Abstract

This Letter reports on new methods and a consistent model for voltage tunable optical transmission gratings. Elastomeric gratings were molded from holographically written surface relief gratings in an azobenzene sol-gel material. These were placed on top of a transparent electroactive elastomeric substrate. Two different electro-active substrate elastomers were employed, with a large range of prestretches. A novel finite-deformation theory was found to match the device response excellently, without fitting parameters. The results clearly show that the grating underwent pure-shear deformation, and more surprisingly, that the mechanical properties of the electro-active substrate did not affect device actuation.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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2009 (4)

M. Molberg, Y. Leterrier, C. J. G. Plummer, C. Walder, C. Löwe, D. M. Opris, F. A. Nüesch, S. Bauer, and J.-A. E. Månson, J. Appl. Phys. 106, 054112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. N. McCarthy, S. Risse, P. Katekomol, and G. Kofod, J. Phys. D 42, 145406 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Kollosche, M. Melzer, A. Becker, H. Stoyanov, D. N. McCarthy, H. Ragusch, and G. Kofod, Proc. SPIE 7287, 728729 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Kofod, D. N. McCarthy, J. Krissler, G. Lang, and G. Jordan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 202901 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

O. Kulikovska, L. M. Goldenberg, L. Kulikovsky, and J. Stumpe, Chem. Mater. 20, 3528 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

M. Aschwanden, M. Beck, and A. Stemmer, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1090 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O. Kulikovska, L. M. Goldenberg, and J. Stumpe, Chem. Mater. 19, 3343 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

2003 (1)

G. Kofod, P. Sommer-Larsen, R. Kornbluh, and R. Pelrine, J. Intell. Mater. Syst. Struct. 14, 787 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

J. L. Wilbur, R. J. Jackman, G. M. Whitesides, E. L. Cheung, L. K. Lee, and M. G. Prentiss, Chem. Mater. 8, 1380 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

T. Suhara and H. Nishihara, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22, 845 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Aschwanden, M.

M. Aschwanden, M. Beck, and A. Stemmer, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1090 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Aschwanden and A. Stemmer, Opt. Lett. 31, 2610 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ashley, P. R.

Aydinli, A.

Bauer, S.

M. Molberg, Y. Leterrier, C. J. G. Plummer, C. Walder, C. Löwe, D. M. Opris, F. A. Nüesch, S. Bauer, and J.-A. E. Månson, J. Appl. Phys. 106, 054112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Beck, M.

M. Aschwanden, M. Beck, and A. Stemmer, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1090 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Becker, A.

M. Kollosche, M. Melzer, A. Becker, H. Stoyanov, D. N. McCarthy, H. Ragusch, and G. Kofod, Proc. SPIE 7287, 728729 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cheung, E. L.

J. L. Wilbur, R. J. Jackman, G. M. Whitesides, E. L. Cheung, L. K. Lee, and M. G. Prentiss, Chem. Mater. 8, 1380 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Goldenberg, L. M.

O. Kulikovska, L. M. Goldenberg, L. Kulikovsky, and J. Stumpe, Chem. Mater. 20, 3528 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O. Kulikovska, L. M. Goldenberg, and J. Stumpe, Chem. Mater. 19, 3343 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Stumpe, O. Kulikovska, L. M. Goldenberg, and Y. Zakrevskyy, in Smart Light-Responsive Materials: Azobenzene-Containing Polymers and Liquid Crystals, Y.Zhao and T.Ikeda, eds. (Wiley, 2008), pp. 47–94.

Huang, Q.

Jackman, R. J.

J. L. Wilbur, R. J. Jackman, G. M. Whitesides, E. L. Cheung, L. K. Lee, and M. G. Prentiss, Chem. Mater. 8, 1380 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jordan, G.

G. Kofod, D. N. McCarthy, J. Krissler, G. Lang, and G. Jordan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 202901 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Katekomol, P.

D. N. McCarthy, S. Risse, P. Katekomol, and G. Kofod, J. Phys. D 42, 145406 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kocabas, A.

Kofod, G.

G. Kofod, D. N. McCarthy, J. Krissler, G. Lang, and G. Jordan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 202901 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Kollosche, M. Melzer, A. Becker, H. Stoyanov, D. N. McCarthy, H. Ragusch, and G. Kofod, Proc. SPIE 7287, 728729 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. N. McCarthy, S. Risse, P. Katekomol, and G. Kofod, J. Phys. D 42, 145406 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Kofod, P. Sommer-Larsen, R. Kornbluh, and R. Pelrine, J. Intell. Mater. Syst. Struct. 14, 787 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kollosche, M.

M. Kollosche, M. Melzer, A. Becker, H. Stoyanov, D. N. McCarthy, H. Ragusch, and G. Kofod, Proc. SPIE 7287, 728729 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kornbluh, R.

