Abstract

We investigate a set of transparent organic LEDs (TOLEDs) with different organic capping layer (OC) thicknesses to understand the capping layer effect. We find that thickness variation of the OC strongly influences the emission properties of TOLEDs and exhibits different trends for top or bottom emission. The external quantum efficiency for the top side can be enhanced by a factor of 63%, but that of the bottom side only by 4% compared to a reference device without an OC. Additionally, we demonstrate that the introduction of the OC is an effective method to control the bottom-to-top emission ratio within a measured range from 2.87 to 6.05.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, Nature 459, 234 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. G. Gu, V. Bulovic, P. E. Burrows, and S. R. Forrest, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2606 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  3. X. Zhou, M. Pfeiffer, J. S. Huang, J. Blochwitz-Nimoth, D. S. Qin, A. Werner, J. Dreshsel, B. Maennig, and K. Leo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 922 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  4. H. Riel, S. Karg, T. Beierlein, B. Ruhstaller, and W. Riess, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 466 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  5. L. S. Hung, C. W. Tang, M. G. Mason, P. Raychaudhuri, and J. Madathil, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 544 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Q. Huang, K. Walzer, M. Pfeiffer, V. Lyssenko, G. He, and K. Leo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 113515 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Q. Huang, K. Walzer, M. Pfeiffer, M. Hofmann, T. Stübinger, and K. Leo, J. Appl. Phys. 100, 064507 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. Hofmann, M. Thomschke, P. Freitag, M. Furno, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 253308 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Furno, R. Meerhein, M. Thomschke, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, Proc. SPIE 7617, 761716 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Lee, S. Hofmann, M. Furno, M. Thomschke, Y. H. Kim, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Systematic investigation of transparent organic light-emitting diodes depending on top metal electrode thickness,” submitted to Organic Electronics.
  11. S. Reineke, K. Walzer, and K. Leo, Phys. Rev. B 75, 125328 (2007).
    [CrossRef]

2010

S. Hofmann, M. Thomschke, P. Freitag, M. Furno, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 253308 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Furno, R. Meerhein, M. Thomschke, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, Proc. SPIE 7617, 761716 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, Nature 459, 234 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

S. Reineke, K. Walzer, and K. Leo, Phys. Rev. B 75, 125328 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

Q. Huang, K. Walzer, M. Pfeiffer, V. Lyssenko, G. He, and K. Leo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 113515 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Q. Huang, K. Walzer, M. Pfeiffer, M. Hofmann, T. Stübinger, and K. Leo, J. Appl. Phys. 100, 064507 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2003

H. Riel, S. Karg, T. Beierlein, B. Ruhstaller, and W. Riess, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 466 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

X. Zhou, M. Pfeiffer, J. S. Huang, J. Blochwitz-Nimoth, D. S. Qin, A. Werner, J. Dreshsel, B. Maennig, and K. Leo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 922 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

L. S. Hung, C. W. Tang, M. G. Mason, P. Raychaudhuri, and J. Madathil, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 544 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1996

G. Gu, V. Bulovic, P. E. Burrows, and S. R. Forrest, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2606 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Beierlein, T.

H. Riel, S. Karg, T. Beierlein, B. Ruhstaller, and W. Riess, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 466 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Blochwitz-Nimoth, J.

X. Zhou, M. Pfeiffer, J. S. Huang, J. Blochwitz-Nimoth, D. S. Qin, A. Werner, J. Dreshsel, B. Maennig, and K. Leo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 922 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bulovic, V.

G. Gu, V. Bulovic, P. E. Burrows, and S. R. Forrest, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2606 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Burrows, P. E.

G. Gu, V. Bulovic, P. E. Burrows, and S. R. Forrest, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2606 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dreshsel, J.

X. Zhou, M. Pfeiffer, J. S. Huang, J. Blochwitz-Nimoth, D. S. Qin, A. Werner, J. Dreshsel, B. Maennig, and K. Leo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 922 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Forrest, S. R.

G. Gu, V. Bulovic, P. E. Burrows, and S. R. Forrest, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2606 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Freitag, P.

S. Hofmann, M. Thomschke, P. Freitag, M. Furno, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 253308 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Furno, M.

S. Hofmann, M. Thomschke, P. Freitag, M. Furno, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 253308 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Furno, R. Meerhein, M. Thomschke, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, Proc. SPIE 7617, 761716 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Lee, S. Hofmann, M. Furno, M. Thomschke, Y. H. Kim, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Systematic investigation of transparent organic light-emitting diodes depending on top metal electrode thickness,” submitted to Organic Electronics.

Gu, G.

