Abstract

A microfabricated phase Fresnel lens was used to image ytterbium ions trapped in a radio frequency Paul trap. The ions were laser cooled close to the Doppler limit on the 369.5nm transition, reducing the ion motion so that each ion formed a near point source. By detecting the ion fluorescence on the same transition, near-diffraction- limited imaging with spot sizes of below 440nm (FWHM) was achieved. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of wavelength-scale imaging of trapped ions and the highest imaging resolution ever achieved with atoms in free space.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  2. J. I. Cirac and P. Zoller, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 4091 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. D. Kielpinski, C. Monroe, and D. Wineland, Nature 417, 709 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. J. García-Ripoll, P. Zoller, and J. I. Cirac, J. Phys. B 38, S567 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. M. Amini, H. Uys, J. H. Wesenberg, S. Seidelin, J. Britton, J. J. Bollinger, D. Leibfried, C. Ospelkaus, A. P. VanDevender, and D. J. Wineland, New J. Phys. 12, 033031(2010).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. Kielpinski, J. Opt. B 5, R121 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. W. Chou, D. B. Hume, T. Rosenband, and D. J. Wineland, Science 329, 1630 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. M. J. Biercuk, H. Uys, J. W. Britton, A. P. VanDevender, and J. J. Bollinger, Nat. Nanotechnol. 5, 646 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. R. Gerritsma, G. Kirchmair, F. Zähringer, E. Solano, R. Blatt, and C. Roos, Nature 463, 68 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. K. Vahala, M. Herrmann, S. Knünz, V. Batteiger, G. Saathoff, T. Hänsch, and T. Udem, Nat. Phys. 5, 682 (2009).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  15. M. Sondermann, R. Maiwald, H. Konermann, N. Lindlein, U. Peschel, and G. Leuchs, Appl. Phys. B 89, 489(2007).
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  16. G. Shu, N. Kurz, M. R. Dietrich, and B. B. Blinov, Phys. Rev. A 81, 042321 (2010).
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  17. E. W. Streed, B. G. Norton, J. J. Chapman, and D. Kielpinski, Quantum Inf. Comput. 9, 0203 (2009).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  21. L.-M. Duan and C. Monroe, Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 1209 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  22. J. P. Hadden, J. P. Harrison, A. C. Stanley-Clarke, L. Marseglia, Y.-L. D. Ho, B. R. Patton, J. L. O’Brien, and J. G. Rarity, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 241901 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  25. D. Kielpinski, M. Cetina, J. A. Cox, and F. X. Kärtner, Opt. Lett. 31, 757 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. This is in contrast to the often used approximation NA≈d/2f, which would give an NA of 0.83 in our case.
  27. J. J. Chapman, B. G. Norton, E. W. Streed, and D. Kielpinski, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 095106 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. D. F. V. James, Appl. Phys. B 66, 181 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  29. B. G. Norton, E. W. Streed, A. Jechow, M. J. Petrasiunas, and D. Kielpinski are preparing a manuscript to be called “High-resolution spatial thermometry of trapped ions.”

2011

E. W. Streed, B. G. Norton, A. Jechow, T. J. Weinhold, and D. Kielpinski, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 010502 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

L.-M. Duan and C. Monroe, Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 1209 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Hadden, J. P. Harrison, A. C. Stanley-Clarke, L. Marseglia, Y.-L. D. Ho, B. R. Patton, J. L. O’Brien, and J. G. Rarity, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 241901 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Chou, D. B. Hume, T. Rosenband, and D. J. Wineland, Science 329, 1630 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Biercuk, H. Uys, J. W. Britton, A. P. VanDevender, and J. J. Bollinger, Nat. Nanotechnol. 5, 646 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Gerritsma, G. Kirchmair, F. Zähringer, E. Solano, R. Blatt, and C. Roos, Nature 463, 68 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Harlander, M. Brownnutt, W. Hänsel, and R. Blatt, New J. Phys. 12, 093035 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Amini, H. Uys, J. H. Wesenberg, S. Seidelin, J. Britton, J. J. Bollinger, D. Leibfried, C. Ospelkaus, A. P. VanDevender, and D. J. Wineland, New J. Phys. 12, 033031(2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Shu, N. Kurz, M. R. Dietrich, and B. B. Blinov, Phys. Rev. A 81, 042321 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