G. Kofod, P. Sommer-Larsen, R. Kornbluh, and R. Pelrine, J. Intell. Mater. Syst. Struct. 14, 787 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Krissler, J.

G. Kofod, D. N. McCarthy, J. Krissler, G. Lang, and G. Jordan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 202901 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kulikovska, O.

O. Kulikovska, L. M. Goldenberg, L. Kulikovsky, and J. Stumpe, Chem. Mater. 20, 3528 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O. Kulikovska, L. M. Goldenberg, and J. Stumpe, Chem. Mater. 19, 3343 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Stumpe, O. Kulikovska, L. M. Goldenberg, and Y. Zakrevskyy, in Smart Light-Responsive Materials: Azobenzene-Containing Polymers and Liquid Crystals, Y.Zhao and T.Ikeda, eds. (Wiley, 2008), pp. 47–94.

Kulikovsky, L.

O. Kulikovska, L. M. Goldenberg, L. Kulikovsky, and J. Stumpe, Chem. Mater. 20, 3528 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lacour, D.

Lang, G.

G. Kofod, D. N. McCarthy, J. Krissler, G. Lang, and G. Jordan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 202901 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, L. K.

J. L. Wilbur, R. J. Jackman, G. M. Whitesides, E. L. Cheung, L. K. Lee, and M. G. Prentiss, Chem. Mater. 8, 1380 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Leterrier, Y.

M. Molberg, Y. Leterrier, C. J. G. Plummer, C. Walder, C. Löwe, D. M. Opris, F. A. Nüesch, S. Bauer, and J.-A. E. Månson, J. Appl. Phys. 106, 054112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Löwe, C.

M. Molberg, Y. Leterrier, C. J. G. Plummer, C. Walder, C. Löwe, D. M. Opris, F. A. Nüesch, S. Bauer, and J.-A. E. Månson, J. Appl. Phys. 106, 054112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Månson, J.-A. E.

M. Molberg, Y. Leterrier, C. J. G. Plummer, C. Walder, C. Löwe, D. M. Opris, F. A. Nüesch, S. Bauer, and J.-A. E. Månson, J. Appl. Phys. 106, 054112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

McCarthy, D. N.

D. N. McCarthy, S. Risse, P. Katekomol, and G. Kofod, J. Phys. D 42, 145406 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Kollosche, M. Melzer, A. Becker, H. Stoyanov, D. N. McCarthy, H. Ragusch, and G. Kofod, Proc. SPIE 7287, 728729 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Kofod, D. N. McCarthy, J. Krissler, G. Lang, and G. Jordan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 202901 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Melzer, M.

M. Kollosche, M. Melzer, A. Becker, H. Stoyanov, D. N. McCarthy, H. Ragusch, and G. Kofod, Proc. SPIE 7287, 728729 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Molberg, M.

M. Molberg, Y. Leterrier, C. J. G. Plummer, C. Walder, C. Löwe, D. M. Opris, F. A. Nüesch, S. Bauer, and J.-A. E. Månson, J. Appl. Phys. 106, 054112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mure-Ravaud, A.

Nishihara, H.

T. Suhara and H. Nishihara, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22, 845 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Nüesch, F. A.

M. Molberg, Y. Leterrier, C. J. G. Plummer, C. Walder, C. Löwe, D. M. Opris, F. A. Nüesch, S. Bauer, and J.-A. E. Månson, J. Appl. Phys. 106, 054112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opris, D. M.

M. Molberg, Y. Leterrier, C. J. G. Plummer, C. Walder, C. Löwe, D. M. Opris, F. A. Nüesch, S. Bauer, and J.-A. E. Månson, J. Appl. Phys. 106, 054112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pelrine, R.

G. Kofod, P. Sommer-Larsen, R. Kornbluh, and R. Pelrine, J. Intell. Mater. Syst. Struct. 14, 787 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Plummer, C. J. G.

M. Molberg, Y. Leterrier, C. J. G. Plummer, C. Walder, C. Löwe, D. M. Opris, F. A. Nüesch, S. Bauer, and J.-A. E. Månson, J. Appl. Phys. 106, 054112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Prentiss, M. G.

J. L. Wilbur, R. J. Jackman, G. M. Whitesides, E. L. Cheung, L. K. Lee, and M. G. Prentiss, Chem. Mater. 8, 1380 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ragusch, H.

M. Kollosche, M. Melzer, A. Becker, H. Stoyanov, D. N. McCarthy, H. Ragusch, and G. Kofod, Proc. SPIE 7287, 728729 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Risse, S.

D. N. McCarthy, S. Risse, P. Katekomol, and G. Kofod, J. Phys. D 42, 145406 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Robert, S.

Sommer-Larsen, P.

