Abstract

A semiconductor liquid-core optical fiber has been made by simply filling the hollow core of a capillary waveguide with nanoparticles suspended in toluene media. Under a low continuous optical power excitation at 532nm, the emission of PbSe particles was clearly demonstrated in the infrared region and then partially maintained in the core of the fiber by the total internal reflection mechanism. Finally, due to the guided propagation, which results in multiple absorption effects, a linear shift of the emission peak toward longer wavelengths was observed (0.32nm/cm). As a proof of concept, this original demonstration of visible-to-infrared conversion could lead to the development of active fibered devices at wavelengths not covered by the conventional rare-earth ion doping.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. Swiderski, A. Zajac, M. Skorczakowski, Z. Jankiewicz, and P. Konieczny, Opto-Electron. Rev. 12, 169 (2004).
  2. W. Yu, J. C. Falkner, B. S. Shih, and V. L. Colvin, Chem. Mater. 16, 3318 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. M. Pietryga, R. D. Schaller, D. Werder, M. H. Stewart, V. I. Klimov, and J. A. Hollingsworth, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126, 11752 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. A. Lipovskii, E. Kolobkova, and V. Petrikov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3406 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  5. V. I. Klimov, Los Alamos Sci. 28, 214 (2003).
  6. H. Du, C. Chen, R. Krishnan, T. D. Krauss, J. M. Harbold, F. W. Wise, M. G. Thomas, and J. Silcox, Nano Lett. 2, 1321 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Ohmori, S. Kawanishi, M. Tanaka, and H. Sakaki, “Joint session with PCF and CHIP: highly nonlinear fibers,” presented at the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (LEOS), January 14, 2008.
  8. P. R. Watekar, A. Lin, S. Ju, and W. Han, “Special application fibers,” presented at the Conference on Optical Fiber Communication, Collocated National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference OFC/NFOEC 2008, February 27, 2008.
  9. K. E. Meissner, C. Holton, and W. B. Spillman, Physica E (Amsterdam) 26, 377 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Q. Dai, Y. Wang, X. Li, Y. Zhang, D. J. Pellegrino, M. Zhao, B. Zou, J. Seo, Y. Wang, and W. W. Yu, ACS Nano 3, 1518 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

Q. Dai, Y. Wang, X. Li, Y. Zhang, D. J. Pellegrino, M. Zhao, B. Zou, J. Seo, Y. Wang, and W. W. Yu, ACS Nano 3, 1518 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

K. E. Meissner, C. Holton, and W. B. Spillman, Physica E (Amsterdam) 26, 377 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

J. Swiderski, A. Zajac, M. Skorczakowski, Z. Jankiewicz, and P. Konieczny, Opto-Electron. Rev. 12, 169 (2004).

W. Yu, J. C. Falkner, B. S. Shih, and V. L. Colvin, Chem. Mater. 16, 3318 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Pietryga, R. D. Schaller, D. Werder, M. H. Stewart, V. I. Klimov, and J. A. Hollingsworth, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126, 11752 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

V. I. Klimov, Los Alamos Sci. 28, 214 (2003).

2002 (1)

H. Du, C. Chen, R. Krishnan, T. D. Krauss, J. M. Harbold, F. W. Wise, M. G. Thomas, and J. Silcox, Nano Lett. 2, 1321 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

A. Lipovskii, E. Kolobkova, and V. Petrikov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3406 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C.

H. Du, C. Chen, R. Krishnan, T. D. Krauss, J. M. Harbold, F. W. Wise, M. G. Thomas, and J. Silcox, Nano Lett. 2, 1321 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Colvin, V. L.

W. Yu, J. C. Falkner, B. S. Shih, and V. L. Colvin, Chem. Mater. 16, 3318 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dai, Q.

Q. Dai, Y. Wang, X. Li, Y. Zhang, D. J. Pellegrino, M. Zhao, B. Zou, J. Seo, Y. Wang, and W. W. Yu, ACS Nano 3, 1518 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Du, H.