E. W. Streed, B. G. Norton, J. J. Chapman, and D. Kielpinski, Quantum Inf. Comput. 9, 0203 (2009).

W. S. Bakr, J. I. Gillen, A. Peng, S. Fölling, and M. Greiner, Nature 462, 74 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Maiwald, D. Leibfried, J. Britton, J. C. Bergquist, G. Leuchs, and D. J. Wineland, Nat. Phys. 5, 551(2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Vahala, M. Herrmann, S. Knünz, V. Batteiger, G. Saathoff, T. Hänsch, and T. Udem, Nat. Phys. 5, 682 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

E. W. Streed, T. J. Weinhold, and D. Kielpinski, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 071103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Chapman, B. G. Norton, E. W. Streed, and D. Kielpinski, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 095106 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

M. Sondermann, R. Maiwald, H. Konermann, N. Lindlein, U. Peschel, and G. Leuchs, Appl. Phys. B 89, 489(2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

D. Kielpinski, M. Cetina, J. A. Cox, and F. X. Kärtner, Opt. Lett. 31, 757 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Deslauriers, S. Olmschenk, D. Stick, W. K. Hensinger, J. Sterk, and C. Monroe, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 103007 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

J. J. García-Ripoll, P. Zoller, and J. I. Cirac, J. Phys. B 38, S567 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003

D. Leibfried, R. Blatt, C. Monroe, and D. Wineland, Rev. Mod. Phys. 75, 281 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Kielpinski, J. Opt. B 5, R121 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

D. Kielpinski, C. Monroe, and D. Wineland, Nature 417, 709 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

H. C. Nägerl, D. Leibfried, H. Rohde, G. Thalhammer, J. Eschner, F. Schmidt-Kaler, and R. Blatt, Phys. Rev. A 60, 145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

D. F. V. James, Appl. Phys. B 66, 181 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995

J. I. Cirac and P. Zoller, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 4091 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988

J. R. Leger, M. L. Scott, and W. B. Veldkamp, Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1771 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1978

W. Neuhauser, M. Hohenstatt, P. Toschek, and H. Dehmelt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 41, 233 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Amini, J. M.

J. M. Amini, H. Uys, J. H. Wesenberg, S. Seidelin, J. Britton, J. J. Bollinger, D. Leibfried, C. Ospelkaus, A. P. VanDevender, and D. J. Wineland, New J. Phys. 12, 033031(2010).
[CrossRef]

Bakr, W. S.

W. S. Bakr, J. I. Gillen, A. Peng, S. Fölling, and M. Greiner, Nature 462, 74 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Batteiger, V.

K. Vahala, M. Herrmann, S. Knünz, V. Batteiger, G. Saathoff, T. Hänsch, and T. Udem, Nat. Phys. 5, 682 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bergquist, J. C.

R. Maiwald, D. Leibfried, J. Britton, J. C. Bergquist, G. Leuchs, and D. J. Wineland, Nat. Phys. 5, 551(2009).
[CrossRef]

Biercuk, M. J.

M. J. Biercuk, H. Uys, J. W. Britton, A. P. VanDevender, and J. J. Bollinger, Nat. Nanotechnol. 5, 646 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blatt, R.

M. Harlander, M. Brownnutt, W. Hänsel, and R. Blatt, New J. Phys. 12, 093035 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Gerritsma, G. Kirchmair, F. Zähringer, E. Solano, R. Blatt, and C. Roos, Nature 463, 68 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Leibfried, R. Blatt, C. Monroe, and D. Wineland, Rev. Mod. Phys. 75, 281 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Nägerl, D. Leibfried, H. Rohde, G. Thalhammer, J. Eschner, F. Schmidt-Kaler, and R. Blatt, Phys. Rev. A 60, 145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Blinov, B. B.