G. Kofod, P. Sommer-Larsen, R. Kornbluh, and R. Pelrine, J. Intell. Mater. Syst. Struct. 14, 787 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Stemmer, A.

M. Aschwanden, M. Beck, and A. Stemmer, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1090 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Aschwanden and A. Stemmer, Opt. Lett. 31, 2610 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stoyanov, H.

M. Kollosche, M. Melzer, A. Becker, H. Stoyanov, D. N. McCarthy, H. Ragusch, and G. Kofod, Proc. SPIE 7287, 728729 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Stumpe, J.

O. Kulikovska, L. M. Goldenberg, L. Kulikovsky, and J. Stumpe, Chem. Mater. 20, 3528 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O. Kulikovska, L. M. Goldenberg, and J. Stumpe, Chem. Mater. 19, 3343 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Stumpe, O. Kulikovska, L. M. Goldenberg, and Y. Zakrevskyy, in Smart Light-Responsive Materials: Azobenzene-Containing Polymers and Liquid Crystals, Y.Zhao and T.Ikeda, eds. (Wiley, 2008), pp. 47–94.

Suhara, T.

T. Suhara and H. Nishihara, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22, 845 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Walder, C.

M. Molberg, Y. Leterrier, C. J. G. Plummer, C. Walder, C. Löwe, D. M. Opris, F. A. Nüesch, S. Bauer, and J.-A. E. Månson, J. Appl. Phys. 106, 054112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Whitesides, G. M.

J. L. Wilbur, R. J. Jackman, G. M. Whitesides, E. L. Cheung, L. K. Lee, and M. G. Prentiss, Chem. Mater. 8, 1380 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wilbur, J. L.

J. L. Wilbur, R. J. Jackman, G. M. Whitesides, E. L. Cheung, L. K. Lee, and M. G. Prentiss, Chem. Mater. 8, 1380 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Zakrevskyy, Y.

J. Stumpe, O. Kulikovska, L. M. Goldenberg, and Y. Zakrevskyy, in Smart Light-Responsive Materials: Azobenzene-Containing Polymers and Liquid Crystals, Y.Zhao and T.Ikeda, eds. (Wiley, 2008), pp. 47–94.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

G. Kofod, D. N. McCarthy, J. Krissler, G. Lang, and G. Jordan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 202901 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Mater. (3)

J. L. Wilbur, R. J. Jackman, G. M. Whitesides, E. L. Cheung, L. K. Lee, and M. G. Prentiss, Chem. Mater. 8, 1380 (1996).
[CrossRef]

O. Kulikovska, L. M. Goldenberg, and J. Stumpe, Chem. Mater. 19, 3343 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O. Kulikovska, L. M. Goldenberg, L. Kulikovsky, and J. Stumpe, Chem. Mater. 20, 3528 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

T. Suhara and H. Nishihara, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22, 845 (1986).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

M. Aschwanden, M. Beck, and A. Stemmer, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1090 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. Molberg, Y. Leterrier, C. J. G. Plummer, C. Walder, C. Löwe, D. M. Opris, F. A. Nüesch, S. Bauer, and J.-A. E. Månson, J. Appl. Phys. 106, 054112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Intell. Mater. Syst. Struct. (1)

G. Kofod, P. Sommer-Larsen, R. Kornbluh, and R. Pelrine, J. Intell. Mater. Syst. Struct. 14, 787 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Phys. D (1)

D. N. McCarthy, S. Risse, P. Katekomol, and G. Kofod, J. Phys. D 42, 145406 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (1)

M. Kollosche, M. Melzer, A. Becker, H. Stoyanov, D. N. McCarthy, H. Ragusch, and G. Kofod, Proc. SPIE 7287, 728729 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

J. Stumpe, O. Kulikovska, L. M. Goldenberg, and Y. Zakrevskyy, in Smart Light-Responsive Materials: Azobenzene-Containing Polymers and Liquid Crystals, Y.Zhao and T.Ikeda, eds. (Wiley, 2008), pp. 47–94.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Design of DEA with elastic diffractive optical element; (b) AFM picture and (c) extracted line profile of holographically written SRG (grating period 1.3 μm and grating depth 350 nm ); (d) force model and (e) deformation measures for the finite-deformation theory.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Relative deformation of grating due to applied voltage. Measured for VHB and SEBS with different prestretches λ q (indicated) and for grating thicknesses of 75 μm . All curves display the parabolic shape.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Calculated apparent modulus M a with θ ( 2 ϕ ) to determine the modulus M G of the surface grating.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

f A = ( M q s A ε 0 ε r ( U x 3 A ) 2 ) x 2 A * x 3 A ,
s G = ε 0 ε r E 2 θ M G ( 2 ϕ ) + 2 M q ε 0 ε r E 2 M a .

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