H. Du, C. Chen, R. Krishnan, T. D. Krauss, J. M. Harbold, F. W. Wise, M. G. Thomas, and J. Silcox, Nano Lett. 2, 1321 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Falkner, J. C.

W. Yu, J. C. Falkner, B. S. Shih, and V. L. Colvin, Chem. Mater. 16, 3318 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Han, W.

P. R. Watekar, A. Lin, S. Ju, and W. Han, “Special application fibers,” presented at the Conference on Optical Fiber Communication, Collocated National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference OFC/NFOEC 2008, February 27, 2008.

Harbold, J. M.

H. Du, C. Chen, R. Krishnan, T. D. Krauss, J. M. Harbold, F. W. Wise, M. G. Thomas, and J. Silcox, Nano Lett. 2, 1321 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hollingsworth, J. A.

J. M. Pietryga, R. D. Schaller, D. Werder, M. H. Stewart, V. I. Klimov, and J. A. Hollingsworth, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126, 11752 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holton, C.

K. E. Meissner, C. Holton, and W. B. Spillman, Physica E (Amsterdam) 26, 377 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jankiewicz, Z.

J. Swiderski, A. Zajac, M. Skorczakowski, Z. Jankiewicz, and P. Konieczny, Opto-Electron. Rev. 12, 169 (2004).

Ju, S.

P. R. Watekar, A. Lin, S. Ju, and W. Han, “Special application fibers,” presented at the Conference on Optical Fiber Communication, Collocated National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference OFC/NFOEC 2008, February 27, 2008.

Kawanishi, S.

M. Ohmori, S. Kawanishi, M. Tanaka, and H. Sakaki, “Joint session with PCF and CHIP: highly nonlinear fibers,” presented at the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (LEOS), January 14, 2008.

Klimov, V. I.

J. M. Pietryga, R. D. Schaller, D. Werder, M. H. Stewart, V. I. Klimov, and J. A. Hollingsworth, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126, 11752 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. I. Klimov, Los Alamos Sci. 28, 214 (2003).

Kolobkova, E.

A. Lipovskii, E. Kolobkova, and V. Petrikov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3406 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Konieczny, P.

J. Swiderski, A. Zajac, M. Skorczakowski, Z. Jankiewicz, and P. Konieczny, Opto-Electron. Rev. 12, 169 (2004).

Krauss, T. D.

H. Du, C. Chen, R. Krishnan, T. D. Krauss, J. M. Harbold, F. W. Wise, M. G. Thomas, and J. Silcox, Nano Lett. 2, 1321 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Krishnan, R.

H. Du, C. Chen, R. Krishnan, T. D. Krauss, J. M. Harbold, F. W. Wise, M. G. Thomas, and J. Silcox, Nano Lett. 2, 1321 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Li, X.

Q. Dai, Y. Wang, X. Li, Y. Zhang, D. J. Pellegrino, M. Zhao, B. Zou, J. Seo, Y. Wang, and W. W. Yu, ACS Nano 3, 1518 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, A.

P. R. Watekar, A. Lin, S. Ju, and W. Han, “Special application fibers,” presented at the Conference on Optical Fiber Communication, Collocated National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference OFC/NFOEC 2008, February 27, 2008.

Lipovskii, A.

A. Lipovskii, E. Kolobkova, and V. Petrikov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3406 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Meissner, K. E.

K. E. Meissner, C. Holton, and W. B. Spillman, Physica E (Amsterdam) 26, 377 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ohmori, M.

M. Ohmori, S. Kawanishi, M. Tanaka, and H. Sakaki, “Joint session with PCF and CHIP: highly nonlinear fibers,” presented at the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (LEOS), January 14, 2008.

Pellegrino, D. J.