G. Gu, V. Bulovic, P. E. Burrows, and S. R. Forrest, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2606 (1996).
[CrossRef]

He, G.

Q. Huang, K. Walzer, M. Pfeiffer, V. Lyssenko, G. He, and K. Leo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 113515 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hofmann, M.

Q. Huang, K. Walzer, M. Pfeiffer, M. Hofmann, T. Stübinger, and K. Leo, J. Appl. Phys. 100, 064507 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hofmann, S.

S. Hofmann, M. Thomschke, P. Freitag, M. Furno, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 253308 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Furno, R. Meerhein, M. Thomschke, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, Proc. SPIE 7617, 761716 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Lee, S. Hofmann, M. Furno, M. Thomschke, Y. H. Kim, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Systematic investigation of transparent organic light-emitting diodes depending on top metal electrode thickness,” submitted to Organic Electronics.

Huang, J. S.

X. Zhou, M. Pfeiffer, J. S. Huang, J. Blochwitz-Nimoth, D. S. Qin, A. Werner, J. Dreshsel, B. Maennig, and K. Leo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 922 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Q.

Q. Huang, K. Walzer, M. Pfeiffer, V. Lyssenko, G. He, and K. Leo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 113515 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Q. Huang, K. Walzer, M. Pfeiffer, M. Hofmann, T. Stübinger, and K. Leo, J. Appl. Phys. 100, 064507 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hung, L. S.

L. S. Hung, C. W. Tang, M. G. Mason, P. Raychaudhuri, and J. Madathil, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 544 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Karg, S.

H. Riel, S. Karg, T. Beierlein, B. Ruhstaller, and W. Riess, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 466 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y. H.

J. Lee, S. Hofmann, M. Furno, M. Thomschke, Y. H. Kim, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Systematic investigation of transparent organic light-emitting diodes depending on top metal electrode thickness,” submitted to Organic Electronics.

Lee, J.

J. Lee, S. Hofmann, M. Furno, M. Thomschke, Y. H. Kim, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Systematic investigation of transparent organic light-emitting diodes depending on top metal electrode thickness,” submitted to Organic Electronics.

Leo, K.

M. Furno, R. Meerhein, M. Thomschke, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, Proc. SPIE 7617, 761716 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Hofmann, M. Thomschke, P. Freitag, M. Furno, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 253308 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, Nature 459, 234 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Reineke, K. Walzer, and K. Leo, Phys. Rev. B 75, 125328 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Q. Huang, K. Walzer, M. Pfeiffer, M. Hofmann, T. Stübinger, and K. Leo, J. Appl. Phys. 100, 064507 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Q. Huang, K. Walzer, M. Pfeiffer, V. Lyssenko, G. He, and K. Leo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 113515 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhou, M. Pfeiffer, J. S. Huang, J. Blochwitz-Nimoth, D. S. Qin, A. Werner, J. Dreshsel, B. Maennig, and K. Leo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 922 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Lee, S. Hofmann, M. Furno, M. Thomschke, Y. H. Kim, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Systematic investigation of transparent organic light-emitting diodes depending on top metal electrode thickness,” submitted to Organic Electronics.

Lindner, F.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, Nature 459, 234 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lüssem, B.

M. Furno, R. Meerhein, M. Thomschke, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, Proc. SPIE 7617, 761716 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Hofmann, M. Thomschke, P. Freitag, M. Furno, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 253308 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, Nature 459, 234 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Lee, S. Hofmann, M. Furno, M. Thomschke, Y. H. Kim, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Systematic investigation of transparent organic light-emitting diodes depending on top metal electrode thickness,” submitted to Organic Electronics.

Lyssenko, V.

Q. Huang, K. Walzer, M. Pfeiffer, V. Lyssenko, G. He, and K. Leo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 113515 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Madathil, J.

L. S. Hung, C. W. Tang, M. G. Mason, P. Raychaudhuri, and J. Madathil, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 544 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Maennig, B.

X. Zhou, M. Pfeiffer, J. S. Huang, J. Blochwitz-Nimoth, D. S. Qin, A. Werner, J. Dreshsel, B. Maennig, and K. Leo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 922 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mason, M. G.

L. S. Hung, C. W. Tang, M. G. Mason, P. Raychaudhuri, and J. Madathil, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 544 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Meerhein, R.

M. Furno, R. Meerhein, M. Thomschke, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, Proc. SPIE 7617, 761716 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pfeiffer, M.

Q. Huang, K. Walzer, M. Pfeiffer, M. Hofmann, T. Stübinger, and K. Leo, J. Appl. Phys. 100, 064507 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Q. Huang, K. Walzer, M. Pfeiffer, V. Lyssenko, G. He, and K. Leo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 113515 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhou, M. Pfeiffer, J. S. Huang, J. Blochwitz-Nimoth, D. S. Qin, A. Werner, J. Dreshsel, B. Maennig, and K. Leo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 922 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Qin, D. S.