G. Shu, N. Kurz, M. R. Dietrich, and B. B. Blinov, Phys. Rev. A 81, 042321 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bollinger, J. J.

J. M. Amini, H. Uys, J. H. Wesenberg, S. Seidelin, J. Britton, J. J. Bollinger, D. Leibfried, C. Ospelkaus, A. P. VanDevender, and D. J. Wineland, New J. Phys. 12, 033031(2010).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Biercuk, H. Uys, J. W. Britton, A. P. VanDevender, and J. J. Bollinger, Nat. Nanotechnol. 5, 646 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Britton, J.

J. M. Amini, H. Uys, J. H. Wesenberg, S. Seidelin, J. Britton, J. J. Bollinger, D. Leibfried, C. Ospelkaus, A. P. VanDevender, and D. J. Wineland, New J. Phys. 12, 033031(2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Maiwald, D. Leibfried, J. Britton, J. C. Bergquist, G. Leuchs, and D. J. Wineland, Nat. Phys. 5, 551(2009).
[CrossRef]

Britton, J. W.

M. J. Biercuk, H. Uys, J. W. Britton, A. P. VanDevender, and J. J. Bollinger, Nat. Nanotechnol. 5, 646 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brownnutt, M.

M. Harlander, M. Brownnutt, W. Hänsel, and R. Blatt, New J. Phys. 12, 093035 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cetina, M.

Chapman, J. J.

E. W. Streed, B. G. Norton, J. J. Chapman, and D. Kielpinski, Quantum Inf. Comput. 9, 0203 (2009).

J. J. Chapman, B. G. Norton, E. W. Streed, and D. Kielpinski, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 095106 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chou, C. W.

C. W. Chou, D. B. Hume, T. Rosenband, and D. J. Wineland, Science 329, 1630 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cirac, J. I.

J. J. García-Ripoll, P. Zoller, and J. I. Cirac, J. Phys. B 38, S567 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. I. Cirac and P. Zoller, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 4091 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cox, J. A.

Dehmelt, H.

W. Neuhauser, M. Hohenstatt, P. Toschek, and H. Dehmelt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 41, 233 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Deslauriers, L.

L. Deslauriers, S. Olmschenk, D. Stick, W. K. Hensinger, J. Sterk, and C. Monroe, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 103007 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dietrich, M. R.

G. Shu, N. Kurz, M. R. Dietrich, and B. B. Blinov, Phys. Rev. A 81, 042321 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Duan, L.-M.

L.-M. Duan and C. Monroe, Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 1209 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Eschner, J.

H. C. Nägerl, D. Leibfried, H. Rohde, G. Thalhammer, J. Eschner, F. Schmidt-Kaler, and R. Blatt, Phys. Rev. A 60, 145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fölling, S.

W. S. Bakr, J. I. Gillen, A. Peng, S. Fölling, and M. Greiner, Nature 462, 74 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

García-Ripoll, J. J.

J. J. García-Ripoll, P. Zoller, and J. I. Cirac, J. Phys. B 38, S567 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gerritsma, R.

R. Gerritsma, G. Kirchmair, F. Zähringer, E. Solano, R. Blatt, and C. Roos, Nature 463, 68 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gillen, J. I.

W. S. Bakr, J. I. Gillen, A. Peng, S. Fölling, and M. Greiner, Nature 462, 74 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Greiner, M.

W. S. Bakr, J. I. Gillen, A. Peng, S. Fölling, and M. Greiner, Nature 462, 74 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hadden, J. P.

J. P. Hadden, J. P. Harrison, A. C. Stanley-Clarke, L. Marseglia, Y.-L. D. Ho, B. R. Patton, J. L. O’Brien, and J. G. Rarity, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 241901 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hänsch, T.

