pietsch, P. L. Rochon, and A. L. Natansohn, Phys. Rev. E 65, 052801 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sariciftci, N. S.

H. Hoppe and N. S. Sariciftci, J. Mater. Res. 19, 1924 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sarna, T.

J. M. Burke, M. M. Henry, M. Zareba, and T. Sarna, Photochem. Photobiol. 83, 920 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Sarna, J. M. Burke, W. Korytowski, M. Roanowska, C. M. B. Skumatz, A. Zarba, and M. Zarba, Exp. Eye Res. 76, 89 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Korytowski and T. Sarna, J. Biol. Chem. 265, 12410 (1990).
[PubMed]

Schwenn, P. E.

J. P. Bothma, J. de Boor, U. Divakar, P. E. Schwenn, and P. Meredith, Adv. Mater. 20, 3539 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Seppa, H.

H. Seppa, IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 11, 759 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sharma, A.

A. Sharma, Photochem. Photobiol. 86, 852 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Taguenang, A. Kassu, and A. Sharma, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 303, 525 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Sharma, M. Dokhanian, and A. Kassu, Opt. Lett. 30, 501 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shen, J.

Simon, J. D.

J. B. Nofsinger, E. F. Weinert, and J. D. Simon, Biopolymers 67, 302 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Skumatz, C. M. B.

T. Sarna, J. M. Burke, W. Korytowski, M. Roanowska, C. M. B. Skumatz, A. Zarba, and M. Zarba, Exp. Eye Res. 76, 89 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, S. K.

M. R. Chedekel, S. K. Smith, P. W. Post, A. Pokora, and D. L. Vessell, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 75, 5395 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taguenang, J. M.

J. M. Taguenang, A. Kassu, and A. Sharma, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 303, 525 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vessell, D. L.

M. R. Chedekel, S. K. Smith, P. W. Post, A. Pokora, and D. L. Vessell, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 75, 5395 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Volksen, W.

H. C. Kim, G. Wallraff, C. R. Kreller, S. Angelos, V. Y. Lee, W. Volksen, and R. D. Miller, Nano Lett. 4, 1169 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wallraff, G.

H. C. Kim, G. Wallraff, C. R. Kreller, S. Angelos, V. Y. Lee, W. Volksen, and R. D. Miller, Nano Lett. 4, 1169 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, K.

Weinert, E. F.

J. B. Nofsinger, E. F. Weinert, and J. D. Simon, Biopolymers 67, 302 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, J.

Zarba, A.

T. Sarna, J. M. Burke, W. Korytowski, M. Roanowska, C. M. B. Skumatz, A. Zarba, and M. Zarba, Exp. Eye Res. 76, 89 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zarba, M.

T. Sarna, J. M. Burke, W. Korytowski, M. Roanowska, C. M. B. Skumatz, A. Zarba, and M. Zarba, Exp. Eye Res. 76, 89 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zareba, M.

J. M. Burke, M. M. Henry, M. Zareba, and T. Sarna, Photochem. Photobiol. 83, 920 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Q.

Zhou, J.

Adv. Mater. (1)

J. P. Bothma, J. de Boor, U. Divakar, P. E. Schwenn, and P. Meredith, Adv. Mater. 20, 3539 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Am. J. Hum. Genet. (1)

J. L. Rees, Am. J. Hum. Genet. 75, 739 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biopolymers (1)

J. B. Nofsinger, E. F. Weinert, and J. D. Simon, Biopolymers 67, 302 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Exp. Eye Res. (1)

T. Sarna, J. M. Burke, W. Korytowski, M. Roanowska, C. M. B. Skumatz, A. Zarba, and M. Zarba, Exp. Eye Res. 76, 89 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. (1)

H. Seppa, IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 11, 759 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Biol. Chem. (1)

W. Korytowski and T. Sarna, J. Biol. Chem. 265, 12410 (1990).
[PubMed]

J. Colloid Interface Sci. (1)

J. M. Taguenang, A. Kassu, and A. Sharma, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 303, 525 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Mater. Res. (1)

H. Hoppe and N. S. Sariciftci, J. Mater. Res. 19, 1924 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Photochem. Photobiol. B (1)

B. K. Armstrong and A. Kricker, J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 63, 8 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nano Lett. (1)

H. C. Kim, G. Wallraff, C. R. Kreller, S. Angelos, V. Y. Lee, W. Volksen, and R. D. Miller, Nano Lett. 4, 1169 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Photochem. Photobiol. (2)

J. M. Burke, M. M. Henry, M. Zareba, and T. Sarna, Photochem. Photobiol. 83, 920 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Sharma, Photochem. Photobiol. 86, 852 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. E (1)

T. Geue, M. G. Saphiannikova, O. Henneberg, U. Pietsch, P. L. Rochon, and A. L. Natansohn, Phys. Rev. E 65, 052801 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (1)

M. R. Chedekel, S. K. Smith, P. W. Post, A. Pokora, and D. L. Vessell, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 75, 5395 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

J. McGinness, P. Corry, and P. Proctor, Science 183, 853 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

V. J. Hearing and S. P. L. Leong, From Melanocytes to Melanoma: The Progression to Malignancy (Humana, 2006).
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the holographic setup with UV laser to fabricate photodegradation gratings [inset (a)] in thin films of melanin on a glass substrate.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Effect (a) of light intensity and (b) of ambient humidity on photodegradation of melanin by 244 nm UV light. Symbols represent discrete data points, while curves represent simulation based on Eq. (2). (a) Growth curves (i), (ii), (iii) are for intensity of 7 mW , 3 mW , 1 mW respectively, and for a relative humidity of around 90%. Good agreement between experimental and simulated curves is obtained by choosing α to be 0.00057, 0.00048, 0.00034, respectively, and γ to be 54, 44, 54, respectively. (b) Growth curves (i) and (iv) are for ambient humidity of 90%, 20%, respectively, and for an intensity of 10 mW . Good agreement between experimental and simulated curves is obtained by choosing α to be 0.00071 and 0.00065, respectively, and γ to be 46 and 15, respectively. Curves (ii) and (iii) are simulated by decreasing α in (i) by factor 0.1 and 0.01, respectively, but keeping β in Eq. (1) unchanged. The growth curves shift to longer times, but the shape remains unchanged, indicating the dominance of the second term in Eq. (1).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Effect (a) of light intensity and (b) of ambient humidity on photodegradation of melanin by 355 nm UV light. Symbols represent discrete data points, while curves represent simulation based on Eq. (2). (a) Growth curves (i), (ii), (iii) are for intensity of 25 mW , 10 mW , 3 mW , respectively, and for a relative humidity of around 90%. Good agreement between ex perimental and simulated curves is obtained by choosing α to be 0.00027, 0.000175, 0.00006, respectively, and γ to be 22. (b) Growth curves (i), (ii), (iii) are for ambient humidity of 89%, 53%, and 19%, respectively, and for an intensity of 25 mW . Good agreement between experimental and simulated curves is obtained by choosing α to be 0.00027, 0.00005, 0.00003, respectively, and γ to be 22, 13, 1, respectively.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

d N = α N d t β N ( N 0 N ) d t .
f 1 N N 0 = 1 ( 1 + 1 γ ) ( 1 1 1 + γ e α ( γ + 1 ) t ) .

Metrics