Q. Dai, Y. Wang, X. Li, Y. Zhang, D. J. Pellegrino, M. Zhao, B. Zou, J. Seo, Y. Wang, and W. W. Yu, ACS Nano 3, 1518 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Petrikov, V.

A. Lipovskii, E. Kolobkova, and V. Petrikov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3406 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pietryga, J. M.

J. M. Pietryga, R. D. Schaller, D. Werder, M. H. Stewart, V. I. Klimov, and J. A. Hollingsworth, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126, 11752 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sakaki, H.

M. Ohmori, S. Kawanishi, M. Tanaka, and H. Sakaki, “Joint session with PCF and CHIP: highly nonlinear fibers,” presented at the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (LEOS), January 14, 2008.

Schaller, R. D.

J. M. Pietryga, R. D. Schaller, D. Werder, M. H. Stewart, V. I. Klimov, and J. A. Hollingsworth, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126, 11752 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seo, J.

Q. Dai, Y. Wang, X. Li, Y. Zhang, D. J. Pellegrino, M. Zhao, B. Zou, J. Seo, Y. Wang, and W. W. Yu, ACS Nano 3, 1518 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shih, B. S.

W. Yu, J. C. Falkner, B. S. Shih, and V. L. Colvin, Chem. Mater. 16, 3318 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Silcox, J.

H. Du, C. Chen, R. Krishnan, T. D. Krauss, J. M. Harbold, F. W. Wise, M. G. Thomas, and J. Silcox, Nano Lett. 2, 1321 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Skorczakowski, M.

J. Swiderski, A. Zajac, M. Skorczakowski, Z. Jankiewicz, and P. Konieczny, Opto-Electron. Rev. 12, 169 (2004).

Spillman, W. B.

K. E. Meissner, C. Holton, and W. B. Spillman, Physica E (Amsterdam) 26, 377 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Stewart, M. H.

J. M. Pietryga, R. D. Schaller, D. Werder, M. H. Stewart, V. I. Klimov, and J. A. Hollingsworth, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126, 11752 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swiderski, J.

J. Swiderski, A. Zajac, M. Skorczakowski, Z. Jankiewicz, and P. Konieczny, Opto-Electron. Rev. 12, 169 (2004).

Tanaka, M.

M. Ohmori, S. Kawanishi, M. Tanaka, and H. Sakaki, “Joint session with PCF and CHIP: highly nonlinear fibers,” presented at the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (LEOS), January 14, 2008.

Thomas, M. G.

H. Du, C. Chen, R. Krishnan, T. D. Krauss, J. M. Harbold, F. W. Wise, M. G. Thomas, and J. Silcox, Nano Lett. 2, 1321 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

Q. Dai, Y. Wang, X. Li, Y. Zhang, D. J. Pellegrino, M. Zhao, B. Zou, J. Seo, Y. Wang, and W. W. Yu, ACS Nano 3, 1518 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Dai, Y. Wang, X. Li, Y. Zhang, D. J. Pellegrino, M. Zhao, B. Zou, J. Seo, Y. Wang, and W. W. Yu, ACS Nano 3, 1518 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Watekar, P. R.

P. R. Watekar, A. Lin, S. Ju, and W. Han, “Special application fibers,” presented at the Conference on Optical Fiber Communication, Collocated National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference OFC/NFOEC 2008, February 27, 2008.

Werder, D.

J. M. Pietryga, R. D. Schaller, D. Werder, M. H. Stewart, V. I. Klimov, and J. A. Hollingsworth, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126, 11752 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wise, F. W.

H. Du, C. Chen, R. Krishnan, T. D. Krauss, J. M. Harbold, F. W. Wise, M. G. Thomas, and J. Silcox, Nano Lett. 2, 1321 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yu, W.

W. Yu, J. C. Falkner, B. S. Shih, and V. L. Colvin, Chem. Mater. 16, 3318 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yu, W. W.