K. Vahala, M. Herrmann, S. Knünz, V. Batteiger, G. Saathoff, T. Hänsch, and T. Udem, Nat. Phys. 5, 682 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hänsel, W.

M. Harlander, M. Brownnutt, W. Hänsel, and R. Blatt, New J. Phys. 12, 093035 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Harlander, M.

M. Harlander, M. Brownnutt, W. Hänsel, and R. Blatt, New J. Phys. 12, 093035 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Harrison, J. P.

J. P. Hadden, J. P. Harrison, A. C. Stanley-Clarke, L. Marseglia, Y.-L. D. Ho, B. R. Patton, J. L. O’Brien, and J. G. Rarity, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 241901 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hensinger, W. K.

L. Deslauriers, S. Olmschenk, D. Stick, W. K. Hensinger, J. Sterk, and C. Monroe, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 103007 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Herrmann, M.

K. Vahala, M. Herrmann, S. Knünz, V. Batteiger, G. Saathoff, T. Hänsch, and T. Udem, Nat. Phys. 5, 682 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ho, Y.-L. D.

J. P. Hadden, J. P. Harrison, A. C. Stanley-Clarke, L. Marseglia, Y.-L. D. Ho, B. R. Patton, J. L. O’Brien, and J. G. Rarity, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 241901 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hohenstatt, M.

W. Neuhauser, M. Hohenstatt, P. Toschek, and H. Dehmelt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 41, 233 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Hume, D. B.

C. W. Chou, D. B. Hume, T. Rosenband, and D. J. Wineland, Science 329, 1630 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

James, D. F. V.

D. F. V. James, Appl. Phys. B 66, 181 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jechow, A.

E. W. Streed, B. G. Norton, A. Jechow, T. J. Weinhold, and D. Kielpinski, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 010502 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. G. Norton, E. W. Streed, A. Jechow, M. J. Petrasiunas, and D. Kielpinski are preparing a manuscript to be called “High-resolution spatial thermometry of trapped ions.”

Kärtner, F. X.

Kielpinski, D.

E. W. Streed, B. G. Norton, A. Jechow, T. J. Weinhold, and D. Kielpinski, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 010502 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. W. Streed, B. G. Norton, J. J. Chapman, and D. Kielpinski, Quantum Inf. Comput. 9, 0203 (2009).

E. W. Streed, T. J. Weinhold, and D. Kielpinski, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 071103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Chapman, B. G. Norton, E. W. Streed, and D. Kielpinski, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 095106 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Kielpinski, M. Cetina, J. A. Cox, and F. X. Kärtner, Opt. Lett. 31, 757 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Kielpinski, J. Opt. B 5, R121 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Kielpinski, C. Monroe, and D. Wineland, Nature 417, 709 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. G. Norton, E. W. Streed, A. Jechow, M. J. Petrasiunas, and D. Kielpinski are preparing a manuscript to be called “High-resolution spatial thermometry of trapped ions.”

Kirchmair, G.

R. Gerritsma, G. Kirchmair, F. Zähringer, E. Solano, R. Blatt, and C. Roos, Nature 463, 68 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knünz, S.

K. Vahala, M. Herrmann, S. Knünz, V. Batteiger, G. Saathoff, T. Hänsch, and T. Udem, Nat. Phys. 5, 682 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Konermann, H.

M. Sondermann, R. Maiwald, H. Konermann, N. Lindlein, U. Peschel, and G. Leuchs, Appl. Phys. B 89, 489(2007).
[CrossRef]

Kurz, N.

G. Shu, N. Kurz, M. R. Dietrich, and B. B. Blinov, Phys. Rev. A 81, 042321 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Leger, J. R.

J. R. Leger, M. L. Scott, and W. B. Veldkamp, Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1771 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Leibfried, D.