X. Zhou, M. Pfeiffer, J. S. Huang, J. Blochwitz-Nimoth, D. S. Qin, A. Werner, J. Dreshsel, B. Maennig, and K. Leo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 922 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Raychaudhuri, P.

L. S. Hung, C. W. Tang, M. G. Mason, P. Raychaudhuri, and J. Madathil, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 544 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Reineke, S.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, Nature 459, 234 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Reineke, K. Walzer, and K. Leo, Phys. Rev. B 75, 125328 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Riel, H.

H. Riel, S. Karg, T. Beierlein, B. Ruhstaller, and W. Riess, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 466 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Riess, W.

H. Riel, S. Karg, T. Beierlein, B. Ruhstaller, and W. Riess, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 466 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ruhstaller, B.

H. Riel, S. Karg, T. Beierlein, B. Ruhstaller, and W. Riess, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 466 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schwartz, G.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, Nature 459, 234 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seidler, N.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, Nature 459, 234 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stübinger, T.

Q. Huang, K. Walzer, M. Pfeiffer, M. Hofmann, T. Stübinger, and K. Leo, J. Appl. Phys. 100, 064507 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tang, C. W.

L. S. Hung, C. W. Tang, M. G. Mason, P. Raychaudhuri, and J. Madathil, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 544 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Thomschke, M.

M. Furno, R. Meerhein, M. Thomschke, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, Proc. SPIE 7617, 761716 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Hofmann, M. Thomschke, P. Freitag, M. Furno, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 253308 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Lee, S. Hofmann, M. Furno, M. Thomschke, Y. H. Kim, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Systematic investigation of transparent organic light-emitting diodes depending on top metal electrode thickness,” submitted to Organic Electronics.

Walzer, K.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, Nature 459, 234 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Reineke, K. Walzer, and K. Leo, Phys. Rev. B 75, 125328 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Q. Huang, K. Walzer, M. Pfeiffer, M. Hofmann, T. Stübinger, and K. Leo, J. Appl. Phys. 100, 064507 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Q. Huang, K. Walzer, M. Pfeiffer, V. Lyssenko, G. He, and K. Leo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 113515 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Werner, A.

X. Zhou, M. Pfeiffer, J. S. Huang, J. Blochwitz-Nimoth, D. S. Qin, A. Werner, J. Dreshsel, B. Maennig, and K. Leo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 922 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, X.

X. Zhou, M. Pfeiffer, J. S. Huang, J. Blochwitz-Nimoth, D. S. Qin, A. Werner, J. Dreshsel, B. Maennig, and K. Leo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 922 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

G. Gu, V. Bulovic, P. E. Burrows, and S. R. Forrest, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2606 (1996).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhou, M. Pfeiffer, J. S. Huang, J. Blochwitz-Nimoth, D. S. Qin, A. Werner, J. Dreshsel, B. Maennig, and K. Leo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 922 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Riel, S. Karg, T. Beierlein, B. Ruhstaller, and W. Riess, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 466 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Hung, C. W. Tang, M. G. Mason, P. Raychaudhuri, and J. Madathil, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 544 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Q. Huang, K. Walzer, M. Pfeiffer, V. Lyssenko, G. He, and K. Leo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 113515 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Hofmann, M. Thomschke, P. Freitag, M. Furno, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 253308 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

Q. Huang, K. Walzer, M. Pfeiffer, M. Hofmann, T. Stübinger, and K. Leo, J. Appl. Phys. 100, 064507 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nature

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, Nature 459, 234 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. B

S. Reineke, K. Walzer, and K. Leo, Phys. Rev. B 75, 125328 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

M. Furno, R. Meerhein, M. Thomschke, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, Proc. SPIE 7617, 761716 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Other

J. Lee, S. Hofmann, M. Furno, M. Thomschke, Y. H. Kim, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Systematic investigation of transparent organic light-emitting diodes depending on top metal electrode thickness,” submitted to Organic Electronics.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Current density versus voltage ( J V ) and voltage versus luminance ( V L ) characteristics of (a) bottom side and (b) top side.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Current efficiency versus current density characteristics of (a) bottom side and (b) top side (inset, electroluminance spectra).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Normalized radiance versus viewing angle of (a) bottom side and (b) top side (inset, normalized radiant intensity).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) External quantum efficiency trends at a driving current density of 1 mA / cm 2 and (b) enhancement ratio for bottom, top, and both sides.

Metrics