Q. Dai, Y. Wang, X. Li, Y. Zhang, D. J. Pellegrino, M. Zhao, B. Zou, J. Seo, Y. Wang, and W. W. Yu, ACS Nano 3, 1518 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zajac, A.

J. Swiderski, A. Zajac, M. Skorczakowski, Z. Jankiewicz, and P. Konieczny, Opto-Electron. Rev. 12, 169 (2004).

Zhang, Y.

Q. Dai, Y. Wang, X. Li, Y. Zhang, D. J. Pellegrino, M. Zhao, B. Zou, J. Seo, Y. Wang, and W. W. Yu, ACS Nano 3, 1518 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, M.

Q. Dai, Y. Wang, X. Li, Y. Zhang, D. J. Pellegrino, M. Zhao, B. Zou, J. Seo, Y. Wang, and W. W. Yu, ACS Nano 3, 1518 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zou, B.

Q. Dai, Y. Wang, X. Li, Y. Zhang, D. J. Pellegrino, M. Zhao, B. Zou, J. Seo, Y. Wang, and W. W. Yu, ACS Nano 3, 1518 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

ACS Nano (1)

Q. Dai, Y. Wang, X. Li, Y. Zhang, D. J. Pellegrino, M. Zhao, B. Zou, J. Seo, Y. Wang, and W. W. Yu, ACS Nano 3, 1518 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. Lipovskii, E. Kolobkova, and V. Petrikov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3406 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Mater. (1)

W. Yu, J. C. Falkner, B. S. Shih, and V. L. Colvin, Chem. Mater. 16, 3318 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

J. M. Pietryga, R. D. Schaller, D. Werder, M. H. Stewart, V. I. Klimov, and J. A. Hollingsworth, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126, 11752 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Los Alamos Sci. (1)

V. I. Klimov, Los Alamos Sci. 28, 214 (2003).

Nano Lett. (1)

H. Du, C. Chen, R. Krishnan, T. D. Krauss, J. M. Harbold, F. W. Wise, M. G. Thomas, and J. Silcox, Nano Lett. 2, 1321 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opto-Electron. Rev. (1)

J. Swiderski, A. Zajac, M. Skorczakowski, Z. Jankiewicz, and P. Konieczny, Opto-Electron. Rev. 12, 169 (2004).

Physica E (Amsterdam) (1)

K. E. Meissner, C. Holton, and W. B. Spillman, Physica E (Amsterdam) 26, 377 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

M. Ohmori, S. Kawanishi, M. Tanaka, and H. Sakaki, “Joint session with PCF and CHIP: highly nonlinear fibers,” presented at the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (LEOS), January 14, 2008.

P. R. Watekar, A. Lin, S. Ju, and W. Han, “Special application fibers,” presented at the Conference on Optical Fiber Communication, Collocated National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference OFC/NFOEC 2008, February 27, 2008.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

TEM image of the black 3.5 nm PbSe nanocrystal sample after synthesis, and the corresponding emission and absorption spectra.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measured attenuation of the QDs fiber (black curve). The normalized absorption spectrum of toluene media (gray curve) is shown for comparison. Inset: optical image of a silica capillary filled with liquid nanoparticle solution ( 3.5 nm PbSe dissolved in toluene) and its equivalent step refractive index profile.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Evolution of the spectra recorded at the output of the 40 cm liquid-core fiber for varying input power. Inset: near-field pattern recorded at the fiber output, demonstrating light propagation in the liquid core by the total internal reflection in multimode behavior.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Emission spectra recorded for different fiber lengths L (0, 20, 40, 60, and 100 cm ) at a fixed pump power (linear scale). The length noted at zero corresponds to the measurement obtained for QDs not incorporated into the fiber core, studied inside a cuvette (“free QDs”). (inset) Evolution of the emission peak for the varying fiber lengths. (b) Comparison of the characteristics of “free QDs” versus QDs that are incorporated inside the 25 μm core fiber for L = 40 cm .

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