J. M. Amini, H. Uys, J. H. Wesenberg, S. Seidelin, J. Britton, J. J. Bollinger, D. Leibfried, C. Ospelkaus, A. P. VanDevender, and D. J. Wineland, New J. Phys. 12, 033031(2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Maiwald, D. Leibfried, J. Britton, J. C. Bergquist, G. Leuchs, and D. J. Wineland, Nat. Phys. 5, 551(2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Leibfried, R. Blatt, C. Monroe, and D. Wineland, Rev. Mod. Phys. 75, 281 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Nägerl, D. Leibfried, H. Rohde, G. Thalhammer, J. Eschner, F. Schmidt-Kaler, and R. Blatt, Phys. Rev. A 60, 145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Leuchs, G.

R. Maiwald, D. Leibfried, J. Britton, J. C. Bergquist, G. Leuchs, and D. J. Wineland, Nat. Phys. 5, 551(2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Sondermann, R. Maiwald, H. Konermann, N. Lindlein, U. Peschel, and G. Leuchs, Appl. Phys. B 89, 489(2007).
[CrossRef]

Lindlein, N.

M. Sondermann, R. Maiwald, H. Konermann, N. Lindlein, U. Peschel, and G. Leuchs, Appl. Phys. B 89, 489(2007).
[CrossRef]

Maiwald, R.

R. Maiwald, D. Leibfried, J. Britton, J. C. Bergquist, G. Leuchs, and D. J. Wineland, Nat. Phys. 5, 551(2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Sondermann, R. Maiwald, H. Konermann, N. Lindlein, U. Peschel, and G. Leuchs, Appl. Phys. B 89, 489(2007).
[CrossRef]

Marseglia, L.

J. P. Hadden, J. P. Harrison, A. C. Stanley-Clarke, L. Marseglia, Y.-L. D. Ho, B. R. Patton, J. L. O’Brien, and J. G. Rarity, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 241901 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Monroe, C.

L.-M. Duan and C. Monroe, Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 1209 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Deslauriers, S. Olmschenk, D. Stick, W. K. Hensinger, J. Sterk, and C. Monroe, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 103007 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Leibfried, R. Blatt, C. Monroe, and D. Wineland, Rev. Mod. Phys. 75, 281 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Kielpinski, C. Monroe, and D. Wineland, Nature 417, 709 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nägerl, H. C.

H. C. Nägerl, D. Leibfried, H. Rohde, G. Thalhammer, J. Eschner, F. Schmidt-Kaler, and R. Blatt, Phys. Rev. A 60, 145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Neuhauser, W.

W. Neuhauser, M. Hohenstatt, P. Toschek, and H. Dehmelt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 41, 233 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Norton, B. G.

E. W. Streed, B. G. Norton, A. Jechow, T. J. Weinhold, and D. Kielpinski, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 010502 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. W. Streed, B. G. Norton, J. J. Chapman, and D. Kielpinski, Quantum Inf. Comput. 9, 0203 (2009).

J. J. Chapman, B. G. Norton, E. W. Streed, and D. Kielpinski, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 095106 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. G. Norton, E. W. Streed, A. Jechow, M. J. Petrasiunas, and D. Kielpinski are preparing a manuscript to be called “High-resolution spatial thermometry of trapped ions.”

O’Brien, J. L.

J. P. Hadden, J. P. Harrison, A. C. Stanley-Clarke, L. Marseglia, Y.-L. D. Ho, B. R. Patton, J. L. O’Brien, and J. G. Rarity, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 241901 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Olmschenk, S.

L. Deslauriers, S. Olmschenk, D. Stick, W. K. Hensinger, J. Sterk, and C. Monroe, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 103007 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ospelkaus, C.

J. M. Amini, H. Uys, J. H. Wesenberg, S. Seidelin, J. Britton, J. J. Bollinger, D. Leibfried, C. Ospelkaus, A. P. VanDevender, and D. J. Wineland, New J. Phys. 12, 033031(2010).
[CrossRef]

Patton, B. R.

J. P. Hadden, J. P. Harrison, A. C. Stanley-Clarke, L. Marseglia, Y.-L. D. Ho, B. R. Patton, J. L. O’Brien, and J. G. Rarity, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 241901 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Peng, A.

W. S. Bakr, J. I. Gillen, A. Peng, S. Fölling, and M. Greiner, Nature 462, 74 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peschel, U.

M. Sondermann, R. Maiwald, H. Konermann, N. Lindlein, U. Peschel, and G. Leuchs, Appl. Phys. B 89, 489(2007).
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B. G. Norton, E. W. Streed, A. Jechow, M. J. Petrasiunas, and D. Kielpinski are preparing a manuscript to be called “High-resolution spatial thermometry of trapped ions.”

Rarity, J. G.

J. P. Hadden, J. P. Harrison, A. C. Stanley-Clarke, L. Marseglia, Y.-L. D. Ho, B. R. Patton, J. L. O’Brien, and J. G. Rarity, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 241901 (2010).
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H. C. Nägerl, D. Leibfried, H. Rohde, G. Thalhammer, J. Eschner, F. Schmidt-Kaler, and R. Blatt, Phys. Rev. A 60, 145 (1999).
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R. Gerritsma, G. Kirchmair, F. Zähringer, E. Solano, R. Blatt, and C. Roos, Nature 463, 68 (2010).
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C. W. Chou, D. B. Hume, T. Rosenband, and D. J. Wineland, Science 329, 1630 (2010).
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K. Vahala, M. Herrmann, S. Knünz, V. Batteiger, G. Saathoff, T. Hänsch, and T. Udem, Nat. Phys. 5, 682 (2009).
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H. C. Nägerl, D. Leibfried, H. Rohde, G. Thalhammer, J. Eschner, F. Schmidt-Kaler, and R. Blatt, Phys. Rev. A 60, 145 (1999).
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J. R. Leger, M. L. Scott, and W. B. Veldkamp, Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1771 (1988).
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J. M. Amini, H. Uys, J. H. Wesenberg, S. Seidelin, J. Britton, J. J. Bollinger, D. Leibfried, C. Ospelkaus, A. P. VanDevender, and D. J. Wineland, New J. Phys. 12, 033031(2010).
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G. Shu, N. Kurz, M. R. Dietrich, and B. B. Blinov, Phys. Rev. A 81, 042321 (2010).
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R. Gerritsma, G. Kirchmair, F. Zähringer, E. Solano, R. Blatt, and C. Roos, Nature 463, 68 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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M. Sondermann, R. Maiwald, H. Konermann, N. Lindlein, U. Peschel, and G. Leuchs, Appl. Phys. B 89, 489(2007).
[CrossRef]

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J. P. Hadden, J. P. Harrison, A. C. Stanley-Clarke, L. Marseglia, Y.-L. D. Ho, B. R. Patton, J. L. O’Brien, and J. G. Rarity, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 241901 (2010).
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L. Deslauriers, S. Olmschenk, D. Stick, W. K. Hensinger, J. Sterk, and C. Monroe, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 103007 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stick, D.

L. Deslauriers, S. Olmschenk, D. Stick, W. K. Hensinger, J. Sterk, and C. Monroe, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 103007 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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E. W. Streed, B. G. Norton, A. Jechow, T. J. Weinhold, and D. Kielpinski, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 010502 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. W. Streed, B. G. Norton, J. J. Chapman, and D. Kielpinski, Quantum Inf. Comput. 9, 0203 (2009).

E. W. Streed, T. J. Weinhold, and D. Kielpinski, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 071103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Chapman, B. G. Norton, E. W. Streed, and D. Kielpinski, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 095106 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. G. Norton, E. W. Streed, A. Jechow, M. J. Petrasiunas, and D. Kielpinski are preparing a manuscript to be called “High-resolution spatial thermometry of trapped ions.”

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H. C. Nägerl, D. Leibfried, H. Rohde, G. Thalhammer, J. Eschner, F. Schmidt-Kaler, and R. Blatt, Phys. Rev. A 60, 145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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W. Neuhauser, M. Hohenstatt, P. Toschek, and H. Dehmelt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 41, 233 (1978).
[CrossRef]

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K. Vahala, M. Herrmann, S. Knünz, V. Batteiger, G. Saathoff, T. Hänsch, and T. Udem, Nat. Phys. 5, 682 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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J. M. Amini, H. Uys, J. H. Wesenberg, S. Seidelin, J. Britton, J. J. Bollinger, D. Leibfried, C. Ospelkaus, A. P. VanDevender, and D. J. Wineland, New J. Phys. 12, 033031(2010).
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M. J. Biercuk, H. Uys, J. W. Britton, A. P. VanDevender, and J. J. Bollinger, Nat. Nanotechnol. 5, 646 (2010).
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K. Vahala, M. Herrmann, S. Knünz, V. Batteiger, G. Saathoff, T. Hänsch, and T. Udem, Nat. Phys. 5, 682 (2009).
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J. M. Amini, H. Uys, J. H. Wesenberg, S. Seidelin, J. Britton, J. J. Bollinger, D. Leibfried, C. Ospelkaus, A. P. VanDevender, and D. J. Wineland, New J. Phys. 12, 033031(2010).
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M. J. Biercuk, H. Uys, J. W. Britton, A. P. VanDevender, and J. J. Bollinger, Nat. Nanotechnol. 5, 646 (2010).
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J. R. Leger, M. L. Scott, and W. B. Veldkamp, Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1771 (1988).
[CrossRef]

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E. W. Streed, B. G. Norton, A. Jechow, T. J. Weinhold, and D. Kielpinski, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 010502 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. W. Streed, T. J. Weinhold, and D. Kielpinski, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 071103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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J. M. Amini, H. Uys, J. H. Wesenberg, S. Seidelin, J. Britton, J. J. Bollinger, D. Leibfried, C. Ospelkaus, A. P. VanDevender, and D. J. Wineland, New J. Phys. 12, 033031(2010).
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D. Leibfried, R. Blatt, C. Monroe, and D. Wineland, Rev. Mod. Phys. 75, 281 (2003).
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D. Kielpinski, C. Monroe, and D. Wineland, Nature 417, 709 (2002).
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J. M. Amini, H. Uys, J. H. Wesenberg, S. Seidelin, J. Britton, J. J. Bollinger, D. Leibfried, C. Ospelkaus, A. P. VanDevender, and D. J. Wineland, New J. Phys. 12, 033031(2010).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Chou, D. B. Hume, T. Rosenband, and D. J. Wineland, Science 329, 1630 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Maiwald, D. Leibfried, J. Britton, J. C. Bergquist, G. Leuchs, and D. J. Wineland, Nat. Phys. 5, 551(2009).
[CrossRef]

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R. Gerritsma, G. Kirchmair, F. Zähringer, E. Solano, R. Blatt, and C. Roos, Nature 463, 68 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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J. J. García-Ripoll, P. Zoller, and J. I. Cirac, J. Phys. B 38, S567 (2005).
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J. I. Cirac and P. Zoller, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 4091 (1995).
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Appl. Phys. B

M. Sondermann, R. Maiwald, H. Konermann, N. Lindlein, U. Peschel, and G. Leuchs, Appl. Phys. B 89, 489(2007).
[CrossRef]

D. F. V. James, Appl. Phys. B 66, 181 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

J. R. Leger, M. L. Scott, and W. B. Veldkamp, Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1771 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Hadden, J. P. Harrison, A. C. Stanley-Clarke, L. Marseglia, Y.-L. D. Ho, B. R. Patton, J. L. O’Brien, and J. G. Rarity, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 241901 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. W. Streed, T. J. Weinhold, and D. Kielpinski, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 071103 (2008).
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D. Kielpinski, J. Opt. B 5, R121 (2003).
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J. J. García-Ripoll, P. Zoller, and J. I. Cirac, J. Phys. B 38, S567 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Nanotechnol.

M. J. Biercuk, H. Uys, J. W. Britton, A. P. VanDevender, and J. J. Bollinger, Nat. Nanotechnol. 5, 646 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Phys.

R. Maiwald, D. Leibfried, J. Britton, J. C. Bergquist, G. Leuchs, and D. J. Wineland, Nat. Phys. 5, 551(2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Vahala, M. Herrmann, S. Knünz, V. Batteiger, G. Saathoff, T. Hänsch, and T. Udem, Nat. Phys. 5, 682 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nature

D. Kielpinski, C. Monroe, and D. Wineland, Nature 417, 709 (2002).
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W. S. Bakr, J. I. Gillen, A. Peng, S. Fölling, and M. Greiner, Nature 462, 74 (2009).
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R. Gerritsma, G. Kirchmair, F. Zähringer, E. Solano, R. Blatt, and C. Roos, Nature 463, 68 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

New J. Phys.

J. M. Amini, H. Uys, J. H. Wesenberg, S. Seidelin, J. Britton, J. J. Bollinger, D. Leibfried, C. Ospelkaus, A. P. VanDevender, and D. J. Wineland, New J. Phys. 12, 033031(2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Harlander, M. Brownnutt, W. Hänsel, and R. Blatt, New J. Phys. 12, 093035 (2010).
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Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. A

H. C. Nägerl, D. Leibfried, H. Rohde, G. Thalhammer, J. Eschner, F. Schmidt-Kaler, and R. Blatt, Phys. Rev. A 60, 145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Shu, N. Kurz, M. R. Dietrich, and B. B. Blinov, Phys. Rev. A 81, 042321 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

W. Neuhauser, M. Hohenstatt, P. Toschek, and H. Dehmelt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 41, 233 (1978).
[CrossRef]

J. I. Cirac and P. Zoller, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 4091 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. W. Streed, B. G. Norton, A. Jechow, T. J. Weinhold, and D. Kielpinski, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 010502 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Deslauriers, S. Olmschenk, D. Stick, W. K. Hensinger, J. Sterk, and C. Monroe, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 103007 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quantum Inf. Comput.

E. W. Streed, B. G. Norton, J. J. Chapman, and D. Kielpinski, Quantum Inf. Comput. 9, 0203 (2009).

Rev. Mod. Phys.

D. Leibfried, R. Blatt, C. Monroe, and D. Wineland, Rev. Mod. Phys. 75, 281 (2003).
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L.-M. Duan and C. Monroe, Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 1209 (2010).
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Rev. Sci. Instrum.

J. J. Chapman, B. G. Norton, E. W. Streed, and D. Kielpinski, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 095106 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science

C. W. Chou, D. B. Hume, T. Rosenband, and D. J. Wineland, Science 329, 1630 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

B. G. Norton, E. W. Streed, A. Jechow, M. J. Petrasiunas, and D. Kielpinski are preparing a manuscript to be called “High-resolution spatial thermometry of trapped ions.”

This is in contrast to the often used approximation NA≈d/2f, which would give an NA of 0.83 in our case.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the experimental setup. The 369.5 nm light scattered by a trapped Yb ion is collected by the PFL for imaging on a CCD camera. The PMT is used to detect the ion fluorescence rate. PFL—phase Fresnel lens, AS—aspheric lens, RF—tungsten needles with RF field applied, CL—cooling laser beam, L—imaging lens systems, PMT—photo multiplier tube.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Image of a single ion obtained with a PFL integrated in the UHV of a needle ion trap. A Gaussian fit to the data gives an ion spot size (FWHM) of 434 ± 9 nm in the vertical axis and 475 ± 9 nm in the horizontal (needle) axis.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Image of two ions aligned in the needle axis (horizontal axis). A trap frequency ν = 882 ± 2 kHz was measured, and an ion-to-ion distance of 3.72 ± 0.01 μm was calculated from Eq. (1) and used for magnification calibration.

Equations (1)

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l = ( e 2 8 π 3 ϵ 0 M ν 2 ) 1 / 3 ,

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